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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5603-5611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008757

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effects of Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire and/or cyclophosphamide on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and decipher the underlying mechanism. B. rynchopetera and cyclophosphamide-containing serum and blank serum were prepared from SD rats. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to examine the proliferation of lung cancer cell lines A549 and Lewis treated with corresponding agents. The Jin's formula method was used to evaluate the combined effect of the two drugs. According to the evaluation results, appropriate drug concentrations and lung cancer cell line were selected for subsequent experiments, which included control, B. rynchopetera, cyclophosphamide, B. rynchopetera + cyclophosphamide, and B. rynchopetera + Wnt/β-catenin pathway agonist lithium chloride(LiCl) groups. Immunocytochemistry was employed to measure the expression of proliferation-related proteins in Lewis cells after drug interventions. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the cell cycle and apoptosis. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA), cyclinD1, B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-assiocated X protein(Bax), Wnt1, and β-catenin were determined by Western blot. The results showed that B. rynchopetera and/or cyclophosphamide significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 and Lewis cells. Compared with B. rynchopetera alone, the combination increased the inhibition rate on cell proliferation. The combination of B. rynchopetera and cyclophosphamide demonstrated a synergistic effect according to Jin's formula-based evaluation. Compared with the control group, the B. rynchopetera, cyclophosphamide, and B. rynchopetera + cyclophosphamide groups showed increased proportion of Lewis cells in G_0/G_1 phase, increased apoptosis rate, up-regulated expression of Bax, and down-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. Compared with the cyclophosphamide group, the combination group showed increased proportion of cells in G_0/G_1 phase, increased apoptosis rate, up-regulated expression of Bax, and down-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. Compared with the B. rynchopetera group, the B. rynchopetera + LiCl group had deceased proportion of cells in G_0/G_1 phase, decreased apoptosis rate, down-regulated expression of Bax, and up-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. The results indicated that B. rynchopetera could inhibit the proliferation, arrest the cell cycle, and induce the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, B. rynchopetera had a synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , beta Catenin/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cyclophosphamide , Cell Line, Tumor
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 598-603, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of AZD2014, a dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, against acute graft rejection in a rat model of allogeneic liver transplantation.@*METHODS@#Liver transplantation from Lewis rat to recipient BN rat (a donor-recipient combination that was prone to induce acute graft rejection) was performed using Kamada's two-cuff technique. The recipient BN rats were randomized into 2 groups for treatment with daily intraperitoneal injection of AZD2014 (5 mg/kg, n=4) or vehicle (2.5 mL/kg, n=4) for 14 consecutive days, starting from the first day after the transplantation. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) levels of the rats were measured 3 days before and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after the transplantation, and the survival time of the rats within 14 days were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expressions of CD3 and Foxp3 in the liver graft, and acute graft rejection was assessed using HE staining based on the Banff schema.@*RESULTS@#Three rats in the control group died within 14 days after the surgery, while no death occurred in the AZD2014 group, demonstrating a significantly longer survival time of the rats in AZD2014 group (χ2=4.213, P=0.04). Serum ALT, AST and TBIL levels in the control group increased progressively after the surgery and were all significantly higher than those in AZD2014 group at the same time point (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed significantly worse liver graft rejection in the control group than in AZD2014 group based on assessment of the rejection index (P < 0.01); the rats in the control group showed more serious T lymphocyte infiltration and significantly fewer Treg cells in the liver graft than those in AZD2014 group (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AZD2014 can effectively inhibit acute graft rejection in rats with allogeneic liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Benzamides , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Liver/pathology , Liver Transplantation , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Morpholines , Pyrimidines , Rats, Inbred Lew
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 760-766, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of arsenic trioxide (As@*METHODS@#Transplantation of LVG hamster hearts to Lewis rats was performed by anastomosis of vessels in the neck using end-to-end anastomosis with a non-suture cuff technique. Four groups of recipient rats (n=6 in each) were treated with normal saline (control), As@*RESULTS@#Expression of Nrf2-ARE-HO-1 signaling pathway was upregulated in heart xenografts in rats treated with As@*CONCLUSION@#Combination treatment with As


