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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 53-62, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008079

ABSTRACT

Abiotic stresses substantially affect the growth and development of plants. Plants have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the environmental stresses, among which transcription factors play an important role in regulating the tolerance to abiotic stresses. Basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP) are one of the largest gene families. The stability and activity of bZIP transcription factors could be regulated by different post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to various intracellular or extracellular stresses. This paper introduces the structural feature and classification of bZIP transcription factors, followed by summarizing the PTMs of bZIP transcription factors, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification, in response to abiotic stresses. In addition, future perspectives were prospected, which may facilitate cultivating excellent stress-resistant crop varieties by regulating the PTMs of bZIP transcription factors.


Subject(s)
Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Transcription Factors/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 124-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970456

ABSTRACT

Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression and function without alterations in gene sequences,including DNA methylation,histone modification,and non-coding RNAs.Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease that affects the fertility and health of reproductive-age women,the etiology of which remains unclear.The recent studies have demonstrated that epigenetics plays a key role in the occurrence and development of endometriosis.This article reviews the research progress in the regulatory mechanism and application of epigenetics in endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometriosis/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , DNA Methylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 91-98, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970109

ABSTRACT

The ovary is the reproductive organ of female mammals, which is responsible for producing mature eggs and secreting sex hormones. The regulation of ovarian function involves the ordered activation and repression of genes related to cell growth and differentiation. In recent years, it has been found that histone posttranslational modification can affect DNA replication, damage repair and gene transcriptional activity. Some regulatory enzymes mediating histone modification are co-activators or co-inhibitors associated with transcription factors, which play important roles in the regulation of ovarian function and the development of ovary-related diseases. Therefore, this review outlines the dynamic patterns of common histone modifications (mainly acetylation and methylation) during the reproductive cycle and their regulation of gene expression for important molecular events, focusing on the mechanisms of follicle development and sex hormone secretion and function. For example, the specific dynamics of histone acetylation are important for the arrest and resumption of meiosis in oocytes, while histone (especially H3K4) methylation affects the maturation of oocytes by regulating their chromatin transcriptional activity and meiotic progression. Besides, histone acetylation or methylation can also promote the synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones before ovulation. Finally, the abnormal histone posttranslational modifications in the development of two common ovarian diseases (premature ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovary syndrome) are briefly described. It will provide a reference basis for understanding the complex regulation mechanism of ovarian function and further exploring the potential therapeutic targets of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Histone Code , Histones , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Ovary , Oocytes , Mammals
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375811

ABSTRACT

Accidents with venomous animals are a public health issue worldwide. Among the species involved in these accidents are scorpions, spiders, bees, wasps, and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. The knowledge of the function of proteins present in these venoms is important to guide diagnosis, therapeutics, besides being a source of a large variety of biotechnological active molecules. Although our understanding about the characteristics and function of arthropod venoms has been evolving in the last decades, a major aspect crucial for the function of these proteins remains poorly studied, the posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Comprehension of such modifications can contribute to better understanding the basis of envenomation, leading to improvements in the specificities of potential therapeutic toxins. Therefore, in this review, we bring to light protein/toxin PTMs in arthropod venoms by accessing the information present in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, including experimental and putative inferences. Then, we concentrate our discussion on the current knowledge on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation, highlighting the potential functionality of these modifications in arthropod venom. We also briefly describe general approaches to study "PTM-functional-venomics", herein referred to the integration of PTM-venomics with a functional investigation of PTM impact on venom biology. Furthermore, we discuss the bottlenecks in toxinology studies covering PTM investigation. In conclusion, through the mining of PTMs in arthropod venoms, we observed a large gap in this field that limits our understanding on the biology of these venoms, affecting the diagnosis and therapeutics development. Hence, we encourage community efforts to draw attention to a better understanding of PTM in arthropod venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Venoms/toxicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Scorpions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spiders , Wasps , Bees , Glycosylation
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 173-188, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929050

