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Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022


SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.

La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.

Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 237-245, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430520


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of linoleic acid on liver toxicity induced by methotrexate. The study was carried out in partnership with the Department of Anatomy and Department of Medical Pharmacology of Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, using the laboratory facilities of the Department of Medical Pharmacology. Human hepatocyte cell line (CRL- 11233) cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection Organization (ATCC) were used. Expressions of apoptotic pathway markers, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and CASPASE-3 were evaluated. All analyzes were examined in four groups (Group 1; control, Group 2; linoleic acid given, Group 3; methotrexate given and Group 4; linoleic acid and methotrexate given). The mean ± standard error values of the obtained results as nanogram / milliliter (ng / ml) are in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively; AIF values, 0.4150 ± 0.1208, 0.3633 ± 0.2389, 1.792 ± 0.3611 and 1.077 ± 0.1646, BAX values, 0.900 ± 0.1864, 1.002 ± 0.2098, 8.352 ± 1.467 and 4.295 ± 1.522, BCL 2 values, 13.93 ± 1.198, 13.92 ± 1.739, 2.938 ± 1.059 and 9.250 ± 1.492, GADD 153, 0.7333 ± 0.1751, 0.7067 ± 0.2115, 1.650 ± 0.2950 and 1.237 ± 0.1805, GRP78, 0.4767 ± 0.1804, 0.5233 ± 0.1590, 2.183 ± 0.2639 and 1.112 ± 0.2693, CASPASE-3 values , 1.127 ± 0.2033, 0.8317 ± 0.3392, 13.50 ± 1.871 and 8.183 ± 1.030. It was determined that linoleic acid has a protective effect on methotrexate-induced liver toxicity.

Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto protector del ácido linoleico sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato. El estudio se llevó a cabo en colaboración con el Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Farmacología Médica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Çukurova, utilizando las instalaciones del laboratorio del Departamento de Farmacología Médica. Se usaron células de la línea celular de hepatocitos humanos (CRL-11233) obtenidas de la American Type Culture Collection Organisation (ATCC). Se evaluaron las expresiones de marcadores de vías apoptóticas, factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, proteína regulada por glucosa de 78 kDa (GRP78) y CASPASE-3. Todos los análisis se examinaron en cuatro grupos (Grupo 1; control, Grupo 2; se administró ácido linoleico, Grupo 3; se administró metotrexato y Grupo 4; se administró ácido linoleico y metotrexato). Los valores medios ± error estándar de los resultados obtenidos como nanogramo/mililitro (ng/ml) se encuentran en el Grupo I, Grupo II, Grupo III y Grupo IV, respectivamente; Valores de AIF, 0,4150 ± 0,1208, 0,3633 ± 0,2389, 1,792 ± 0,3611 y 1,077 ± 0,1646, valores de Bax, 0,900 ± 0,1864, 1,002 ± 0,2098, 8,352 ± 1,467 y 4,295 ± 1,522, BCL 2 valores, 13,93 ± 1,199. 2,938 ± 1,059 y 9,250 ± 1,492, GADD 153, 0,7333 ± 0,1751, 0,7067 ± 0,2115, 1,650 ± 0,2950 y 1,237 ± 0,1805, Grp78, 0,4767 ± 0,1804, 0,5233 ± 0,1590, 2,183, ± 1,263. 1,127 ± 0,2033, 0,8317 ± 0,3392, 13,50 ± 1,871 y 8,183 ± 1,030. Se determinó que el ácido linoleico tiene un efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato.

Humans , Methotrexate/toxicity , Linoleic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Protective Agents , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Caspase 3 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 167-174, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430531


SUMMARY: The present study investigated the possible protective effects of melatonin on Bleomycin, Cisplatin and etoposide (BEP) chemotherapy regimens using immunohistochemistry. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten as; group 1 as untreated control; group 2 as BEP group which received the three cycles of 21 days' regimen each of 0.5¥ dose levels ofBEP (bleomycin 0.75 mg/kg, etoposide 7.5 mg/kg and cisplatin 1.5 mg/kg). Rats in the group 3 (MEL group) received 10 mg/kg/day melatonin once daily. Group 4 received the melatonin (30 min before the BEP injections) and BEP as in groups 2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was used to detect cell proliferation and caspase-3, caspase-9 and Caspase-8 were detected to investigate apoptosis. PCNA immunostaining in alveolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages and bronchus was weak to moderate in BEP group. However, diffuse and strong caspase immunoreactions for caspase-3, caspase 8- and caspase-9 were detected in the bronchioles epithelium, vascular endothelium, alveolar luminal macrophages in the BEP group. PCNA and caspase immunoreactivities in MEL and Mel + BEP groups were close to the control one. The surface are in the BEP group was significantly reduced as compared to the control one ((P0.05). It can be concluded that BEP regimen can affects negatively on lung tissue and melatonin inhibits lung tissue injuries during BEP chemotherapy.