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Rats , Arsenic Trioxide , Heart Transplantation , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heterografts , Leflunomide , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Inbred Lew , Signal Transduction
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(10): e202001004, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To modify a surgical catheterization method using the bent needle introducer in small animals. Methods: Eight-week-old male Lewis rats were used in the study. A needle introducer was created by bending a 21G injection needle at 45°. The bent needle introducer was used for catheter insertion into the left femoral artery of the rats under anesthesia. As a control, a catheter was directly inserted into the blood vessel without the introducer. The insertion time of each method was measured. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured 24 h after catheter insertion using the telemetry system. Results: Using the introducer, the catheter was successfully inserted within a short time in all rats. Without the introducer, a longer duration was required for catheter insertion. The frequency of the insertion with no catheter-based errors with the introducer tended to be higher than that without the introducer. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate 24 h after catheter insertion in each group were almost the same. Conclusions: We developed a surgical catheterization method using the introducer in small animals. This could potentially reduce the frequency of the insertion with catheter-based errors and insertion time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Catheterization , Femoral Artery/surgery , Rats, Inbred Lew , Needles
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(5): e202000503, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130645

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on colonic anastomosis healing with and without ischemia in rats. Methods Forty female rats underwent segmental resection of 1 cm of the left colon followed by end-to-end anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 each), a sham group; two groups were submitted to Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT) with and without induced ischemia and the induced ischemia group without HBOT. The HBOT protocol evaluated was 100% O2 at 2.4 Atmosphere absolute pressure (ATA) for 60 minutes, two sessions before as a preconditioning protocol and three sessions after the operation. Clinical course and mortality were monitored during all experiment and on the day of euthanasia on the fourth day after laparotomy. Macroscopic appearance of the abdominal cavity were assessed and samples for breaking strength of the anastomosis and histopathological parameters were collected. Results There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or anastomosis leak between the four experimental groups. Anastomosis breaking strength was similar across groups. Conclusion The HBOT protocol tested herein at 2.4 ATA did not affect histopathological and biomechanical parameters of colonic anastomotic healing, neither the clinical outcomes death and anastomosis leak on the fourth day after laparotomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Wound Healing , Colon/surgery , Colon/blood supply , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Ischemia/pathology , Postoperative Period , Rats, Inbred Lew , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Anastomosis, Surgical , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Colon/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 507-518, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775416