ABSTRACT

The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves many factors, including environmental parameters, microorganisms, and the immune system. Although research on IBD continues to expand, the specific pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. Protein modification refers to chemical modification after protein biosynthesis, also known as post-translational modification (PTM), which causes changes in the properties and functions of proteins. Since proteins can be modified in different ways, such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation, the functions of proteins in different modified states will also be different. Transitions between different states of protein or changes in modification sites can regulate protein properties and functions. Such modifications like neddylation, sumoylation, glycosylation, and acetylation can activate or inhibit various signaling pathways (e.g., nuclear factor-‍κB (NF-‍κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (AKT)) by changing the intestinal flora, regulating immune cells, modulating the release of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-‍‍1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF‍-‍α), and interferon-‍γ (IFN-‍γ), and ultimately leading to the maintenance of the stability of the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of PTM and describe its regulatory role in the pathogenesis of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/genetics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 461-468, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939580

ABSTRACT

Histone methylation is one of the key post-translational modifications that plays a critical role in various heart diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. A great deal of evidence has shown that histone methylation is closely related to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, lipid and advanced glycation end products deposition, inflammatory and oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell apoptosis, and these pathological factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In order to provide a novel theoretical basis and potential targets for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy from the perspective of epigenetics, this review discussed and elucidated the association between histone methylation and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy in details.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Histones , Methylation , Oxidative Stress , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 882-892, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927751

ABSTRACT

With the widespread application of genomics and transcriptomics in the genetics and cell biology of different species, synonymous codon usage bias has been gradually accepted and used to study the deep connection between biological evolution and biological phenotypes. It is an important part of the life activities that mRNA is expressed into proteins with normal biological activities. The synonymous codon usage patterns, which were named as 'the second genetic codon', can express genetic information carried by themselves at the levels of transcriptional regulations, translational regulations and metabolic activities through molecular mechanisms such as fine-tune translation selection. Some studies have shown that the length of mRNA half-life has significant impacts on mRNA activity and the process of transcription and translation. This review summarized the roles of synonymous codon usage patterns in transcription, translational regulation and post-translational modification, with the aim to better understand how organisms skillfully utilize the genetic effects caused by codon usage patterns to accurately synthesize different types of proteins, so as to ensure the growth or differentiation of the specific gene expression procedures to carry out smoothly and maintain the normal life cycle.


Subject(s)
Codon/genetics , Codon Usage , Half-Life , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA, Messenger/genetics
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 73-79, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927583

ABSTRACT

Histone acetylation is one of the epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation, which is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and negatively regulated by histone deacetylases, plays an important role in a variety of cellular physiological and pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have shown that histone deacetylases are involved in a variety of pathophysiological responses to acute kidney injury, such as apoptosis, dedifferentiation, proliferation and regeneration. This article reviews the role and underlying mechanism of histone deacetylases in acute kidney injury induced by ischemia reperfusion, nephrotoxicants, sepsis and rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylation , Acute Kidney Injury , Histone Acetyltransferases/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 29-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880916

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesses an AR-independent role of regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In prostate cancer, mutations converge onto the coding sequence and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of FOXA1, leading to functional alterations. In addition, FOXA1 activity in prostate cancer can be modulated post-translationally through various mechanisms such as LSD1-mediated protein demethylation. In this review, we describe the latest discoveries related to the function and regulation of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, pointing to their relevance to guide future clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Mutation , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 642-650, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922251

ABSTRACT

In neuronal system, epigenetic modifications are essential for neuronal development, the fate determination of neural stem cells and neuronal function. The dysfunction of epigenetic regulation is closely related to occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease. Abnormally elevated DNA methylation inhibits the expression of some DNA repair-related genes and affects the progression of Huntington's disease. In the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, the levels of H3K27ac and H3K9ac histone modifications increased. In addition, the alteration of RNA methylation in animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease showed discrepancy trends. Therefore, epigenetic modifications may serve as potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we summarize the recent progress of the roles of epigenetic modifications in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 591-598, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878883

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-hide gelatin(DHG) samples, hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on lysine sites of DHG were comprehensive identified by using PEAKS Studio software. The sites, sorts and amounts of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on Type Ⅰ collagen α1 chain(COL1 A1) and α2 chain(COL1 A2) of DHG were revealed. As a result, 5 284 peptides were identified from DHG samples, which were mainly from COL1 A1 and COL1 A2. Among these peptides, there were 449 peptides with hydroxylysine, 442 with galactosyl-hydroxylysine, 449 with glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine. The major modified sites of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation in DHG were shown as follow: α1-9 N and α2-5 N in N-telopeptides, α1-87, α1-174, α1-930, α2-87, α2-174, α2-933 in triple helix domain, and α1-16 C in C-telopeptides. These hydroxylation and O-glycosylation were correlated with the formation and stability of collagen molecules and collagen fibrils. It is feasible for the collagens and peptides dissolving from deer skin collagen fibrils under high temperature and pressure decocting, high temperature and pressure also might destroy inter-molecular covalent cross-linking and help those glycol-peptides formations. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on DHG chemical constituents, and showed good theoretical significance and application value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/metabolism , Gelatin , Glycosylation , Hydroxylation , Lysine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3915-3932, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921476