El presente estudio investigó los posibles efectos protectores de la melatonina en los regímenes de quimioterapia con bleomicina, etopósido y cisplatino (BEP) mediante inmunohistoquímica. Cuarenta ratas Wistar macho se dividieron en cuatro grupos de diez: grupo 1, control sin tratar; grupo 2, quimioterapia con una dosis de 0,5x de BEP (0,75 mg/kg de bleomicina, 7,5 mg/ kg de etopósido y 1,5 mg/kg de cisplatino) con tres ciclos de 21 días cada uno. Las ratas del grupo 3 (grupo MEL) recibieron 10 mg/kg/día de melatonina una vez al día. El grupo 4 (Mel + BEP) recibió melatonina (30 minutos antes de las inyecciones de BEP) y BEP, como en los grupos 2. Se usó la tinción del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) para detectar la proliferación celular y, caspasa- 3, caspasa-9 y caspasa-8 para investigar apoptosis. La inmunotinción de PCNA en el epitelio alveolar, los macrófagos alveolares y los bronquios varió de débil a moderada en el grupo BEP. Sin embargo, se detectaron inmunorreacciones difusas y fuertes para caspasa-3, caspasa 8- y caspasa-9 en el epitelio de los bronquiolos, endotelio vascular y macrófagos luminales alveolares. Las inmunorreactividades de PCNA y caspasa en los grupos MEL y Mel + BEP fueron similares a las del control. El área de superficie en el grupo BEP se redujo significativamente en comparación con el control (P0,05). Se puede concluir que la quimioterapia con BEP puede afectar negativamente al tejido pulmonar y la melatonina inhibe las lesiones durante la quimioterapia.

Animals , Male , Rats , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protective Agents , Etoposide/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 79-84, feb. 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430536


SUMMARY: Paracetamol (known as acetaminophen, or APAP) poisoning causes acute liver damage that can lead to organ failure and death. We sought to determine that APAP overdose can augment tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/ nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)/induced nitic oxide synthase (iNOS) axis-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats, and the anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compounds, quercetin (QUR) plus resveratrol (RES) can ameliorate these parameters. Therefore, we induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats using APAP overdose (2 g/kg, orally) and the protective group of rats were treated with 50 mg/kg QUR plus 30 mg/kg RES for one week before APAP ingestion. Animals were killed at day 8. APAP poisoning caused the induction of hepatic tissue levels of TNF-α, NF-kB, and iNOS, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by QUR+RES. QUR+RES, also inhibited liver injury biomarkers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Additionally, a link between liver injury and TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS axis mediated hepatotoxicity was observed. Thus, the presented data backing the conclusion that intoxication by paracetamol increases TNF-α / NF-kB / iNOS axis -mediated hepatotoxicity, and is protected by a combination of quercetin and resveratrol.

El envenenamiento por paracetamol (conocido como acetaminofeno o APAP) causa daño hepático agudo que puede provocar una insuficiencia orgánica y la muerte. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la sobredosis de APAP puede aumentar la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α)/factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB)/óxido nítico sintasa inducida (iNOS) en ratas, y si el polifenólico antiinflamatorio compuesto por quercetina (QUR) más resveratrol (RES) pueden mejorar estos parámetros. Por lo tanto, inducimos hepatotoxicidad aguda en ratas usando una sobredosis de APAP (2 g/kg, por vía oral). El grupo protector de ratas se trató con 50 mg/ kg de QUR más 30 mg/kg de RES durante una semana antes de la ingestión de APAP. Los animales se sacrificaron el día 8. El envenenamiento con APAP en el tejido hepático provocó la inducción de niveles de TNF-α, NF-kB e iNOS, que se redujeron significativamente (p<0,05) con QUR+RES. QUR+RES, también inhibió los biomarcadores de daño hepático, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y el aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Además, se observó una relación entre la lesión hepática y la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB/iNOS. Por lo tanto, los datos presentados respaldan la conclusión de que la intoxicación por paracetamol aumenta la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS, y está protegida por una combinación de quercetina y resveratrol.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Acute Disease , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug Overdose
Acta cir. bras ; 37(9): e370904, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1413622


Purpose: This study investigated the effects of oral administration of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and gut flora in rats with hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI). Methods: The rats from C. butyricum group were given C. butyricum for 5 days. Then, hepatic ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 6 h were performed in all the rats. After the animals were sacrificed, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbiota composition in feces, and malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) and histological analysis in the liver were performed. Results: The rats given C. butyricum showed decreased ALT, AST, LPS, and MDA; improved GSH and histological damage; changes in SCFAs; declined TNF-α, IL-6, TLR4, and pNF-κBp65/NF-κBp65; and changes in the gut microbial composition, which decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increased the relative abundance (RA) of probiotics. Conclusions: C. butyricum supplementation protected against HIRI by regulating gut microbial composition, which contributed to the decreased LPS and attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These indicate C. butyricum may be a potent clinical preoperative dietary supplement for HIRI.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/veterinary , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Clostridium butyricum , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Oxidative Stress , Liver Diseases/therapy
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370204, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374066


Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. polysaccharides (PCCL) on 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis (IM) in mice. Methods: PCCL was orally administered at a dose of 20 mg·kg­1 for 7 days and its protective effect on 5-FU-induced IM (5-FU, 50 mg·kg­1 for 5 days) was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, degree of diarrhea, levels of tissue inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1ß levels), apoptosis rates, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Results: The severity of mucosal injury (as reflected by body weight changes, degree of diarrhea, height of villi, and damage to crypts) was significantly attenuated by PCCL administration. PCCL also reduced the levels of tissue inflammatory factors, the apoptosis rate, and the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: PCCL administration may be significantly protective against 5-FU-induced IM by inhibiting apoptosis and regulating the abnormal inflammation associated with it.

