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1.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 412-429, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated.METHODS: Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1β), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (P < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (P < 0.05). IL-1β concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (P < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (P = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Microbiota , Necrosis , Neisseria , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Porphyromonas , Sequence Analysis , Sputum , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Veillonella
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190519, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural products have emerged as a rich source of bioactive compounds for adjunctive treatments of many infectious and inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. Among the monoterpenes with significant biological properties, there is the perillyl alcohol (POH), which can be found in several essential oils and has shown immunomodulatory properties in recent studies, which may be interesting in the treatment of non-neoplastic inflammatory disorders. Objective To determine the antibacterial and immune modulatory activities of the POH. Methodology The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the POH for two significant Gram-negative periodontal pathogens were determined by macrodilution and subculture, respectively. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 macrophages were determined by Trypan Blue and mitochondrial enzymatic activity assay. The modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by flow cytometry and expression of TNF and arginase-1 by real-time PCR. Results The POH was effective against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) with MIC= MBC=1600 μM. No cytotoxicity up to 100 µM was observed on macrophages. The cell proliferation was inhibited from 48 hours at 100 μM (p<0.05) and 250 μM (p<0.01). The POH increased ROS production at both 10 μM and 100 μM (p<0.05) in unstimulated cells. The PMA-induced ROS production was not affected by POH, whereas 100 μM significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) ROS. The expression of TNF was not affected by POH in unstimulated cells or in cells polarized to M1 phenotype, whereas both concentrations of POH reduced (p<0.05) the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages. Conclusion The POH has antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens and reduced proliferation of murine macrophages without significant cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. In addition, the POH reduced the LPS-induced ROS and the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fusobacterium nucleatum/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Porphyromonas/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Arginase/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Products/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Fusobacterium nucleatum/growth & development , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Porphyromonas/growth & development , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , RAW 264.7 Cells , Macrophages/metabolism
3.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 14-19, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764033

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at evaluating serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity to Porphyromonas gingivalis in elderly patients with mild and severe chronic periodontitis. The avidity of antibodies against P. gingivalis present in the sera of 18 patients with mild chronic periodontitis and 18 patients with severe chronic periodontitis was evaluated using an ammonium thiocyanate-dissociated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the mean absorbance value in serum IgG antibody titers was significantly higher in the severe chronic periodontitis group than in the mild chronic periodontitis group (198 ± 35 ELISA unit [EU] vs. 142 ± 32 EU, p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in antibody avidity (65 ± 57 EU vs. 54 ± 27 EU). These findings suggest that humoral immune responses to P. gingivalis between mild and severe chronic periodontitis in elderly patients are characterized by the differences in the quantity rather than the quality of the antibodies.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Ammonium Compounds , Antibodies , Antibody Affinity , Chronic Periodontitis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Geriatrics , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas
4.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 20-26, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764032

ABSTRACT

Periodontal diseases have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidences have indicated that Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontopathic pathogen, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we demonstrated that P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases the mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. We showed that the MMP-9 expression induced by P. gingivalis LPS is mediated by the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of STAT3 activity reduced P. gingivalis LPS-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Overall, our findings indicate that P. gingivalis LPS stimulates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via STAT3-mediated MMP-9 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Movement , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Periodontal Diseases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , RNA, Messenger , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers
5.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 319-329, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766115