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD) technology facilitates specific and efficient degradation of disease-related proteins through hijacking the two major protein degradation systems in mammalian cells: ubiquitin-proteasome system and lysosome pathway. Compared with traditional small molecule-inhibitors, TPD-based drugs exhibit the characteristics of a broader target spectrum. Compared with techniques interfere with protein expression on the gene and mRNA level, TPD-based drugs are target-specific, efficaciously rapid, and not constrained by post-translational modification of proteins. In the past 20 years, various TPD-based technologies have been developed. Most excitingly, two TPD-based therapeutic drugs have been approved by FDA for phase Ⅰ clinical trials in 2019. Despite of the early stage characteristics and various obstructions of the TPD technology, it could serve as a powerful tool for the development of novel drugs. This review summarizes the advances of different degradation systems based on TPD technologies and their applications in disease therapy. Moreover, the advantages and challenges of various technologies were discussed systematically, with the aim to provide theoretical guidance for further application of TPD technologies in scientific research and drug development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Technology
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 980-990, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921303

ABSTRACT

The normal development of follicles involves a series of complex life processes such as ordered transcriptional activation and inhibition, which is crucial for female reproductive ability. Histone methylation can change the chromatin state in cells and affect the transcription activity of genes. Current studies indicate that epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation play an important regulatory role in follicular development in female mammals. This paper summarized the relationship between H3K4, H3K9 methylation and germ cell development, their regulatory effects, including their dynamical changes during follicular development, and the progress of H3K4me3 and other histone methylation binding to promoter regions of different genes to regulate gene expression and thus affect germ cell epigenetic reprogramming, oocyte transcription, meiosis and other processes. This review will provide a reference for the study of mechanisms related to histone methylation modification and the development and maturation of gonadal parenchymal cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histones , Mammals , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
14.
Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics ; (4): 305-320, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880485

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination, an essential post-transcriptional modification (PTM), plays a vital role in nearly every biological process, including development and growth. Despite its functions in plant reproductive development, its targets in rice panicles remain unclear. In this study, we used proteome-wide profiling of lysine ubiquitination in rice (O. sativa ssp. indica) young panicles. We created the largest ubiquitinome dataset in rice to date, identifying 1638 lysine ubiquitination sites on 916 unique proteins. We detected three conserved ubiquitination motifs, noting that acidic glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) were most frequently present around ubiquitinated lysine. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of these ubiquitinated proteins revealed that ubiquitination plays an important role in fundamental cellular processes in rice young panicles. Interestingly, enrichment analysis of protein domains indicated that ubiquitination was enriched on a variety of receptor-like kinases and cytoplasmic tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases. Furthermore, we analyzed the crosstalk between ubiquitination, acetylation, and succinylation, and constructed a potential protein interaction network within our rice ubiquitinome. Moreover, we identified ubiquitinated proteins related to pollen and grain development, indicating that ubiquitination may play a critical role in the physiological functions in young panicles. Taken together, we reported the most comprehensive lysine ubiquitinome in rice so far, and used it to reveal the functional role of lysine ubiquitination in rice young panicles.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Lysine/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination
15.
Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics ; (4): 289-304, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880483