Animals , Mice , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Cuscuta/chemistry , Mucositis/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Protective Agents/analysis
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 603-611, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939787


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis oil (SCEO) against aristolochic acid I (AA I)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups according to a random number table, including control group, AA I group, and AA I +SCEO (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) groups (n=5 per group). Pretreatment with SCEO was done for 2 days by oral administration, while the control and AA I groups were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Mice of all groups except for the control group were injected intraperitoneally with AA I (5 mg/kg) from day 3 until day 7. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and nad(p)hquinonedehydrogenase1 (NQO1) were analyzed using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, SCEO (40 µ g/mL) was added 12 h before treatment with AA I (40 µ mol/mL for 48 h) in human renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2), then apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg ameliorated histopathological changes and TUNEL+ staining in the kidney tissues of mice with AA I-induced nephrotoxicity, and reduced serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN and SCr (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg alleviated the ROS generation in kidney, containing MDA, GSH and SOD (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 1 g/kg increased the expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and decreased NQO1 level in the liver tissues (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Besides, in vitro studies also demonstrated that SCEO 40 µ g/mL inhibited apoptosis and ROS generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCEO can alleviate AA I-induced kidney damage both in vivo and in vitro. The protective mechanism may be closely related to the regulation of metabolic enzymes, thereby inhibiting apoptosis and ROS production.

Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Aristolochic Acids/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schisandra , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 876-885, jun. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385415


SUMMARY: The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of date palm hydroalcoholic extract (DP)in diabetic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. Diabetes was induced by administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. In this analysis 32 adult rats were randomly divided into four groups; group 1: non-diabetic control whic received 0.1 mL normal saline, group 2:served as non-diabetic control which treated with 270 mg/kg of DP, group 3: served as untreated diabetic, and group 4: diabetic rats treated with 270 mg/kg of DP. Diabetic rats treated with the DP extracts exhibited lower hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic enzymes level. Extract treatment decreased the level of malondealdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Stereological estimations revealed a significant increase in the liver volume in diabetic rats which was reduced in DP-treated rats. Immunofluorescence staining showed high synthesis of acrolein as a byproduct of lipid proxidation. While, optical density measurement revealed significant decrease in acrolein after DP administration. Histopathological examination showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue manifested by dilated portal vein, leukocytic infiltration, fatty degeneration and necrotic nuclei, whereas, DP treatment attenuated the adverse effects of diabetes on the liver represented by relatively healthy hepatocytes and sinusoids. The obtained results indicated that date pam extract was beneficial in the prevention of diabetes-induced hepatotoxicity due to its natural antioxidant constituents. Further preclinical and clinical studies are needed for considering this plant in management of prediabetes and diabetes hepatic complications.

RESUMEN: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos hepatoprotectores del extracto hidroalcohólico (DP) de la palmera datilera en ratas diabéticas utilizando enfoques bioquímicos e histopatológicos. La diabetes fue inducida mediante la administración de 60 mg / kg de estreptozotocina por vía intraperitoneal. Se dividieron al azar 32 ratas adultas en cuatro grupos; grupo 1: control no diabético que recibió 0,1 mL de solución salina normal, grupo 2: control no diabético tratado con 270 mg / kg de DP, grupo 3: fue separado como diabético no tratado, y grupo 4: ratas diabéticas tratadas con 270 mg / kg de DP mg / kg de DP. Las ratas diabéticas tratadas con los extractos de DP mostraron menor estrés oxidativo hepático y menor nivel de enzimas hepáticas. El tratamiento con extracto disminuyó el nivel de malondealdehído (MDA) como marcador de la proxidación de lípidos. Las estimaciones estereológicas revelaron un aumento significativo en el volumen del hígado en ratas diabéticas que se redujo en las ratas tratadas con DP. La tinción por inmunofluorescencia mostró una alta síntesis de acroleína como subproducto de la proxidación de lípidos. Mientras que, la medición de la densidad óptica reveló una disminución significativa de la acroleína después de la administración de DP. El examen histopatológico mostró cambios significativos en el tejido hepático diabético no tratado manifestados por vena porta dilatada, infiltración leucocítica, degeneración grasa y núcleos necróticos, mientras que el tratamiento con DP atenuó los efectos adversos de la diabetes en el hígado representados por hepatocitos y sinusoides relativamente sanos. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que el extracto de palmera datilera fue beneficioso en la prevención de la hepatotoxicidad inducida por diabetes debido a sus constituyentes antioxidantes naturales. Se necesitan más estudios clínicos para considerar esta planta en el manejo de la prediabetes y las complicaciones hepáticas de la diabetes.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications , Phoeniceae , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Acrolein , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 407-415, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385337