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Direct application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) has been established as an effective method of microbial decontamination. This study aimed to investigate the bactericidal effect of direct application of an APPJ using helium gas (He-APPJ) on Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium discs. METHODS: On the SLA discs covered by P. gingivalis biofilms, an APPJ with helium (He) as a discharge gas was applied at 3 different time intervals (0, 3, and 5 minutes). To evaluate the effect of the plasma itself, the He gas–only group was used as the control group. The bactericidal effect of the He-APPJ was determined by the number of colony-forming units. Bacterial viability was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and bacterial morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: As the plasma treatment time increased, the amount of P. gingivalis decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. In the SEM images, compared to the control group, the bacterial biofilm structure on SLA discs treated by the He-APPJ for more than 3 minutes was destroyed. In addition, the CLSM images showed consistent results. Even in sites distant from the area of direct He-APPJ exposure, decontamination effects were observed in both SEM and CLSM images. CONCLUSIONS: He-APPJ application was effective in removing P. gingivalis biofilm on SLA titanium discs in an in vitro experiment.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load , Biofilms , Decontamination , Helium , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Microbial Viability , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plasma Gases , Plasma , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Stem Cells , Titanium
6.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 304-308, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study was to identify the differences in microbial diversity and community in patients with salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC).@*METHODS@#Saliva was collected from 13 patients with SACC confirmed by histopathological diagnosis and 10 healthy control subjects. Total metagenomic DNA was extracted. The DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity and community structure were analyzed with Mothur software.@*RESULTS@#A total of 16 genera of dominant bacteria in the SACC group were found, including Streptococcus (36.68%), Neisseria (8.55%), Prevotella_7 (7.53%), and Veillonella (6.37%), whereas 15 dominant bacteria in the control group were found, including Streptococcus (18.41%), Neisseria (18.20%), Prevotella_7 (8.89%), Porphyromonas (6.20%), Fusobacterium (5.86%) and Veillonella (5.82%). The statistically different phyla between the two groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fusobacterium (P<0.05). The statistically different genera between the two groups were Streptococcus, Neisseria and Porphyromonas (P<0.05), and Capnocytophaga was only detected in patients with SACC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Significant differences were observed in the oral microorganisms between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Microbiology , Porphyromonas , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Saliva , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Microbiology
7.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758932

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas species are closely associated with companion animal periodontitis which is one of the most common diseases in dogs and cats and leads to serious systemic diseases if left untreated. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effects and mode of action of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10), a food additive with proven safety, using three pathogenic Porphyromonas species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of polyP3 against Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas cansulci, and Porphyromonas cangingivalis were between 500 and 750 mg/L. PolyP3 significantly decreased viable planktonic cells as well as bacterial biofilm formation, even at sub-MIC concentrations. PolyP3 caused bacterial membrane disruption and this effect was most prominent in P. cangingivalis, which was demonstrated by measuring the amount of nucleotide leakage from the cells. To further investigate the mode of action of polyP3, high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed using P. gulae. Approximately 30% of the total genes of P. gulae were differentially expressed by polyP3 (> 4-fold, adjusted p value < 0.01). PolyP3 influenced the expression of the P. gulae genes related to the biosynthesis of thiamine, ubiquinone, and peptidoglycan. Collectively, polyP3 has excellent antibacterial effects against pathogenic Porphyromonas species and can be a promising agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria in companion animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Bacteria , Biofilms , Food Additives , Friends , Membranes , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptidoglycan , Periodontitis , Pets , Plankton , Porphyromonas , Sodium , Thiamine , Ubiquinone
8.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 23(43): 19-25, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050126

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades del periodonto tienen una etiopatogenia compleja y puede considerarse multifactorial. El factor etiológico esencial en la patología inflamatoria periodontal es la biopelícula dental y cuando el desequilibrio entre el huésped y los microorganismos cambia la complejidad de la flora. Ciertas bacterias como Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella loescheii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerrella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens y Treponema spp., han sido comúnmente relacionadas con la periodontitis crónica y son consideradas como indicadores de riesgo para la progresión de dicha enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la prevalencia de Prevotella spp y Porphyromona spp en los distintos estadios de periodontitis crónicas. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 48 pacientes sistémicamente saludables con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica. Se completó el consentimiento informado, se realizó historia clínica y examen periodontal. El estado periodontal se clasificó en distintos grados de severidad: leve, moderada y severa. Se tomaron muestras de dos sitios con mayor profundidad de sondaje con conos de papel absorbente estériles y se transportaron en un medio prerreducido. Para el aislamiento de Prevotella spp se utilizó agar Brucella más sangre ovina al 5%, hemina, vitamina K al que se agregaron vancomicina y kanamicina; Porphyromonas sp se aisló en el mismo medio con el agregado de bacitracina y colistina. Se sembraron 10 µl de muestra entera y las placas fueron incubadas en jarras de anaerobiosis por 5 a 7 días a 37ºC. Resultados: los distintos grados de periodontitis correspondieron a un 17% periodontits leve, 57% moderada y 26% severa. En el total de pacientes se determinó la presencia de Prevotella spp en el 54% de los casos y un 12,5% de Porphyromona spp. Conclusión: De los pacientes estudiados con periodontits crónica, un 52% correspondió al sexo masculino, un 57% de los casos correspondieron a periodontitis moderada. Se aisló Prevotella sp en todos los estadios de periodontitis crónica y Porphyromonas sp sólo en periodontitis severas (AU)