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypical antibody-mediated neurological autoimmune disease with the involvement of humoral immune responses in its pathogenesis. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been implicated in many autoimmune diseases. However, whether and how Tfh cells are involved in MG remain unclear. Here, we established and studied a widely-used and approved animal model of human MG, the rat model with acetylcholine receptor alpha (AChRα) subunit (R-AChR)-induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model presented mild body-weight loss 10 days after the first immunization (representing the early stage of disease) and more obvious clinical manifestations and body-weight loss 7 days after the second immunization (representing the late stage of disease). AChR-specific pre-Tfh cells and mature Tfh cells were detected in these two stages, respectively. In co-cultures of Tfh cells and B cells, the number of IgG2b-secreting B cells and the level of anti-AChR antibodies in the supernatant were higher in the cultures containing EAMG-derived Tfh cells. In immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays, a substantial number of CD4/Bcl-6 T cells and a greater number of larger germinal centers were observed in lymph node tissues resected from EAMG rats. Based on these results, we hypothesize that an AChR-specific Tfh cell-mediated humoral immune response contributes to the development of EAMG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , B-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Humoral , Lymph Nodes , Allergy and Immunology , Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Allergy and Immunology , Protein Subunits , Allergy and Immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Rats, Inbred Lew , Receptor Cross-Talk , Receptors, Cholinergic , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Allergy and Immunology
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 1016-1026, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate renal repair in rats who had renal infarction induced by the obstruction of blood flow in the renal artery and were treated with transplantation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell Methods: 16-week-old Wistar rats (n=72) were used, submitted to celiotomy and had of the renal artery and vein clipped for 24 hours. The animals were randomly assigned to 10 experimental homogeneous groups, corresponding to the treatments with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC), duration of application (24 or 48 hours), and site of transplantation (lateral vein of the tail or intrarenal). After the treatments were performed, at 8 and 31 days, four animals in each group were subjected to left nephrectomy for histological studies. Results: Histologically, a higher amount of cell debris and tubules devoid of the epithelium and a higher degree of necrosis were observed in the groups treated with PBS, as opposed to a low degree of necrosis and higher tubular vascularization in the groups treated with ADSC, particularly in the group treated with intrarenal ADSC 48 hours after injury. Conclusion: The transplantation of ADSC positively contributed to the replacement of necrotic tissue by renal tubular cells, vascularization of the renal parenchyma, and restoration of the organ function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/surgery , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , Kidney/blood supply , Rats, Inbred Lew , Renal Artery Obstruction/surgery , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Necrosis
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 213-217, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Large-scale muscle tissue engineering remains a major challenge. An axial vascular pedicle and perfusion bioreactor are necessary for the development and maintenance of large-scale engineered muscle to ensure circulation within the construct. We aimed to develop a novel experimental model of a large-scale engineered muscle flap from an existing rat groin fat flap.@*METHODS@#A fat flap based on the superficial inferior epigastric vascular pedicle was excised from rats and placed into a perfusion bioreactor. The flaps were kept in the bioreactor for up to 7 weeks, and transdifferentiation of adipose to muscle tissue could have taken place. This system enabled myogenic-differentiation medium flow through the bioreactor at constant pH and oxygen concentration. Assessment of viability was performed by an immunofluorescence assay, histological staining, a calcein-based live/dead test, and through determination of RNA quantity and quality after 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks.@*RESULTS@#Immunofluorescence staining showed that smooth muscle around vessels was still intact without signs of necrosis or atrophy. The visual assessment of viability by the calcein-based live/dead test revealed viability of the rat adipose tissue preserved in the bioreactor system with permanent perfusion. RNA samples from different experimental conditions were quantified by spectrophotometry, and intact bands of 18S and 28S rRNA were detected by gel electrophoresis, indicating that degradation of RNA was minimal.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Flow perfusion maintains the long-term viability of a rat groin engineered muscle flap in vitro, and a large-scale vascularized muscle could be engineered in a perfusion bioreactor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bioreactors , Groin , Perfusion , RNA , Rats, Inbred Lew , Surgical Flaps , Tissue Engineering
9.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 18 (1): 30-35
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189264

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to induce myocardial infarction [MI] and compare the echocardiographic parameters and mortality ratio of Lewis inbred and Wistar outbred strain before and after the procedure to help choose the best one for MI studies. In this study MI was induced in 46 Lewis and 34 Wistar by occlusion of left anterior descending artery [LAD]. Doppler, two-dimensional [2-D] and 2-D guided M-mode images were recorded from parasternal long-axis and parasternal short-axis and apical four-chamber views. The following parameters were acquired. Interventricular septum diastolic and systolic dimension [IVSd, s], diastolic and systolic left ventricular internal diameter [LVIDd, s], diastolic and systolic left ventricular posterior wall dimension [LVPWd, s], ejection fraction [EF], and fractional shortening [FS]. The significant changes were observed in systolic IVS, LVID and EF and FS before and after MI and no significant difference was detected between Lewis and Wistar. The high mortality rate of 51% was seen in the procedure, including anesthesia in Lewis compared to 34% in Wistar. As a conclusion the echocardiographic parameters of these two strains were similar, but according to mortality rate and more cardiac anatomic variation in Lewis rats, Wistar is better for MI studies