SUMMARY: Amiodarone (AMD), an orally powerful antidysrhythmic medication that has caused hepatotoxicity on long-term administration, is commonly used across the world. Silymarin ameliorative effects (SLM); this research elucidated the magnitude of the damage to the liver tissue in AMD. We divided 24 albino rats evenly into four groups given daily doses by gastric tube for eight weeks as follows; the 1st group acted as a control group; the 2nd group received SLM; the 3rd group received AMD; and the 4th group received AMD parallel to SLM. Liver tissues prepared for light, electron microscopic and serum samples screened for biomarkers (I)liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); (II) oxidative and antioxidant stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (III) inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The findings showed that AMD caused hepatic histological changes that included congestion of the blood vessels, leucocytic infiltration and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Ultrastructural degeneration of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum swelling, nuclear pyknosis and increased fat droplets and lysosomes were observed. The biochemical findings showed an increase in the AMD group's ALT and AST activities. The group of rats treated with AMD and SLM, increased the improvements in histology and ultrastructure, while the ALT and AST levels were reduced. Our findings collectively agreed that SLM has a protective impact on AMD hepatotoxicity which can be due to its antioxidant properties.

RESUMEN: La amiodarona (AMD) es un fuerte medicamento antiarrítmico administrado por vía oral que ha causado hepatotoxicidad en la administración a largo plazo utilizado con frecuencia en todo el mundo. Efectos de mejora de la silimarina (SLM); esta investigación analizó la magnitud del daño al tejido hepático en la DMAE. Dividimos 24 ratas albinas de manera uniforme en cuatro grupos que recibieron dosis diarias por sonda gástrica durante ocho semanas de la siguiente manera; el primer grupo fue designado como grupo control; el segundo grupo recibió SLM; el tercer grupo recibió AMD; y el cuarto grupo recibió AMD en paralelo a SLM. Se prepararon tejidos hepáticos para muestras de suero, microscopía de luz y electrónica y se analizaron para biomarcadores (I) enzimas de daño hepático, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST); (II) estrés oxidativo y antioxidante, malondialdehído (MDA) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD); y (III) marcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). Los hallazgos mostraron que la DMAE genera cambios histológicos hepáticos que incluyen congestión de los vasos sanguíneos, infiltración leucocítica y vacuolación citoplásmica. Se observó una degeneración ultraestructural de las mitocondrias, aumento del retículo endoplásmico, picnosis nuclear y aumento de gotitas de grasa y lisosomas. Los hallazgos bioquímicos mostraron un aumento en las actividades de ALT y AST del grupo AMD. El grupo de ratas tratadas con AMD y SLM, aumentó las mejoras en histología y ultraestructura, mientras que se redujeron los niveles de ALT y AST. Nuestros hallazgos coincidieron colectivamente en que SLM tiene un impacto protector sobre la hepatotoxicidad de AMD debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Amiodarone/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Liver/ultrastructure , Malondialdehyde , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/toxicity
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 102-108, feb. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385283


SUMMARY: Acute pancreatitis is a frequent life-threatening inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by severe abdominal pain that lasts for days to weeks. We sought to determine whether the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, metformin can substantially protect against acute pancreatitis in an animal model of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis, and whether this is associated with the augmentation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and inhibition of the enzyme that promotes tissue damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats were either injected with two doses of the amino acid L-arginine (2.5 gm/kg; i.p., at one-hour intervals) before being sacrificed after 48 hours (model group) or were pretreated with metformin (50 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to L- arginine injections and continued receiving metformin until the end of the experiment (protective group). Using microscopic examination of the pancreas and blood chemistry, we observed that L-arginine induced acute pancreatic injury. This is demonstrated by an enlarged pancreas with patchy areas of haemorrhage, vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei in the acini, disorganized lobular architecture with infiltration of inflammatory cells within the interlobular connective tissue (CT) septa, and the presence of congested blood vessels that were substantially ameliorated by metformin. Metformin also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited L-arginine-induced MPO, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the inflammatory biomarker tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Whereas, metformin significantly (p<0.05) increased IL-10 levels that were inhibited by pancreatitis induction. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) correlation between the scoring of the degree of pancreatic lobules damage tissue damage and the blood levels of TNF-α, IL-10, LDH, and MPO. Thus, metformin effectively protects against L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis, which is associated with the inhibition of MPO and augmentation of IL-10.

RESUMEN: La pancreatitis aguda es una enfermedad inflamatoria del páncreas que amenaza la vida y se caracteriza por un dolor abdominal intenso que dura de días a semanas. Buscamos determinar si la metformina, fármaco antidiabético y antiinflamatorio, puede proteger contra la pancreatitis aguda en un modelo animal de pancreatitis aguda inducida por L-arginina. Además se estudió la asociación con el aumento de la citocina antiinflamatoria interleucina-10. (IL-10) e inhibición de la enzima que promueve el daño tisular, mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Las ratas se inyectaron con dos dosis del aminoácido L-arginina (2,5 g / kg; ip, a intervalos de una hora) antes de ser sacrificadas des- pués de 48 horas (grupo modelo) o se pre trataron con metformina (50 mg / kg) durante dos semanas antes del tratamiento de L- arginina y continuaron recibiendo metformina hasta el final del experimento (grupo protector). Mediante el examen microscópico del páncreas y la química sanguínea, se observó que la L- arginina inducía una lesión pancreática aguda. Se observó un aumento significativo de tamaño del páncreas con áreas hemorrágicas, citoplasma vacuolado y núcleos picnóticos en los acinos, arquitectura desorganizada con infiltración de células inflamatorias dentro de los tabiques del tejido conjuntivo interlobulillar (TC) y la presencia de vasos sanguíneos congestionados mejorados por metformina. Se observó que la metformina inhibió significativamente (p <0,05) la MPO inducida por L- arginina, la lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). Además, demostramos una correlación significativa (p <0,001) entre la puntuación del grado de daño tisular de los lóbulos pancreáticos y los niveles sanguíneos de TNF-α, IL-10, LDH y MPO. Por tanto, la metformina protege eficazmente contra la pancreatitis aguda inducida por L-arginina, que se asocia con la inhibición de MPO y el aumento de IL-10.