ABSTRACT

Protein lysine methylation is a prevalent post-translational modification (PTM) and plays critical roles in all domains of life. However, its extent and function in photosynthetic organisms are still largely unknown. Cyanobacteria are a large group of prokaryotes that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and are applied extensively in studies of photosynthetic mechanisms and environmental adaptation. Here we integrated propionylation of monomethylated proteins, enrichment of the modified peptides, and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to identify monomethylated proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Overall, we identified 376 monomethylation sites in 270 proteins, with numerous monomethylated proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. We subsequently demonstrated that CpcM, a previously identified asparagine methyltransferase in Synechocystis, could catalyze lysine monomethylation of the potential aspartate aminotransferase Sll0480 both in vivo and in vitro and regulate the enzyme activity of Sll0480. The loss of CpcM led to decreases in the maximum quantum yield in primary photosystem II (PSII) and the efficiency of energy transfer during the photosynthetic reaction in Synechocystis. We report the first lysine monomethylome in a photosynthetic organism and present a critical database for functional analyses of monomethylation in cyanobacteria. The large number of monomethylated proteins and the identification of CpcM as the lysine methyltransferase in cyanobacteria suggest that reversible methylation may influence the metabolic process and photosynthesis in both cyanobacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Synechocystis/growth & development
16.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 810-814, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878682

ABSTRACT

Proteins exert their roles in life activities via post-translational modifications(PTMs),which include phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,glycosylation,and methylation.These modifications can change the functions of proteins and play key roles in a variety of diseases.Endometriosis is a common disease in women of childbearing age,although its molecular mechanisms remain unclear.Recent studies have shown that PTMs may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.Here we review the roles of PTMs in the occurrence and development of endometriosis and the potential medical treatments.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Acetylation , Endometriosis/pathology , Glycosylation , Phosphorylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Ubiquitination
18.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 523-536, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant molecule, is reported to be highly expressed in the airways and lungs. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression pattern of peroxiredoxin-6 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patients and in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs).METHODS: The expression levels and modifications of peroxiredoxin-6 were evaluated in PBMCs from 22 asthmatic patients. Phosphorylated and acetylated peroxiredoxin-6 in hydrogen peroxide-treated human BECs was detected using immunoprecipitation analysis. The expression level of peroxiredoxin-6 was also investigated in BECs treated with hydrogen peroxide. Cycloheximide and proteasome inhibitors were used to determine whether peroxiredoxin-6 is degraded by proteasomes.RESULTS: Peroxiredoxin-6 expression was significantly reduced in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients compared to control subjects. Distinct modification patterns for peroxiredoxin-6 were observed in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients using 2-dimensional-electrophoresis. The levels of phosphorylated serine and acetylated lysine in peroxiredoxin-6 were significantly increased in the BECs following hydrogen peroxide treatment. The level of peroxiredoxin-6 expression was reduced in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated BECs, presumably due to proteasomes.CONCLUSIONS: The expression of peroxiredoxin-6, which is down-regulated in the immune cells of asthmatic patients and BECs, can be modified by oxidative stress. This phenomenon may have an effect on asthmatic airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Cycloheximide , Epithelial Cells , Homeostasis , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Peroxide , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Lung , Lysine , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Inhibitors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Serine
19.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 92-109, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786079

ABSTRACT

In type 2 diabetes (T2D), the leading cause of death is cardiovascular complications. One mechanism contributing to cardiac pathogenesis is alterations in metabolism, with the diabetic heart exhibiting increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose utilisation. The processes classically thought to underlie this metabolic shift include the Randle cycle and changes to gene expression. More recently, alternative mechanisms have been proposed, most notably, changes in post-translational modification of mitochondrial proteins in the heart. This increased understanding of how metabolism is altered in the diabetic heart has highlighted new therapeutic targets, with an aim to improve cardiac function in T2D. This review focuses on metabolism in the healthy heart and how this is modified in T2D, providing evidence for the mechanisms underlying this shift. There will be emphasis on the current treatments for the heart in diabetes, alongside efforts for metabocentric pharmacological therapies.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Gene Expression , Glucose , Heart , Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 741-748, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771336

ABSTRACT

Proteomics is a fast-growing discipline that aims at systematic identification, quantification of proteins and their post-translational modifications in cells. Mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics technology is currently one of the mainstream methods for proteomics research. With this method, proteins need to be digested to peptides by site-specific proteases before they can be detected with mass spectrometry. Therefore, site-specific proteases played key roles in this process and so far, a variety of specific proteases have been developed and used in proteomics study. Particularly, the identification, characterization and development of proteases that cleave at the N-termini of corresponding amino acid residues, which are just mirrors to those of typical C-termini proteases, provide novel tools for proteomics analysis. In this review, we summarized the proprieties of LysargiNase, a most recently identified mirror trypsin, and its applications in proteomics research to promote its more widespread usage.


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry , Metalloproteases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteomics , Trypsin , Chemistry
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