Periodontal diseases have a complex etiopathogenesis and can be considered multifactorial. The essential etiological factor in periodontal inflammatory pathology is the dental biofilm and when the imbalance between the host and the microorganisms changes the complexity of the flora. Certain bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella loescheii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerrella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema spp., Have been commonly related to chronic periodontitis and are considered as risk indicators for the progression of said disease. The objective of this work was to establish the prevalence of Prevotella spp and Porphyromonas spp in the different stages of chronic periodontitis. Forty eight systemically healthy patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were studied. Informed consent was completed, a medical history and periodontal examination was carried out. The periodontal state was classified into different degrees of severity: mild, moderate and severe. Samples were taken from two sites with greater depth of probing with sterile absorbent paper cones and transported in a prereduced medium. For the isolation of Prevotella spp, Brucella agar plus 5% sheep blood, hemin, vitamin K to which vancomycin and kanamycin were added. For Porphyromonas spp, the same medium was used and bacitracin and colistin were added. 10 �l of the whole sample was seeded and the plates were incubated in anaerobic jars for 5 to 7 days at 37 ° C. Different degrees of periodontitis corresponded to 17% mild periodontitis, 57% moderate and 26% severe. In the total number of patients, the presence of Prevotella spp was determined in 54% of the cases and 12.5% of Porphyromona spp. Of the patients studied with chronic periodontitis, 52% corresponded to the male sex, 57% of the cases corresponded to moderate periodontitis. Prevotella spp was isolated in all stages of chronic periodontitis and Porphyromonas sp only in severe periodontitis (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacteroidaceae Infections/epidemiology , Porphyromonas/isolation & purification , Prevotella/isolation & purification , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Age and Sex Distribution
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 187-193, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786404

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidences have reported that periodontitis can be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the crucial pathogens in chronic periodontitis, has been spotlighted as a potential cause for the promotion and acceleration of periodontitis-associated systemic disorders. To investigate the association between Pg and intestinal disease or homeostasis, we treated Pg-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine colitis model or intestinal organoid, respectively. Pg-derived LPS (Pg LPS) was administrated into chemically induced murine colitis model and disease symptoms were monitored compared with the infusion of LPS derived from E. coli (Ec LPS). Organoids isolated and cultured from mouse small intestine were treated with Pg or Ec LPS and further analyzed for the generation and composition of organoids. In vivo observations demonstrated that both Pg and Ec LPS exerted slight protective effects against murine colitis. Pg LPS did not affect the generation and growth of intestinal epithelial organoids. Among subtypes of epithelial cells, markers for stem cells, goblet cells or Paneth cells were changed in response to Pg LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that Pg LPS leads to partial improvement in colitis and that its treatment does not significantly affect the self-organization of intestinal organoids but may regulate the epithelial composition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acceleration , Chronic Periodontitis , Colitis , Epithelial Cells , Goblet Cells , Homeostasis , Intestinal Diseases , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestine, Small , Organoids , Paneth Cells , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Risk Factors , Stem Cells
10.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 164-173, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a newly devised toothbrush with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on Porphyromonas gingivalis attached to sandblasted and acid-etched titanium surfaces. METHODS: The study included a control group, a commercial photodynamic therapy (PDT) group, and 3 test groups (B, BL, and BLE). The disks in the PDT group were placed in methylene blue and then irradiated with a diode laser. The B disks were only brushed, the BL disks were brushed with an LED toothbrush, and the BLE disks were placed into erythrosine and then brushed with an LED toothbrush. After the different treatments, bacteria were detached from the disks and spread on selective agar. The number of viable bacteria and percentage of bacterial reduction were determined from colony counts. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to visualize bacterial alterations. RESULTS: The number of viable bacteria in the BLE group was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that bacterial cell walls were intact in the control and B groups, but changed after commercial PDT and LED exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that an LED toothbrush with erythrosine treatment was more effective than a commercial PDT kit in reducing the number of P. gingivalis cells attached to surface-modified titanium in vitro.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bacteria , Biofilms , Cell Wall , Erythrosine , In Vitro Techniques , Lasers, Semiconductor , Methylene Blue , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Photochemotherapy , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Titanium , Toothbrushing
11.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 70-83, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766056

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of single and combined applications of the bark of the stems and roots of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliae Cortex) and Zea mays L. (maize) to modulate inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis. METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis, and Magnoliae Cortex and/or maize was added. Cytotoxicity and the capacity to modulate inflammation were determined with a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, nitrite production, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blotting. RESULTS: Treatment with Magnoliae Cortex and/or maize inhibited nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) pathway activation and nuclear p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in P. gingivalis-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, the treatments suppressed cytokines (prostaglandin E2 [PGE2], interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and nitrite production. CONCLUSIONS: Both Magnoliae Cortex and maize exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on P. gingivalis-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and this effect was more pronounced when the extracts were combined. These findings show that these extracts may be beneficial for slowing the progression of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Interleukins , Magnolia , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Periodontal Diseases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Protein Kinases , Transcription Factors , Zea mays
12.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 12-21, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to develop and validate a standardized in vitro pathogenic biofilm attached onto saliva-coated surfaces. METHODS: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) strains were grown under anaerobic conditions as single species and in dual-species cultures. Initially, the bacterial biomass was evaluated at 24 and 48 hours to determine the optimal timing for the adhesion phase onto saliva-coated polystyrene surfaces. Thereafter, biofilm development was assessed over time by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The data showed no significant difference in the overall biomass after 48 hours for P. gingivalis in single- and dual-species conditions. After adhesion, P. gingivalis in single- and dual-species biofilms accumulated a substantially higher biomass after 7 days of incubation than after 3 days, but no significant difference was found between 5 and 7 days. Although the biomass of the F. nucleatum biofilm was higher at 3 days, no difference was found at 3, 5, or 7 days of incubation. CONCLUSIONS: Polystyrene substrates from well plates work as a standard surface and provide reproducible results for in vitro biofilm models. Our biofilm model could serve as a reference point for studies investigating biofilms on different surfaces.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Biomass , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Fusobacterium , Gentian Violet , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polystyrenes , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas
13.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 47-59, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766045

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of the local use of egg yolk immunoglobulin against Porphyromonas gingivalis (anti-P.g. IgY) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving 60 systematically healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Subjects (n=20/group) were randomly assigned to receive SRP combined with subgingival irrigation of anti-P.g. IgY and anti-P.g. IgY mouthwash, subgingival irrigation of 0.2% chlorhexidine and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, or subgingival irrigation of placebo and placebo mouthwash for 4 weeks. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and the plaque index were evaluated at baseline and at 4 weeks. Subgingival plaque, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva were simultaneously collected for microbiological analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that anti-P.g. IgY mouthwash was as effective as chlorhexidine at improving clinical parameters over a 4-week period. All the groups showed a significant reduction in levels of P.g. at 4 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the test group when compared to placebo regarding the reduction in the levels of P.g. Anti-P.g. IgY significantly suppressed the numbers of red complex bacteria (RCB) in subgingival plaque and saliva in comparison with placebo. No adverse effects were reported in any of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the study, the present investigation showed that passive immunization with anti-P.g. IgY may prove to be effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis due to its ability to improve clinical parameters and to reduce RCB. No significant differences were found between the anti-P.g. IgY and placebo groups in the reduction of P.g.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Chlorhexidine , Chronic Periodontitis , Egg Yolk , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Hemorrhage , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins , Ovum , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Root Planing , Saliva
14.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 60-68, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) to induce oxidation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and to determine whether the oxidized HDL induced by P. gingivalis exhibited altered antiatherogenic function or became proatherogenic. METHODS: P. gingivalis and THP-1 monocytes were cultured, and the extent of HDL oxidation induced by P. gingivalis was evaluated by a thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. To evaluate the altered antiatherogenic and proatherogenic properties of P. gingivalis-treated HDL, lipid oxidation was quantified by the TBARS assay, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were also measured. After incubating macrophages with HDL and P. gingivalis, Oil Red O staining was performed to examine foam cells. RESULTS: P. gingivalis induced HDL oxidation. The HDL treated by P. gingivalis did not reduce lipid oxidation and may have enhanced the formation of MMP-9 and TNF-α. P. gingivalis-treated macrophages exhibited more lipid aggregates than untreated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: P. gingivalis induced HDL oxidation, impairing the atheroprotective function of HDL and making it proatherogenic by eliciting a proinflammatory response through its interaction with monocytes/macrophages.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Foam Cells , Lipoproteins , Macrophages , Monocytes , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 201-207, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740083

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas gingivalis is among the major etiological pathogens of chronic periodontitis. The virulence mechanisms of P. gingivalis is yet to be identified as its activity is largely unknown in actual disease process. The purpose of this study is to identify antigens of P. gingivalis expressed only in patients with chronic periodontitis using a unique immunoscreening technique. Change Mediated Antigen Technology (CMAT), an antibody-based screening technique, was used to identify virulence-associated proteins of P. gingivalis that are expressed only during infection stage in patients having chronic periodontitis. Out of 13,000 recombinant clones screened, 22 tested positive for reproducible reactivity with rabbit hyperimmune anti-sera prepared against dental plaque samples acquired from periodontitis patients. The DNA sequences of these 18 genes were determined. CMAT-identified protein antigens of P. gingivalis included proteins involved in energy metabolism and biosynthesis, heme and iron binding, drug resistance, specific enzyme activities, and unknown functions. Further analysis of these genes could result in a novel insight into the virulence mechanisms of P. gingivalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Base Sequence , Chronic Periodontitis , Clone Cells , Dental Plaque , Drug Resistance , Energy Metabolism , Heme , Iron , Mass Screening , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Virulence , Virulence Factors
16.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 141-146, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740075

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is generally a chronic disorder characterized by breakdown of tooth-supporting tissues, producing dentition loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative anaerobic rod, is one of the major pathogens associated with periodontitis. Neutrophils are first line defense cells in the oral cavity that play a significant role in inflammatory response. Xylitol is a known anti-caries agent and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis infected neutrophils for possible usage in prevention and treatment of periodontal infections. P. gingivalis was intraperitoneally injected and peritoneal lavage was collected for cytokine determination. For in vitro study, neutrophils were collected from mouse peritoneal cells after zymosan injection or bone marrow cells. Neutrophils were stimulated with live P. gingivalis and ELISA was used to determine the effect of xylitol on P. gingivalis induced cytokine production. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α concentration and neutrophil population in the peritoneal lavage was increased in P. gingivalis-infected mouse. Peritoneal cells infected with live P. gingivalis revealed significantly increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at multiplicity of infection of 10. Neutrophils from bone marrow and peritoneal lavage revealed increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Xylitol significantly mitigated P. gingivalis induced cytokine production in neutrophils. Findings indicate that xylitol is an anti-inflammatory agent in neutrophils infected with live P. gingivalis, that suggests its use in periodontitis management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Dentition , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Mouth , Neutrophils , Periodontitis , Peritoneal Lavage , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Xylitol , Zymosan
17.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 51-58, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224459

ABSTRACT

Dogs commonly serve as a model for various human conditions, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the anaerobic bacteria that colonize the subgingival areas in dogs and humans by using rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based tests and to compare the results obtained in each species. Bacterial microflora evaluations, both quantitative and qualitative, were performed by applying ready-made tests on twelve dogs and twelve humans. Five samples were collected from each subject's deepest gingival pockets and joined to form a collective sample. The results of the study revealed interspecies similarities in the prevalences of Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Red complex bacteria comprised the largest portion of the studied bacterial complexes in all study groups, with P. gingivalis being the most commonly isolated bacterium. The results show similarities in the prevalence of bacterial microflora in dogs and humans. Microbiological analysis of gingival pockets by using rapid real-time PCR-based tests in clinical practice, both veterinary and human, can facilitate the choice of appropriate pharmacological treatment and can provide a basis for subsequent verification of the treatment's effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Bacteria , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Colon , Forsythia , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Gingival Pocket , Periodontal Diseases , Porphyromonas , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treponema denticola
18.
Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science ; : 174-181, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222863