Animals , Rats , Arginine/toxicity , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/chemically induced , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/drug therapy , Metformin/administration & dosage , Pancreas/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 116-122, feb. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385291


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of Potentilla fulgens on kidney tissue with ischemia- reperfusion using immunohistochemical methods. Wistar rats were grouped as sham, ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and I/R treated with Potentilla fulgens. Renal vessels of the left rat kidney were clamped for 60 minutes for ischemia, IR group had 6 h of reperfusion. 400 mg/kg Potentilla fulgens were given intraperitoneally 5 days before ischemia+reperfusion procedure. Biochemical analysis (MDA, GSH and MPO) of samples were performed. Kidney tissues were fixed with 10 % neutral formalin and routine paraffin tissue follow-up protocol was applied, stained with routine Hematoxylin and Eosin. ADAMTS-5 and Caspase-3 immunostaining was applied for immunohistochemistry and examined under a light microscope. In the ischemia group, inflammation and congestion in the vessels and increased ADAMTS-5 expression in glomerular cells and tubule cells were observed. In reperfusion, an increase in degenerative glomerular cells, tubule cells and intertubular connective tissue and inflammatory cells ADAMTS-5 expression was observed. In the P. fulgens group, degeneration and inflammation decreased and positive ADAMTS-5 expression was observed. In the ischemia and ischemia reperfusion group, increased apoptotic appearance and Caspase-3 positive expression in glomerular and tubular cells, and negative expression in most cells in the P. fulgens group. Potentilla fulgens are thought to stop apoptotic cell development at a certain stage, which affects the cytokine mechanism and plays an important role in the reduction of inflammatory cells and angiogenic regulation.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los posibles efectos protectores de Potentilla fulgens en el tejido renal con isquemia-reperfusión utilizando métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se agruparon ratas Wistar como simulación, isquemia, isquemia-reperfusión (I / R) e I / R tratadas con Potentilla fulgens. Los vasos renales del riñón iz- quierdo de las ratas se fijaron durante 60 min por isquemia, el grupo de IR tuvo 6 h de reperfusión. Se administraron 400 mg / kg de Potentilla fulgens por vía intraperitoneal 5 días antes del procedimiento de isquemia + reperfusión. Se realizaron análisis bioquímicos (MDA, GSH y MPO) de muestras. Los tejidos renales se fijaron con formalina neutra al 10 % y se aplicó el protocolo de seguimiento de tejido de parafina de rutina y teñido con hematoxilina y eosina. Se aplicó inmunotinción de ADAMTS-5 y Caspasa-3 para inmunohistoquímica y se examinó con un microscopio óptico. En el grupo de isquemia, se observó inflamación y congestión en los vasos y el aumento de la expresión de ADAMTS-5 en células glomerulares y células tubulares. En la reperfusión, se observó un aumento en la expresión de ADAMTS-5 de células glomerulares degenerativas, células tubulares y tejido conjuntivo intertubular y células inflamatorias. En el grupo de Potentilla fulgens, la degeneración y la inflamación disminuyeron y se observó expresión positiva de ADAMTS-5. En el grupo de isquemia y reperfusión de isquemia, aumentó la apariencia apoptótica y expresión positiva de Caspasa-3 en células glomerulares y tubulares, y expresión negativa en la mayoría de las células del grupo de Potentilla fulgens. Se cree que Potentilla fulgens detiene el desarrollo de las células apoptóticas en una determinada etapa, lo que afecta el mecanismo de las citocinas y juega un papel importante en la reducción de las células inflamatorias y la regulación angiogénica.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Potentilla/chemistry , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/metabolism , ADAMTS5 Protein/metabolism
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 40-49, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319


Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 876-881, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124869


Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) causes acute kidney injury after accidental or intentional ingestion of a toxic dose of the drug. We tested whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, quercetin (QUR) given alone can protect against acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP overdose in a rat model of APAP-induced acute kidney injury. Rats were either given a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) before being sacrificed after 24 hours or were pre-treated for 7 days with QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP and then sacrificed 24 hours post APAP ingestion. Kidneys were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and collected blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney injury. H&E stained sections of kidney from the model group of rats (APAP) showed substantial damage to the kidney architecture as demonstrated by widening of Bowman's space, tubular dilatation, vacuolization of tubular epithelium, and congested dilated blood vessels, which were partially protected by QUR. In addition, APAP significantly (p<0.05) increased blood levels of urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by QUR. These results indicate that quercetin partially protects against APAP-induced acute kidney injury in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and kidney injury.

El acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o DCI) causa daño renal agudo después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una dosis tóxica del medicamento. En el estudio analizamos si el agente antioxidante y antiinflamatorio, la quercetina (QUR) administrada sola, puede proteger contra la nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por sobredosis de DCI en un modelo de rata. Las ratas recibieron una dosis única de DCI (2 g / kg) antes de ser sacrificadas después de 24 horas o fueron pretratadas durante 7 días con QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de DCI y luego sacrificadas 24 horas post ingestión. Los riñones se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica después de la tinción con hematoxilina y eosina (H&E) y las muestras de sangre recolectadas se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y daño renal. Las secciones de riñón teñidas con H&E del grupo modelo de ratas (DCI) mostraron un daño sustancial a la arquitectura del riñón, como lo demuestra la ampliación del espacio de Bowman, la dilatación tubular, la vacuolización del epitelio tubular y los vasos sanguíneos dilatados congestionados, que estaban parcialmente protegidos por QUR. Además, DCI aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la urea, creatinina, malondialdehído (MDA), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6), los que fueron reducidos significativamente (p < 0,05) por QUR. Estos resultados indican que la quercetina protege parcialmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por DCI en ratas, asociada con la inhibición de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y lesión renal.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protective Agents , Creatinine , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 940-946, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124880


Solanum nigrum (SLN), commonly known as African nightshade, is used as a vegetable as well as in the management and treatment of various ailments including gastric ulcers. We analyzed, both grossly and microscopically using H&E, Masson's trichrome and PSA staining methods, the protective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Kenyan SLN genotypes namely S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. There was evidence of gastro-protection by all the three genotypes with the SSB showing the highest ulcer inhibition score (76.37 %) followed by SSR (72.51 %) and SVL (63.30 %). SLN-pretreated rats showed less areas of gastric mucosal surface erosion. Additionally in the pretreated animals, the depth of the ulcers were markedly reduced, reaching only the gastric pit region except in those treated with SVL where the ulcers penetrated slightly more deeply to affect the gastric glands. Compared with controls, the mean microscopic ulcer index decreased 5.07, 3.55 and 2.37-fold in rats pretreated with SSB, SSR and SVL extracts respectively. Results of this work show extracts of the three SLN genotypes to have antiulcerogenic potential but at varied strengths, thus confirming earlier reports that phytoconstituents and hence the efficacy of a medicinal plant may be influenced by genetic factors.

Solanum nigrum (SLN), comúnmente conocida como la solanácea africana, se usa como vegetal, para el tratamiento de diversas dolencias incluyendo las úlceras gástricas. Analizamos de forma macro y microscópica, de forma macroscópica y microscópica, utilizando para ello tinciones de H&E, tricrómico de Masson y PSA los efectos protectores de extractos acuosos de hojas de tres genotipos SLN de Kenia: S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) en lesiones gástricas inducidas por etanol en ratas. Hubo evidencia de gastroprotección por parte de los tres genotipos con el SSB mostrando el puntaje más alto de inhibición de la úlcera (76,37 %) seguido de SSR (72,51 %) y SVL (63,30 %). Las ratas tratadas previamente con SLN mostraron menos áreas de erosión de la superficie de la mucosa gástrica. Además, en los animales pretratados, la profundidad de las úlceras se redujo notablemente, llegando solo a la región del fondo gástrico, excepto en aquellos tratados con SVL donde las úlceras penetraron un poco más profundamente para afectar las glándulas gástricas. En comparación con los controles, el índice medio de úlcera microscópica disminuyó 5,07, 3,55 y 2,37 veces en ratas pretratadas con extractos de SSB, SSR y SVL, respectivamente. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que los extractos de los tres genotipos de SLN tienen potencial antiulcerogénico en diferentes concentraciones, lo que confirma informes anteriores que los fitoconstituyentes y la eficacia de una planta medicinal pueden estar influenciados por factores genéticos.

Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Solanum nigrum/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Stomach/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Kenya , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 804-810, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098323


Honey is a natural antioxidant that its protective effects have been proven against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Persian Honey, Apis mellifera meda skorikov, on gastrocnemius muscle IR injury. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. They were divided into ten groups (N=8 per group). The ischemia was conducted with a silk suture 6-0 using the slipknot technique. All groups were rendered in ischemic for 3 h, and reperfused for various times of 3 days (3-day reperfusion), 7 days (7-day reperfusion), 14 days (14-day reperfusion), and 28 days (28-day reperfusion). Half of the groups had experimental honey (5 %) treatment immediately after ischemia. After reperfusion, the rats, based on the grouping, were killed with high doses of anesthetic, and the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and fixed. After the tissue processing, the evaluation of edema and mast cells infiltration was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining, respectively. TNF-α was detected with immunohistochemistry method. The amount of TNF-α as an index of acute inflammatory except the 3rd day significantly decreased on the other day of reperfusion (7th, 147th and 287th days). The mast cells infiltration was significantly decreased on 77th and 147th days. The tissue edema was decreased significantly in honey administrated group in the comparison with placebo groups. Honey administration can reduce damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat gastrocnemius muscle.