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Echocardiography , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Wistar , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 906-913, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266886

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In vitro experiments have revealed that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is involved in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Evidence showed that, in other disease models, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of the expression and activity of TLR4. However, the interaction between PPAR-γ and TLR4 in IgAN has not been fully studied both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explored whether TLR4 pathway attributed to the progression of IgAN in experimental rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Bovine gamma globulin was used to establish IgAN model. Fifty-four Lewis rats were randomly divided into six groups: ControlTAK242, IgANTAK242, toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor (TAK242) groups (rats were administrated with TLR4 inhibitor, TAK242) and ControlPio, IgANPio, Pio groups (rats were administrated with PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. Renal histopathological changes were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the IgA deposition in glomeruli was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect TLR4 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) message ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression in renal tissues. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to normal rats, experimental rats showed higher ACR (4.45 ± 1.33 mg/mmol vs. 2.89 ± 0.96 mg/mmol, P < 0.05), obvious IgA deposition with mesangial hypercellularity, hyperplasia of mesangial matrix accompanied by increased serum IL-1β (48.28 ± 13.49 pg/ml vs. 35.56 ± 7.41pg/ml, P < 0.05), and renal expression of IL-1β and TLR4. The biochemical parameters and renal pathological injury were relieved in both TAK242 group and Pio group. The expressions of renal tissue TLR4, IL-1β, and serum IL-1β were decreased in rats treated with TAK242, and the expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in Pio group compared to IgANPiogroup (1.22 ± 0.28 vs. 1.72 ± 0.45, P < 0.01, and 0.12 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study proves that inflammation mediated by TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the progression of IgAN in rat models. Moreover, pioglitazone can inhibit the expression of TLR4 in IgAN.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred Lew , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Genetics , Thiazolidinediones , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 737-744, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796045

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress) were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot. It was found that 2 mg/kg/day rotenone increased amyloid-beta peptide, hyperphosphorylation of TAU and alpha-synuclein. Rotenone at 1mg/kg/day did not alter protein levels. Protein carbonylation remained unchanged. This study demonstrated that aged Lewis rats exposed to a low dose of rotenone is a useful model to study cellular processes before protein aggregation, while the higher dose makes a good model to study the effects of protein inclusions.


RESUMO A fisiologia celular está prejudicada antes da agregação proteica podendo ser mais importante para a neurodegeneração do que as próprias inclusões. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar um modelo animal para analisar os mecanismos e efeitos da agregação proteica. Ratos Lewis com 10 meses de idade foram expostos a rotenona (1 ou 2 mg/kg/dia), administrada subcutaneamente, utilizando minibombas osmóticas. Os níveis de peptídeo beta-amiloide, TAU hiperfosforilada, alfa-sinucleína e proteínas carboniladas (indicativo de estresse oxidativo) foram avaliados por imunohistoquímica e western blot no hipocampo, substância negra e locus coeruleus. Foi demonstrado que 2 mg/kg/dia de rotenona promoveu aumento do peptídeo beta-amiloide, hiperfosforilação da TAU e alfa-sinucleína. Já 1 mg/kg/dia de rotenona não alterou os níveis dessas proteína nessas regiões. As proteínas carboniladas não se alteraram. Foi demonstrado que ratos Lewis idosos expostos a baixas doses de rotenona são modelo de estudo dos processos celulares antes da agregação proteica, enquanto 2 mg/kg/dia de rotenona permite estudos sobre os efeitos da agregação proteica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rotenone/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/chemically induced , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/pathology , Rats, Inbred Lew , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Amyloid beta-Peptides/drug effects , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , alpha-Synuclein/drug effects , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology
12.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 60-68, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317047

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the standardized composite, UP1304, were evaluated in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema using oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Ibuprofen, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was used as a reference compound. In vitro, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were performed to evaluate the degree of inflammation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw edema suppression were observed in animals treated with UP1304, when compared to vehicle-treated rats. Results from the highest dose of UP1304 (400 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at 200 mg/kg. In vitro, UP1304 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LOX. A half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.6 μg/mL for bradykinin B1 inhibition was calculated for the organic extract of C. longa. Curcumin showed Ki values of 2.73 and 58 μg/mL for bradykinin receptors B1 and B2, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Data presented here suggest that UP1304, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, acted as a bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonist, and inhibited COX and LOX enzyme activities. This compound should be considered for the management of symptoms associated with arthritis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Analgesics , Pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Curcuma , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Morus , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Inbred Lew
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 224-232, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331662

ABSTRACT

Cancer pain is one of the most common symptoms in patients with late stage cancer. Lung, breast and prostate carcinoma are the most common causes of pain from osseous metastasis. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is one of the subtypes of ATP-gated purinergic ion channel family, predominately distributed in microglia in the spinal cord. Activation of P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn has been associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines from glial cells, causing increased neuronal excitability and exaggerated nociception. Mounting evidence implies a critical role of P2X7R in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, whether P2X7R is involved in cancer pain remains controversial. Here we established a bone cancer pain model by injecting the Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the femur bone marrow cavity of C57BL/6J wild-type mice (C57 WT mice) and P2X7R knockout mice (P2rx7(-/-) mice) to explore the role of P2X7R in bone cancer pain. Following intrafemur carcinoma inoculation, robust mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in C57 WT mice were developed on day 7 and 14, respectively, and persisted for at least 28 days in the ipsilateral hindpaw of the affected limb. CatWalk gait analysis showed significant decreases in the print area and stand phase, and a significant increase in swing phase in the ipsilateral hindpaw on day 21 and 28 after carcinoma cells inoculation. Histopathological sections (hematoxylin and eosin stain) showed that the bone marrow of the affected femur was largely replaced by invading tumor cells, and the femur displayed medullary bone loss and bone destruction on day 28 after inoculation. Unexpectedly, no significant changes in bone cancer-induced hypersensitivity of pain behaviors were found in P2rx7(-/-) mice, and the changes of pain-related values in CatWalk gait analysis even occurred earlier in P2rx7(-/-) mice, as compared with C57 WT mice. Together with our previous study in rats that blockade of P2X7R significantly alleviated bone cancer pain, it is implied that P2X7R may play different roles in bone cancer pain in different species (e.g. rat vs mouse). These results implicated a huge difference between the pathophysiology discovered in the experimental animal models and that of human disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Bone Neoplasms , Cancer Pain , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperalgesia , Medulla Oblongata , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Rats, Inbred Lew , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 214-218, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287135

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of Yanyankang powder on Th1/Th2 in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The EAU models were induced in Lewis rats by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) 1177-1191 in complete Freund's adjuvant. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a model control group, a Yanyankang group, and a prednisone group, 9 rats in each group. The model control group was intervened with saline solution by gavage. The Yanyankang group was intervened with Yanyankang powder 4 g/(kg day) by gavage. The prednisone group were intervened with prednisone acetate tablets 5 mg/(kg d) by gavage. All groups were intervened after immunization once every 2 days for 18 days and monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscopy daily until day 18. The levels of gamma interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the supernatants of T cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology was used for measuring Th1 and Th2 related cytokine mRNA expressions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Slighter intraocular inflammation was found in the Yanyankang group and the prednisone group than the control group. The levels of the IFN-γ and IL-10 in the supernatants of the spleen lymph node cells were 382.33±6.30, 155.87±4.46 μg/L in the Yanyankang group and 270.93±7.76, 265.32±11.88 μg/L in the prednisone group. Both had significant differences compared with the control group (941.53±8.59, 20.67±4.65 μg/L; =0.01). The PCR results showed the same tendency.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Yanyankang powder showed favorable effects in the rats with EAU by influencing the function of Th1 and Th2 cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Eye , Pathology , Immunization , Inflammation , Pathology , Interferon-gamma , Genetics , Metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Genetics , Metabolism , Lymph Nodes , Metabolism , Powders , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Inbred Lew , Spleen , Metabolism , Th1 Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Th2 Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Uveitis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1369-1376, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256593

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia pretreatment on surgically induced endometriosis in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six rats were randomized into 2 groups and exposed to hypoxia (8% O) and normoxia (21% O) for 8 h. The uterine endometrium was intraperitoneally implanted into estrogen-treated ovariectomized Lewis rat, and the growth and quality of the implants were measured. The changes in apoptosis, protein and gene expressions in the serum, abdominis effusion fluids and implants were tested by ELISA, immunohistochemical staining, TUNNEL assay, Western blotting and RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The volume of the implants in the hypoxic pretreatment group was significantly increased compared with the normoxia group. High expressions of Ki67, CD31, VEGF, and HIF-1α and lowered cell apoptosis were found in the hypoxia-pretreated implants compared with the normoxic group. VEGF level in the serum and peritoneal fluid were increased in hypoxia-pretreated group, but TNFα level was comparable between the 2 groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Hypoxia play an important role in the occurrence and progression of endometriosis by increasing cell proliferation and angiogenesis and decreasing cell apoptosis in the implants in the rat model.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Allografts , Apoptosis , Ascitic Fluid , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation , Endometriosis , Therapeutics , Endometrium , Transplantation , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Rats, Inbred Lew , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Blood
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(4): 651-659, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761699

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP.


ResumoObjetivo:realizar a tradução para a língua portuguesa do Brasil e adaptação cultural da escala Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised(FLACCr), com crianças de até 18 anos de idade, acometidas por paralisia cerebral, apresentando ou não comprometimento cognitivo e impossibilitadas de relatar sua dor.Método:estudo de desenvolvimento metodológico de tradução para o português e adaptação cultural da FLACCr. Após aprovação do comitê de ética, o processo contemplou tradução e retrotradução, avaliação da tradução e da retrotradução utilizando a técnica de Delphi e avaliação da equivalência cultural. O processo incluiu as cinco categorias da escala e as quatro orientações de aplicação, considerando nível de concordância igual ou maior a 80%.Resultados:foram necessários três ciclos da técnica de Delphi para consenso entre os juízes. A concordância obtida para as cinco categorias foi: Face 95,5%, Pernas 90%, Atividade 94,4%, Choro 94,4% e Consolabilidade 99,4%. As quatro orientações alcançaram os seguintes níveis de consenso: 1ª 99,1%, 2ª 99,2%, 3ª 99,1% e 4ª 98,3%.Conclusão:o método possibilitou o desenvolvimento da tradução e adaptação cultural da FLACCr. Sendo um estudo capaz de ampliar o conhecimento de profissionais brasileiros sobre a avaliação da dor em crianças com PC.


ResumenObjetivo:realizar la traducción para el portugués de Brasil y la adaptación cultural de la escala, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised(FLACCr), con niños menores de 18 años de edad, afectados por la parálisis cerebral, presentando o no deterioro cognitivo y que no pueden comunicar su dolor.Método:estudio de desarrollo metodológico de traducción al portugués y adaptación cultural de la FLACCr. Después de la aprobación por el comité de ética, el proceso incluyó la traducción y retrotraducción, evaluación de la traducción y retrotraducción utilizando la técnica Delphi y evaluación de la equivalencia cultural. El proceso incluyó las cinco categorías de la escala y las cuatro orientaciones de aplicación, teniendo en cuenta nivel de concordancia igual o superior al 80%.Resultados:fueron necesarios tres ciclos de la técnica Delphi para el consenso entre los jueces. La concordancia obtenida para las cinco categorías fue: Cara 95,5%, Piernas 90%, Actividad 94,4%, Llanto 94,4% y Capacidad de Consuelo 99,4%. Las cuatro orientaciones alcanzaron los siguientes niveles de consenso: 1ª 99,1%, 2ª 99,2%, 3ª 99,1% y 4ª 98,3%.Conclusión:el método permitió el desarrollo de la traducción y adaptación cultural de la FLACCr. Este estudio fue capaz de aumentar el conocimiento de los profesionales brasileños en la evaluación del dolor en niños con PC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Graft Rejection/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Graft Rejection/genetics , Graft Rejection/pathology , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasms, Experimental/genetics , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Wistar
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(1): 46-53, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735710

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare sciatic nerve regeneration in rats using three different techniques of repair. METHODS: Fifteen isogonics rats were divided into three groups according to the method used to repair a 5-mm long defect created in the sciatic nerve: autogenous graft (Group A), polyglycolic acid tube (PGAt) (Group B), and of the association of PGAt with the graft (Group C). Histological analysis, regenerated myelinated axon number count and functional analysis were used to compare after six weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference in fiber diameter and degree of myelinization presented by Groups A, B and C. Group B presented the lowest number of regenerated axons. The groups did not display any significant functional difference after walking track analysis (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: No differences between the three groups in terms of functional recovery, although there were histological differences among them. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Absorbable Implants , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Polyglycolic Acid/therapeutic use , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Sciatic Nerve/transplantation , Axons/physiology , Cell Count , Nerve Fibers, Myelinated/physiology , Rats, Inbred Lew , Recovery of Function , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 6(único): 29-37, dezembro 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964725

ABSTRACT

A encefalomielite autoimune experimental (EAE) é uma doença inflamatória e desmielinizante do sistema nervoso central (SNC) caracterizada por incapacidades temporárias ou permanentes. A patogênese envolve a reação auto-imune associada com a produção de citocinas pró inflamatórias, tais como o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α). Esta citocina está associada com o aumento de radicais livres de oxigênio, como o óxido nítrico, liberados pelas células imunes ativadas. Além de aumentar a inflamação, tanto o fator de necrose tumoral, como o óxido nítrico causam lesão tecidual direta. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da talidomida na progressão clínica da doença, desenvolvimento da reação inflamatória e desmielinização. A expressão tecidual "in situ" do TNF-α e iNOS, uma enzima associada com a produção de óxido nítrico, foi investigada em amostras do SNC obtidos durante o desenvolvimento do modelo de EAE em ratos Lewis. Métodos: Ratos Lewis(n = 30) foram divididos em grupo de controle saudável (I), grupo experimental de encefalomielite autoimune (II) e o grupo tratado com talidomida (III). Os ratos foram monitorizados durante 15 dias para determinação da condição clínica, após este período, os animais foram eutanasiados e as amostras do sistema nervoso central foram obtidas para a realização de estudo histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico Resultados: Todos os animais do grupo II tiveram sintomas relacionados a EAE, enquanto apenas um do grupo tratado talidomida apresentaram alterações clínicas. O estudo histopatológico revelou que as amostras de SNC do grupo II apresentaram áreas de intenso infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear difuso e presença de áreas de desmielinização. No entanto, os animais tratados com talidomida apresentaram ocasionalmente um leve infiltrado inflamatório e bainhas de mielina bem organizadas. Além disso, a expressão de TNF-α e iNOS foram significativamente maiores no grupo II, quando comparado com o grupo tratado com a talidomida. Conclusões: Os resultados considerados em conjunto sustentam a hipótese de que a talidomida inibe a intensidade do processo inflamatório e desmielinização, assim como reduz a produção de mediadores inflamatórios modulando o desenvolvimento da encefalomielite auto-imune experimental em ratos Lewis.


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a inflammatory and demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS) characterized by permanents or temporary disabilities. Its pathogenesis involves autoimmune reaction associated with the production of pro inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This cytokine is associated with increase of reactive oxygen free radicals, such as nitric oxide, released by activated immune cells. Besides enhancing inflammation, both tumor necrosis factor as nitric oxide cause pathologically direct destruction of proteins and enzyme oxidation. This study focuses on clinical disease progression, development of the inflammatory reaction and evaluation axonal myelination . The " in situ" tissue expression of the TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS ,an enzyme associated with the production of nitric oxide , were also investigated in CNS samples obtained during the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in Lewis rats. Methods: Lewis rats were used to perform the classical model of EAE. The rats ( n=30) were divided into the healthy control group (I), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis group (II) and thalidomide treated group (III). The rats were monitored for 15 days for determination of clinical score , after this period , the animals were euthanized and samples were obtained from the central nervous system in which histopatological study and immunohistochemistry for SNC in situ detection of TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. Results: All animals of group II had symptoms related to experimental encephalomyelitis , while only one of the thalidomide treated group showed clinical changes. The histopatological study revealead that SNC samples of group II presented areas of intense focal and diffuse mononuclear inflammation and the myelin sheaths were scarce and poorly stained. However, thalidomide treated rats presented occasionally a mild perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and myelin sheaths were organized and well evidenced. In addition, the expression of TNF-α and iNOS were significantly higher in the group II when compared with thalidomide treated group. Conclusions: The results taken together support the hypothesis that thalidomide inhibits the intensity of the inflammation and demyelination process and as well as reduces the production of inflammatory mediators influencing the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Thalidomide/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Demyelinating Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase/pharmacology , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Rats, Inbred Lew
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(8): 532-537, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the reproducibility of the experimental model of face allotransplantation in rats in Brazil. METHODS: Eighteen rats were operated, nine-nine donors recipients. Animals underwent transplantation of the left hemiface, with periorbital and scalp. Transplants were made from donor Wistar rats to recipients Lewis rats. Flaps were based on the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein of the donor animal and the anastomosis in the recipient area was performed in common carotid artery (end-to-side) and in external jugular vein (end-to-end). RESULTS: Of the nine recipient animals operated, six survived and three progressed to death in the first days after surgery (survival rate = 67%). The mean time of the procedure was 252 minutes and the mean time of flap ischemia was 95 minutes. The five surviving animals were sacrificed at 14 days, in good general condition and without signs of tissue rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model of face allotransplantation in rats is reproducible in our midst. Duration of surgery, time of flap ischemia, animal survival rate and complications observed were similar to those described in the literature. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Facial Transplantation/methods , Models, Theoretical , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Brazil , Carotid Artery, Common/surgery , Face , Facial Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Jugular Veins/surgery , Operative Time , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Scalp/transplantation , Transplantation, Homologous
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(3): 410-413, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery is an efficient therapeutic technique used to treat benign and malignant cutaneous diseases. The primary active mechanism of cryosurgery is related to vascular effects on treated tissue. After a cryosurgical procedure, exuberant granulation tissue is formed at the injection site, probably as a result of angiogenic stimulation of the cryogen and inflammatory response, particularly in endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the angiogenic effects of freezing, as part of the phenomenon of healing rat skin subjected to previous injury. METHODS: Two incisions were made in each of the twenty rats, which were divided randomly into two groups of ten. After 3 days, cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen was performed in one of incisions. The rats' samples were then collected, cut and stained to conduct histopathological examination, to assess the local angiogenesis in differing moments and situations. RESULTS: It was possible to demonstrate that cryosurgery, in spite of promoting cell death and accentuated local inflammation soon after its application, induces quicker cell proliferation in the affected tissue and maintenance of this rate in a second phase, than in tissue healing without this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, together with the knowledge that there is a direct relationship between mononuclear cells and neovascularization (the development of a rich system of new vessels in injury caused by cold), suggest that cryosurgery possesses angiogenic stimulus, even though complete healing takes longer to occur. The significance level for statistical tests was 5% (p<0,05). .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cryosurgery/methods , Dermatologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Nitrogen/therapeutic use , Cell Count , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred Lew , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Wound Healing/physiology
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