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epitope spreading is a phenomenon in which distinct subdominant epitopes become major targets of the immune response. Heat shock protein (HSP) 60 from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgHSP60) and peptide 19 from PgHSP60 (Pep19) are immunodominant epitopes in autoimmune disease patients, including those with periodontitis. It remains unclear whether Pep19 is a dominant epitope in subjects without periodontitis or autoimmune disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the epitope spreading pattern and verify Pep19 as an immunodominant epitope in healthy teenagers using dot immunoblot analysis. The patterns of epitope spreading in age-matched patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) and healthy 20- to 29-year old subjects were compared with those of healthy teenagers. METHODS: Peptide from PgHSP60, Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP60 (MtHSP60), and Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 (CpHSP60) was synthesized for comparative recognition by sera from healthy subjects and patients with autoimmune disease (type 1 DM). Dot immunoblot analysis against a panel of peptides of PgHSP60 and human HSP60 (HuHSP60) was performed to identify epitope spreading, and a densitometric image analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Of the peptide from PgHSP60, MtHSP60, and CpHSP60, PgHSP60 was the predominant epitope and was most consistently recognized by the serum samples of healthy teenagers. Most sera from healthy subjects and patients with type 1 DM reacted more strongly with PgHSP60 and Pep19 than the other peptides. The relative intensity of antibody reactivity to Pep19 was higher in the type 1 DM group than in the healthy groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pep19 is an immunodominant epitope, not only in autoimmune disease patients, but also in healthy young subjects, as evidenced by their robust immunoreactivity. This result suggests that the Pep19-specific immune response may be an initiator that triggers autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Epitopes , Healthy Volunteers , Heat-Shock Proteins , Immunodominant Epitopes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Peptides , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas
19.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 149-153, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222405

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) plays a key role in development and progression of inflammatory responses and Porphyromonas gingivalis is a common endodontic pathogen. In this study, we investigated induction of COX-2 and PGE₂ by P. gingivalis in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). P. gingivalis increased expression of COX-2, but not that of COX-1. Increased levels of PGE₂ were released from P. gingivalis-infected HDPCs and this PGE₂ increase was blocked by celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. P. gingivalis activated all three types of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). P. gingivalis-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was demonstrated by the results of phosphorylation of NF-κ B p65 and degradation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α). Pharmacological inhibition of each of the three types of MAPKs and NF-κB substantially attenuated P. gingivalis induced PGE2 production. These results suggest that P. gingivalis should promote endodontic inflammation by stimulating dental pulp cells to produce PGE₂.


Subject(s)
Humans , Celecoxib , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dental Pulp , Dinoprostone , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Pulpitis
20.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 81-86, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651902

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infection and smoking are an important risk factors involved in the development and progression of periodontitis. However, the signaling mechanism underlying the host immune response is not fully understood in periodontal lesions. In this study, we determined the expression of janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) on Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and the production of inflammatory mediators, using osteoblasts. The cells were cultured with 5 mM nicotine in the presence of 1 µg/ml LPS. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The role of JAK on inflammatory mediator expression and production, and the regulatory mechanisms involved were assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. LPS- and nicotine synergistically induced the production of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and increased the protein expression of JAK/STAT. Treatment with an JAK inhibitor blocked the production of COX-2 and PGE₂ as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in LPS- and nicotine-stimulated osteoblasts. These results suggest that JAK/STAT is closely related to the LPS- and nicotine-induced inflammatory effects and is likely to regulate the immune response in periodontal disease associated with dental plaque and smoking.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Dental Plaque , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Necrosis , Nicotine , Osteoblasts , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , Phosphotransferases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Transducers
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