La miel es un antioxidante natural; sus efectos protectores han sido probados contra la lesión por isquemiareperfusión (IR). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de mejora de la miel persa Apis mellifera meda skorikov, en la lesión por IR del músculo gastrocnemio. Se utilizaron 80 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas con un peso entre 250 y 300 g divididas en diez grupos (N = 8 por grupo). La isquemia se realizó con una sutura de seda 6-0 utilizando la técnica slipknot permaneciendo isquémicos durante 3 h. La reperfusión se realizó durante varios tiempos de 3 días, 7 días (reperfusión de 7 días), 14 días (reperfusión de 14 días) y 28 días (28 días reperfusión). La mitad de los grupos recibió tratamiento experimental con miel (5 %) inmediatamente después de la isquemia. Después de la reperfusión, las ratas, fueron sacrificadas con altas dosis de anestésico, y los músculos gastrocnemios fueron removidos y fijados. Después de procesar el tejido, se realizó la evaluación del edema y la infiltración de mastocitos se realizó con tinción de hematoxilina-eosina y azul de toluidina, respectivamente. TNF-α se detectó con el método de inmunohistoquímica. La cantidad de TNF-α como índice de inflamación inflamatoria aguda, excepto en el tercer día, disminuyó significativamente al día siguiente de la reperfusión (7, 14 y 28 días). La infiltración de mastocitos disminuyó significativamente a los 7 y 14 días. El edema tisular disminuyó significativamente en el grupo administrado con miel en comparación con los grupos placebo. El tratamiento con miel puede reducir el daño causado por la isquemia-reperfusión en el músculo gastrocnemio de la rata.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Apis mellifica/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Honey , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Apis mellifica/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Protective Agents
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 30-37, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089360


Abstract Introduction Ototoxicity is a health problem appearing after powerful treatments in serious health conditions. It is sometimes inevitable when treatment of the serious disease is required. Cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent which was investigated previously to reveal increased nitrogen and reactive oxygen radicals that damages hair cells, resulting in ototoxicity. N-acetylcysteine, previously shown to decrease ototoxicity caused by different agents, is known to be a powerful in vitro antioxidant. Probably N-acetylcysteine, in addition to its antioxidant effect, blocks a cascade where reactive oxygen species result in apoptosis in the cochlea. Objectives The possible preventive effect of N-acetylcysteine in cisplatin ototoxicity was studied with auditory brain stem responses, otoacoustic emissions, and histopathological investigation of the cochlea in a scanning electron microscopy. Methods This study was conducted on 21 Wistar Albino rats in four groups. 1 mL/kg/day three times in total intraperitoneal (i.p.) Saline (n = 5), 500 mg/kg/day i.p. three times in total N-acetylcysteine (n = 5), i.p. 15 mg/kg cisplatin alone (single dose) (n = 5) and i.p. 15 mg/kg cisplatin plus 500 mg/kg/day N-acetylcysteine (n = 6) were administered. The rats were anesthetized to study the hearing tests before and after the experiment. The rats were sacrificed to investigate the cochleas by scanning electron microscopy. Results Auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions values were attenuated in the cisplatin group. The group that received N-acetylcysteine in addition to cisplatin had better auditory brain stem responses thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. The samples obtained from the cisplatin group showed surface irregularities, degeneration areas, and total or partial severe stereocilia losses. The changes were milder in the cisplatin + N-acetylcysteine group. Conclusion Cisplatin ototoxicity can be detected by auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions testing in rats. N-acetylcysteine may protect the cochlear cells from histopathological changes. We concluded that N-acetylcysteine given 4 h after cisplatin injection has a potential otoprotective effect against cisplatin ototoxicity. which suggests it could be used in clinical trials.

Resumo Introdução A ototoxicidade é um problema que pode ocorrer após certos tipos de tratamentos para condições graves de saúde. Às vezes é inevitável quando o tratamento da doença é necessário. A cisplatina é um agente antineoplásico cujo uso em pesquisas anteriores demonstrou aumentar os radicais livres de nitrogênio e espécies reativas de oxigênio que danificam as células ciliadas e resultam em ototoxicidade. Por outro lado, a N-acetilcisteína, que já demonstrou diminuir a ototoxicidade causada por diferentes agentes, é conhecida por ser um potente antioxidante in vitro. Provavelmente a N-acetilcisteína, além de seu efeito antioxidante, bloqueia uma cascata onde espécies reativas de oxigênio resultam em apoptose na cóclea. Objetivos Estudar o possível efeito preventivo da N-acetilcisteína na ototoxicidade por cisplatina por meio de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico, emissões otoacústicas e investigação histopatológica da cóclea por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Método Este estudo foi realizado em 21 ratos albinos Wistar, separados em quatro grupos. Foram administrados: 1 mL/kg/dia intraperitoneal (i.p.) de solução salina (n = 5), três vezes no total; 500 mg/kg/dia i.p. de N-acetilcisteína (n = 5), três vezes no total; 15 mg/kg i.p. (dose única) somente de cisplatina (n = 5) e 15 mg/kg i.p. de cisplatina e 500 mg/kg/dia i.p. de N-acetilcisteína (n = 6). Os ratos foram anestesiados para estudo dos testes auditivos antes e depois do experimento. Os ratos foram sacrificados para investigação da cóclea por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Resultados Os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico e os valores das emissões otoacústicas estavam atenuados no grupo cisplatina. O grupo que recebeu N-acetilcisteína além da cisplatina apresentou melhores limiares de respostas auditivas do tronco encefálico e emissões otoacústicas. As amostras obtidas do grupo cisplatina apresentaram irregularidades de superfície, áreas de degeneração, com perdas graves totais ou parciais de estereocílios. As alterações foram mais leves no grupo cisplatina + N-acetilcisteína. Conclusão A ototoxicidade por cisplatina pode ser detectada por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico e pelo teste de emissões otoacústicas em ratos. A N-acetilcisteína pode proteger as células cocleares contra alterações histopatológicas. Concluímos que a N-acetilcisteína administrada 4 horas após a injeção de cisplatina tem potencial efeito otoprotetor contra a ototoxicidade por cisplatina e pode ser utilizada em ensaios clínicos.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Ototoxicity/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/pathology , Apoptosis , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/drug effects , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/pathology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Stereocilia/drug effects , Stereocilia/pathology , Ototoxicity/prevention & control , Hearing Tests , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000104, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088525


Abstract Purpose Glutamine, as an essential part of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition agent, has been widely recognized to be a kind of important intestinal mucosa protectant in clinical practice and experimental research. However, the mechanisms of its protective effects are still not fully understand. Consequently, this study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of glutamine on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestine. Methods An experimental model of intestinal I/R in rats was established by 1 hour occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Morphologic changes of intestinal mucosa, apoptosis of epithelial cells, and expression of intestinal Grp78, Gadd153, Caspase-12, ATF4, PERK phosphorylation (P-PERK) and elF2αphosphorylation(P-elF2α) were determined. Results After I/R, the apoptotic index of intestinal mucosa epithelial cells observably increased with notable necrosis of intestinal mucosa, and the expressions of Grp78, Gadd153, Caspase-12, ATF4, P-PERK and P-elF2αall were increased. However, treatment with glutamine could significantly relieve intestinal I/R injury and apoptosis index. Moreover, glutamine could clearly up-regulate the expression of Grp78, restrain P-PERK and P-elF2α, and reduce ATF4, Gadd153 and Caspase-12 expressions. Conclusion Glutamine may be involved in alleviating ER stress induced intestinal mucosa cells apoptosis.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Glutamine/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/injuries , eIF-2 Kinase/drug effects , Models, Animal , Activating Transcription Factor 4/drug effects , Transcription Factor CHOP/drug effects , Caspase 12/drug effects , Heat-Shock Proteins/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestinal Mucosa/ultrastructure
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180626, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132199


Abstract Methotrexate (MTX) was shown to cause oxidative stress and liver damage. The objective was to investigate the possible protective effects of Matricaria Chamomilla L. (chamomile) extract with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on the methotrexate-induced liver toxicity. Twenty four Wistar rats were divided into four groups. MTX group was injected intraperitoneally on days 7 and 14 with 20 mg/kg methotrexate. Groups CE200 (chamomile extract 200 mg/kg/day) and CE300 (chamomile extract 300 mg/kg/day) received the same dose of methotrexate added with chamomile extract orally for 15 days at 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively and the last group was healthy control group. Results of biochemical analyses indicated serum liver biomarkers (aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and liver content of anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) significantly increased (P <0.05-0.001) to normal in the CE treated groups compared to those of the MTX group. Serum bilirubin and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased (P ˂0.001) in MTX group compared to those of the control group and decreased in CE200 and CE300 groups compared to those of the MTX group. Histopathological study showed inflammatory damage, necrotic cells and lipid infiltration in MTX group. In the groups treated with the chamomile extract, a significant improvement was observed in liver tissue in response to increased dose of the extract. In conclusion, chamomile extract administration could have a protective role in methotrexate-induced liver toxicity in rats through improving anti-oxidant defense system.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/toxicity , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Matricaria/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190311, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132265


Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are among the aggressive factors causing gastric ulcer. They cause oxidative damage in the gastric tissue and lead to intracellular calcium deposition. Lercanidipine is a calcium channel blocker derived from the third generation dihydropyridine. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of lercanidipine on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. A total of 24 albino Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; those who received indomethacin 25 mg/kg (IND), 5 mg mg/kg lercanidipine +25 mg/kg indomethacin (LC-5), 10 mg/kg lercanidipine+25mg/kg indomethacin (LC-10) and healthy rats who received 0.5 mL distilled water. Six hours after the application of indomethacin, the animals were sacrificed by high dose thiopental sodium. The stomachs of the animals were excised to perform a macroscopic analysis and the ulcerous region was measured on millimeter paper. All the stomachs were subjected to a biochemical analysis. Macroscopic analysis revealed hyperaemia on the gastric surface of the indomethacin group. Ulcerous tissues formed by oval, circular or irregular mucosal defects in varying diameters and depths were observed on the whole surface of the stomach. Hyperaemia was lower and ulcerous region was smaller in groups LC-5 and LC-10 compared to IND group. Malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels were significantly lower and total glutathione and cyclooxygenase-1 activity were higher in groups LC-5 and LC-10. Lercanidipine did not change the cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Lercanidipine in doses 10 mg/kg is more effective compared to 5 mg/kg. Lercanidipinine can be useful in the treatment of NSAID-induced gastric damage.

Animals , Male , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Dihydropyridines/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Indomethacin , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal