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1.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 815-819, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878683

ABSTRACT

Kidney is one of the important organs of the body.With both excretory and endocrine functions,it plays a vital role in regulating the normal physiological state.As a precursor of the nitric oxide(NO)synthesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arginine/physiology , Kidney/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/physiology , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Signal Transduction , Vasoconstriction
2.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 56-68, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764098

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blockers (α1-blockers) in the treatment of female lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Fourteen studies with 1,319 patients were ultimately included. The study comprised 2 analyses: a comparison of urinary symptom scores, maximal flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume before and after α1-blocker administration in 8 prospective, open-label studies and 5 randomized clinical trials (RCTs); and an evaluation of the same variables in α1-blocker and placebo groups in 4 RCTs.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1
3.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 30-40, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713687

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) blocker for the treatment of female voiding dysfunction (FVD) through a pressure-flow study. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women aged ≥18 years with voiding symptoms, as defined by an American Urological Association symptom score (AUA-SS) ≥15 and a maximum flow rate (Qmax) 100 mL and/or a postvoid residual (PVR) volume >150 mL, were randomly allocated to either the alfuzosin or placebo group. After 8 weeks of treatment, changes in the AUA-SS, Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms (BFLUTS) questionnaire, Qmax/PVR, and voiding diary were compared between groups. Patients’ satisfaction with the treatment was compared. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to the Blaivas-Groutz bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) nomogram: none, mild, and moderate to severe. Subgroup comparisons were also made. RESULTS: Of a total of 187 women, 154 (79 alfuzosin, 75 placebo) were included in the analysis. After 8 weeks of treatment, the AUA-SS decreased by 7.0 in the alfuzosin group and by 8.0 in the placebo group. Changes in AUA-SS subscores, BFLUTS (except the I-sum), the voiding diary, and Qmax/PVR were not significantly different between groups. Approximately 54% of the alfuzosin group and 62% of the placebo group were satisfied with the treatment. No significant difference was observed between groups according to the presence or grade of BOO. CONCLUSIONS: Alfuzosin might not be more effective than placebo for treating FVD. The presence or the grade of BOO did not affect the results. A further study with sufficient power is needed to determine the efficacy of α1-AR blockers for the treatment of FVD.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Nomograms , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urodynamics
4.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 83-89, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The urinary bladder (UB) is innervated by both sensory and autonomic nerves. Recent studies have shown that sensory neuropeptides induced contractions in the detrusor muscle. Therefore, in a mouse model, we investigated the presence of interactions between the submucosal sensory nerves and the autonomic nerves that regulate the motor function of the detrusor muscle. METHODS: UB samples from male C57BL/6 mice were isolated, cut into strips, and mounted in an organ bath. Dose-response curves to norepinephrine and phenylephrine were studied in UB strips with and without mucosa, and the effects of preincubation with a receptor antagonist and various drugs on relaxation were also studied using tissue bath myography. RESULTS: Phenylephrine-induced relaxation of the UB strips showed concentration-related effects. This relaxation appeared in both mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded UB strips, and was significantly inhibited by lidocaine, silodosin, and guanethidine (an adrenergic neuronal blocker). Meanwhile, phenylephrine-induced relaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with propranolol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)–depletory capsaicin in UB strips with and without mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that phenylephrine activates the α-1A adrenergic receptor (AR) of the sensory nerve, and then activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves to release an unknown substance that facilitates the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. Subsequently, norepinephrine stimulates β-ARs in the detrusor muscle in mice, leading to neurogenic relaxation of the UB. Further animal and human studies are required to prove this concept and to validate its clinical usefulness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adrenergic Neurons , Autonomic Pathways , Baths , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Capsaicin , Guanethidine , Lidocaine , Mucous Membrane , Myography , Neuropeptides , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Propranolol , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Relaxation , Urinary Bladder
5.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 20-28, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19908

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential involvement of a specific subtype of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5HT(2) receptors in neurally-induced contractions of the human detrusor. METHODS: Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were examined in human isolated urinary bladder muscle strips. The potentiation of EFS-induced detrusor contraction was examined by adding cumulative concentrations of a 5-HT and 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, α-methyl-serotonin (α-Me-5-HT) (1nM–100μM) in the presence or absence of a 5-HT₂ antagonist, ketanserin (5-HT(2A)>5-HT(2C)) or naftopidil (5-HT(2B)>5-HT(2A)) (0.3–3μM). RESULTS: 5-HT and α-Me-5-HT potentiated EFS-induced contraction with a maximal effect (E(max)) of 37.6% and 38.6%, respectively, and with pEC(50) (negative logarithm of the concentration required for a half-maximal response to an agonist) values of 8.3 and 6.8, respectively. Neither ketanserin nor naftopidil at any concentration produced a rightward displacement of the α-Me-5-HT concentration response curve. Instead, the E(max) of α-Me-5-HT increased in the presence of ketanserin at 0.3–1μM and in the presence of naftopidil at 1μM to 51% and 56%, respectively, while the E(max) in the presence of vehicle alone was 36%. The highest concentration (3μM) of either drug, however, fully reversed the enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: The potentiating effect of α-Me-5-HT on neurally-induced contraction of human urinary bladder muscle strips was not found to be mediated via any 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes. The underlying mechanism for the enhancement of the α-Me-5-HT potentiating effect on detrusor contractility by ketanserin and naftopidil remains unknown; however, our results suggest that these drugs may be useful for treating contractile dysfunction of the detrusor, as manifested in conditions such as underactive bladder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ketanserin , Prostatism , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Receptors, Serotonin , Serotonin , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder
6.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 138 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881841

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar a reatividade vascular de agentes vasoconstritores presentes nas soluções anestésicas locais (Adrenalina - vasoconstrição e vasodilatação; Felipressina - vasoconstrição), nas doses de 80, 160, 320, 640 e 1280ng (adrenalina) ou 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4 x10-3UI (felipressina), em leito arterial mesentérico deratos normotensos, diabéticos, hipertensos renais um-rim, um-clip (1R-1C) e hipertensos1R-1C-diabéticos. E correlacionar tal reatividadecom expressão de RNAm dos receptores 1A e 2- adrenérgicos, V1A para vasopressina e AT1A, AT1Be AT2 para angiotensina II visando verificar se a hipertensão arterial e o diabetes mellitus provocam alteração em modelo indutivo e isogênico. Ratos Wistar pesando 110-160g, foram anestesiados com mistura de quetamina e xilazina (50+10mg/ml/kg de peso), tiveram seu abdômen aberto e receberam um clip de prata com abertura 0,25mm na artéria renal esquerda, removendo-se cirurgicamente o rim direito (ratos 1R-1C). Após 14 dias, receberam injeção subcutânea de estreptozotocina (50 e 60mg/kg de peso) para indução do diabetes mellitus sendo a glicemia testada pela veia caudal previamente aos experimentos (diabéticos). Após 30-42 dias da implantação do clip, todos os grupos foram novamente anestesiados e implantou-se cânula de polietileno (PE-50) na artéria carótida esquerda para registro direto da pressão arterial. Após registro da pressão os animais tiveram a artéria principal mesentérica exposta e canulada. O leito arterial mesentérico foi então isolado e colocado em banho com solução nutritiva de Krebs a 37ºC. O cateter foi conectado ao sistema de registro computadorizado (PowerLab®) utilizando software específico (Chart 5Pro ®). Analisaram-se: a pressão máxima (vasoconstrição) e mínima (vasodilatação), o tempo necessário para atingir esse valor, duração total da resposta, integral e integral sobre a linha de base. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de medidas repetidas (ANOVA), seguida do teste de Holm-Sidak (distribuição normal) ou de Mann-Whitney (nãoparamétrico), quando apropriado, nível de significância de 5%. Todas as respostas máximas de vasoconstrição apresentaram comportamento dose-dependente, contudo, para os quatro grupos estudados, a resposta vasoconstritora para adrenalina foi significativamente superior à felipressina (p<0,05). Diabetes e hipertensão reduziram a resposta vasoconstritora da adrenalina e da felipressina, valores de integral sobre a linha de base, respectivamente para grupo controle, diabético, hipertenso e hipertenso-diabético: 2462±465; 1511±236; 2542± 5456 e 3749±819mmHg.s (p<0,05) para adrenalina e 3749 ± 708; 746 ± 103; 1647 ± 422; 1359 ± 591 mmHg.s (p<0,05) para felipressina. Tanto o diabetes quanto a hipertensão, associadas ou não, aumentaram significativamente o tempo para atingir a pressão máxima de vasoconstrição e a duração (p<0,05). As artérias mesentéricas de ratos diabéticos, hipertensos e diabéticos-hipertensos apresentaram expressão significativamente aumentada dos receptores 1Aadrenérgico, AT1B e AT2 para angiotensina II (p<0,05), enquanto receptor AT1A estava com a expressão aumentada apenas nos grupos diabéticos. A expressão do receptor 1A-adrenérgico é discrepante com os achados funcionais, o que pode ser justificado pela fase crônica da doença em que a PCR foi realizada. É possível correlacionar os dados obtidos com a menor atividade vasoconstritora da felipressina observada clinicamente. A maior sensibilidade às moléculas vasoconstritoras pode explicar a maior tendência de pacientes diabéticos desenvolverem hipertensão. A partir dos dados obtidos pode-se concluir que a adrenalina é o vasoconstritor mais potente que a felipressina e ambas as moléculas tem seus efeitos reduzidos em pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos, o que reforça a indicação de se utilizar anestésicos locais associados a vasoconstritores nestas populações.(AU)


The main goal of this study wasto evaluate and compare vasoconstrictor agents present in local anesthetic solutions (Epinephrine - vasoconstriction and vasodilation, Felypressin - vasoconstriction) vascular reactivity on mesenteric artery bed of normotensive, diabetic, renal hypertensive one-kidney-one-clip (1K1C) and hypertensive 1K1C diabetic rats. Dosagesstudied were 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280ng (epinephrine) or 0,25; 0,5;1; 2 and 4 x 10-3UI (felypressin). Also, we aimed to correlate artery response with RNAm expression of 1A and 2-adrenoceptors, V1A vasopressin receptor and AT1A, AT1B e AT2 angiotensin receptors, in order to verify if arterial hypertension and diabetes can lead to alterations on a inductive and isogenic model. Wistar male rats weighing 110-160g were anaesthetized with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine (50+10mg/ml/kg), had their abdominal cavity opened and a silver clipwith 0.25-mm gap was implanted in the main left kidney artery, the right kidney was surgically removed (1K1C-rats). After 14 days, they received a subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin (50 and 60 mg/ml/kg) for inducing diabetes, whereas the glycemia was tested via the tail vein prior to surgery (diabetic rats). Around 30-42 after the clip was implanted, all the groups were anaesthetized again and a polyethylene (PE-50) cannula was implanted on the left carotid artery for direct arterial pressure register. After registering the pressure, the animals had their main mesenteric artery exposed and cannulated. The mesenteric artery bed was then isolated and transferred to a bath with Krebs nutritive solution at 37ºC. The catheter was connected to the computer register system (PowerLab®) using a specific software (Chart 5Pro ®). The following parameters were analyzed: maximum (vasoconstriction) and minimal pressure (vasodilating), the amount of time necessary to achieve this number, total duration of the reaction, integral and integral over baseline. The data was submitted to analysis of variance of repeated measures (ANOVA), followed by a Holm-Sidak (normal distribution) test or Mann Whitney (parametrics) test when suitable, with a significance level of 5%. All maximum vasoconstriction results presented dosage-dependant behavior, however, for the four groups tested, the vasoconstrictive result for epinephrine was significantly superior to felypressin (p<0,05). Diabetes and hypertension significantly reducedepinephrine and felypressin vasoconstrictor responses, integral above baseline, respectively, for control, diabetic, hypertensive and hypertensive-diabetic groups:2462±465; 1511±236; 2542± 5456 e 3749±819 mmHg.s (p<0.05, epinephrine) and 3749 ± 708; 746 ± 103; 1647 ± 422; 1359 ± 591 mmHg.s (p<0.05, felypressin). Both diabetes and hypertension, associated or not, significantly increased time necessary to achieve maximum vasoconstrictor response and its duration (p<0,05). Diabetic, hypertensive and hypertensive-diabetic mesenteric arteries presented 1A-adrenoceptor, AT1B and AT2 angiotensin II-receptor gene expression significantly increased when compared with control group (p<0,05), while AT1Areceptor presented this pattern only in diabetic groups.1A-adrenoceptor gene expression did not confirm functional data, probably due to chronic disease state in wich PCR was performed. A partir dos dados obtidos pode-se concluir que a adrenalina é o vasoconstritor mais potente que a felipressina e ambas as moléculas tem seus efeitos reduzidos em ratos hipertensos e diabéticos não tratados, o que reforça a indicação de se utilizar anestésicos locais associados a vasoconstritores nestas populações.Its possible to correlate our datawith reducedvasoconstrictor activity of felypressinin clinical use. Increased sensibility and receptor population for vasoconstrictor endogenous molecules could explain diabetic populations tendency to develop arterial hypertension. Our results suggest that epinephrine is more potent than felypressin and both vasoconstrictors presents reduced effects on diabetic and hypertensive patients, what reinforces vasoconstrictor associated with local anesthetic use in this population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/analysis , Angiotensin II/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/analysis , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasopressins/analysis
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 144-151, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741140

ABSTRACT

Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. .


Fundamento: Distúrbios da motilidade do intestino proximal no infarto agudo do miocárdio podem desencadear sintomas digestivos como náuseas e vômitos. O infarto do miocárdio ocasiona retardo do esvaziamento gástrico (EG) de líquido em ratos. Objetivo: Investigar se existe a influência do nervo vago (VGX), adrenoreceptores α-1, receptores GABAB do sistema nervoso central e participação do núcleo paraventricular (NPV) do hipotálamo no esvaziamento gástrico (EG) e complacência gástrica (CG) em ratos infartados. Métodos: Ratos Wistar (n = 8-15) foram divididos em: grupo infarto (INF), sham (SH) e subdivididos. O infarto foi realizado por ligadura da artéria coronária descendente anterior. A complacência gástrica foi estimada com curvas pressão-volume. Realizada vagotomia por secção dos ramos dorsal e ventral. Para verificar a ação dos receptores GABAB foi injetado baclofeno por via intra ventrículo-cerebral. Simpatectomia química foi realizada com prazosina intravenosa (iv), e na lesão do núcleo paraventricular do hipotálamo foi utilizada corrente elétrica de 1mA/10s, com esvaziamento gástrico determinado por medição da retenção gástrica (% RG) de uma refeição salina. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa na CG. A vagotomia (VGX) reduziu significativamente a %RG; no grupo INF, o tratamento intra ventrículo-cerebral (ivc) com baclofeno reduziu significativamente a % RG; não houve conclusivamente envolvimento dos receptores GABAB em retardar o EG; o tratamento intravenoso com prazosina reduziu significativamente a %RG no grupo INF. A lesão do NPV aboliu o efeito do infarto do miocárdio no EG. Conclusão: O nervo vago, receptores α-adrenérgicos e núcleo paraventricular estão envolvidos no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico no infarto agudo do miocárdio em ratos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiopathology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/physiology , Receptors, GABA-B/physiology , Vagus Nerve/physiopathology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Baclofen/pharmacology , GABA-B Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Gastroparesis/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Prazosin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Vagotomy
9.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 322-329, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351077

ABSTRACT

mRNAs of alpha-adrenoceptor (α-AR) subtypes are found in neurons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and change after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, the distribution of α-AR subtype proteins was studied in L5 DRG of normal rats and rats with chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI). Using immunofluorescence technique, it was found that α1A-, α1B-, and α2A-AR proteins were expressed in large, medium, and small size neurons in normal DRG, and significantly increased in all size neurons 14 days after CCI. α1D- and α2C-AR was also expressed in all size neurons in normal DRG. However, α1D-AR was significantly increased and α2C-AR was decreased in small size neurons 14 days post CCI. α2B-AR neurons were not detectable in normal and CCI DRG. Co-expression of α1A- and α2A-AR in the same neuron was observed in normal DRG and increased post CCI. Collectively, these results indicated that there is distinct distribution of α-AR subtypes in DRG neurons, and the distribution and levels of expression of α-AR subtypes change differently after CCI. The up-regulation of α-AR subtypes in DRG neurons may play an important role in the process of generating and transmitting neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cell Size , Chronic Disease , Constriction, Pathologic , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Ganglia, Spinal , Metabolism , Pathology , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Methods , Pain Threshold , Protein Isoforms , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2 , Metabolism , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , General Surgery
10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 420-424, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347180

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the relaxant effect of Aike Mixture (AKM) on isolated bladder and prostatic urethral smooth muscle of rabbits.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The isolated bladder and prostatic urethral smooth muscle from male rabbits were placed in a Magnus bath and smooth muscle contraction was measured using a biological signal acquisition and analysis system. The effects of AKM in combination with methoxyamine, carbachol and CaCl2 on the contractile tension of muscle strips were determined by cumulative dosing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AKM dose-dependently reduced contractile tension of bladder trigone smooth muscle (r=0.831, P<0.05), reduced contractile wave amplitude (r=0.837, P<0.05) and decreased contractile frequency (r=-0.917, P<0.01). AKM significantly inhibited the increases in smooth muscle contraction induced by methoxyamine, carbachol and CaCl2.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AKM dose-dependently inhibited the contraction of rabbit isolated bladder and prostatic urethral smooth muscle by antagonizing α1-adrenergic receptors and M-cholinergic receptors.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Calcium Chloride , Pharmacology , Carbachol , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hydroxylamines , Pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Physiology , Neuromuscular Agents , Pharmacology , Prostate , Physiology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Metabolism , Receptors, Muscarinic , Metabolism , Urethra , Physiology , Urinary Bladder , Physiology
11.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e102-2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39643

ABSTRACT

The worldwide prevalence of obesity is steadily increasing, nearly doubling between 1980 and 2008. Obesity is often associated with insulin resistance, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a costly chronic disease and serious public health problem. The underlying cause of T2DM is a failure of the beta cells of the pancreas to continue to produce enough insulin to counteract insulin resistance. Most current T2DM therapeutics do not prevent continued loss of insulin secretion capacity, and those that do have the potential to preserve beta cell mass and function are not effective in all patients. Therefore, developing new methods for preventing and treating obesity and T2DM is very timely and of great significance. There is now considerable literature demonstrating a link between inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in insulin-responsive tissues and the pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. These studies are suggesting new and emerging therapeutic targets for these conditions. In this review, we will discuss inhibitory G proteins and GPCRs that have primary actions in the beta cell and other peripheral sites as therapeutic targets for obesity and T2DM, improving satiety, insulin resistance and/or beta cell biology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits/genetics , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Obesity/drug therapy , Receptor, Melatonin, MT2/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/genetics , Receptors, Prostaglandin/genetics
12.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 179-186, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate problem in older men. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) on a rat model of testosterone-induced BPH. METHODS: The rats were divided into 3 groups (each group, n=10): control, testosterone-induced BPH (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection), and P. ginseng (200 mg/kg, orally) groups. After 4 weeks, all animals were sacrificed to examine the blood biochemical profiles, prostate volume, weight, histopathological changes, alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (Adra1d) mRNA expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein expression. RESULTS: The group treated with P. ginseng showed significantly lesser prostate size and weight than the testosterone-induced BPH group. In addition, P. ginseng decreased the mRNA expression of Adra1d as well as the expression of EGFR and BCL2 in prostate tissue. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that P. ginseng may inhibit the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor to suppress the development of BPH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , B-Lymphocytes , Models, Animal , Panax , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , RNA, Messenger , Testosterone
13.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e118-2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222038

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the roles of chronic stress (CS) in the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and explored the underlying mechanisms of periodontitis. Using an animal model of periodontitis and CS, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the protein levels of the alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) and beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) were assessed. Furthermore, human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the process of inflammation. The proliferation of the HPDLFs and the expression of alpha1-AR and beta2-AR were assessed. The inflammatory-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected after pretreatment with the alpha1/beta2-AR blockers phentolamine/propranolol, both in vitro and in vivo. Results show that periodontitis under CS conditions enhanced the expression of TH, alpha1-AR and beta2-AR. Phentolamine significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, we observed a marked decrease in HPDLF proliferation and the increased expression of alpha1-ARfollowing LPS pretreatment. Pretreatment with phentolamine dramatically ameliorated LPS-inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, the blocking of alpha1-ARsignaling also hindered the upregulation of the inflammatory-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8. These results suggest that CS can significantly enhance the pathological progression of periodontitis by an alpha1-adrenergic signaling-mediated inflammatory response. We have identified a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in those patients suffering from concurrent CS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Phentolamine/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/analysis , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/analysis
14.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 677-686, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192660

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of estrogen on the expression of the alpha1 receptor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat urethra and bladder after oophorectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five mature female Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 10-11 weeks, 235-250 g) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control group, oophorectomy group (Opx), or oophorectomy and estradiol replacement group (Opx+ Est). The degree of expression of alpha1 receptor (alpha1A and D) and NOS (neuronal NOS [nNOS] and endothelial NOS [eNOS]) in bladder and urethral tissues was investigated by using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: In the bladder, the expression rates of alpha1 receptor (alpha1A and alpha1D) increased in the Opx group but decreased in the Opx+Est group. These changes were not statistically significant. The alpha1A and alpha1D receptor of the urethra decreased in the Opx group but increased in the Opx+Est group. These changes were not statistically significant. In the bladder and urethra, the expression rates of nNOS and eNOS significantly increased in the Opx group but decreased in the Opx+Est group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that estrogen depletion increases NOS and alpha1 receptor expression in the rat bladder. However, these changes could be restored by estrogen replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Collagen/metabolism , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/methods , Muscle, Smooth/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/metabolism , Urethra/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/drug effects
15.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 55-60, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of spinal adrenergic and cholinergic receptors on the anti-nociceptive effect of intrathecal ginsenosides was determined in a rat postoperative pain model. METHODS: Catheters were placed into the intrathecal space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Postoperative pain was evoked by an incision to the plantar surface of a hind paw. Withdrawal thresholds was used as a nociceptive parameter and was measured with a von Frey filament. After observing the effect of intrathecal ginsenosides, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin), an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine), and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) were given 10 min before administration of the ginsenosides to analyze the contribution of spinal adrenergic and cholinergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of ginsenosides. RESULTS: Paw incision decreased withdrawal threshold in incised site of paw, but no change of withdrawal threshold was not seen in non-incised site. The intrathecal ginsenosides increased withdrawal threshold of the incised paw in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with both prazosin and intrathecal yohimbine antagonized the anti-nociceptive effect of the ginsenosides. However, pre-treatments with atropine or mecamylamine had any effect on the antinociceptive activity of ginsenosides. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal ginsenosides are effective in attenuation of postoperative pain induced in the rat model. Anti-nociceptive action of ginsenosides is partially mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors, but does not appear to be related to spinal cholinergic receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Atropine , Catheters , Ginsenosides , Mecamylamine , Pain, Postoperative , Prazosin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2 , Receptors, Cholinergic , Receptors, Muscarinic , Receptors, Nicotinic , Spinal Cord , Yohimbine
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1556-1562, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324936

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Chronic heart failure (CHF) had been characterized as an activated sympathetic system leading to the alteration of adrenergic receptor (AR) levels in the heart. Thus far, not much research has been done with regard to traditional Chinese medical treatment for CHF. We investigated the effect of Shexiangbaoxin pills (SXBXP) on the function of the heart and the expression of a(1)-AR and b-AR subtypes in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and protein levels of non-infarction left ventricular tissue from rats with CHF induced by myocardial infarction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Models of CHF were established by left anterior descending coronary artery ligature. Fifty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (group A), sham operation group (group B), CHF model group (group C), positive medicine control group (group D), and small-dose SXBXP group (group E) and large-dose SXBXP group (group F), deployed intragastrically. Cardiac function was examined by echocardiography before and after therapy; mRNA expressed levels were measured by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for b(1)-AR, b(2)-AR, b(3)-AR, a(1A)-AR, a(1B)-AR, and a(1D)-AR; protein levels were measured by Western blotting analysis for b(1)-AR, b(2)-AR, a(1A)-AR, a(1B)-AR, and a(1D)-AR in non-infarction left ventricular tissue.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no significant difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between groups A and B. Compared to group B, LVEF of groups C, D, E, and F were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) before therapy. After therapy, compared to group C, LVEF of group F was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Compared to group B, b(1)-AR and a(1B)-AR expressed levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), a(1A)-AR and b(3)-AR were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in group C, and in both mRNA and protein expressed levels b(2)-AR had no significant difference between groups B and C (P > 0.05). a(1D)-AR mRNA levels were unchanged in each group (P > 0.05), but a(1D)-AR protein level was significantly decreased in group C (P < 0.05). After treatment, compared to group C, mRNA levels of b(1)-AR and a(1B)-AR were significantly increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), and a(1A)-AR was markedly decreased in groups D, E, and F (P < 0.05). b(3)-AR level significantly declined in both groups D and F (P < 0.01), but b(2)-AR and a(1D)-AR expressed levels remained unchanged in each group (P > 0.05). Protein levels, compared to group C, b(1)-AR was significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01) and a(1A)-AR was markedly decreased in groups D, E, and F (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01). b(2)-AR expressed level was significantly increased in group F (P < 0.05). a(1B)-AR expressed level was significantly increased in both groups E and F (P < 0.05), and a(1D)-AR was remarkably increased in both groups D and F (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>After SXBXP treatment, LVEF was increased and cardiac function was significantly ameliorated in rats with CHF. The therapeutic effect of SXBXP may be related to better blood supply for myocardium and up-regulation of b(1)-AR and a(1B)-AR, and down-regulation of a(1A)-AR and b(3)-AR. The results show that SXBXP can be used in treatment of CHF and the therapeutic effect of large-dose SXBXP is superior to small-dose SXBXP.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blotting, Western , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Echocardiography , Heart Failure , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Myocardial Infarction , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Radiography , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 62-68, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Whereas many studies have focused on the vesical changes of the alpha1 adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes in partial outlet obstruction, few studies have addressed the modulation of the alpha1 AR subtypes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Therefore, we studied the modulation of the alpha1 ARs in urinary bladder in a rat SCI model. METHODS: Four weeks after a SCI, the whole vesical bodies from eight female Sprague-Dawley rats and from eight controls were harvested. The total RNA was extracted from the samples and was used to prepare cDNA. We developed standard plasmid constructs of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and three alpha1 ARs (alpha1a, alpha1b, and alpha1d) to convert the cycle threshold (Ct) values from real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) into subtype mRNA concentrations. The detected Ct values of 16 samples from RT-PCR were interpolated into the standard plasmid curves. RESULTS: All serially diluted standard samples showed very good linearity. The mRNA expression of GAPDH was higher in the SCI group, whereas the mRNA expression of all alpha1 ARs was lower in the SCI group than in the control animals. The alpha1a, alpha1b, and alpha1d mRNA expression in the controls was 81.7%, 3.3%, and 15.1%, respectively, whereas the alpha1a, alpha1b, and alpha1d mRNA expression in the SCI group was 33.5%, 5.2%, and 60.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SCI moderates the alpha1 AR mRNA subtypes in the urinary bladder. The relatively increased alpha1d or decreased alpha1a AR mRNA expression may be a therapeutic candidate for controlling the symptoms of neurogenic bladder after SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , DNA, Complementary , Oxidoreductases , Plasmids , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
18.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 419-427, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender-related changes in the function and distribution of alpha1-adrenoceptors in the distal mesenteric artery of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats at the level of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of STZ in a dose of 60 mg/kg through the tail vein in 8 week-old male or female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 13/group). Age-matched normal rats (n = 15) were used as a control group. Four weeks after STZ injection, the change in mean arterial pressure caused by a 45degrees tilting was recorded. The alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions of the distal mesenteric artery were investigated using the agonist, phenylephrine as well as subtype-selective antagonists including prazocin, 5-methylurapidil, and BMY 7378. The expression of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes of each artery was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting using subtype selective antibodies. RESULTS: Compared with normal male rats, the contractile response to phenylephrine was decreased in the distal mesenteric artery in normal female rats. Moreover, a decrease in contractile force was observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared with age-matched controls. Western blotting revealed that there was the difference between normal male and female rats in manifestation of the alpha1D-adrenoceptor. In STZ-induced male and female diabetic rats, all alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes were decreased in distal mesenteric arteries, compared with normal rats. CONCLUSIONS: There was the gender-related functional difference of alpha1-adrenoceptors in normal rats. In both male and female rats, diabetes decreased the contractile response in mesenteric arteries, which might be caused by the overall change in alpha1-adrenoceptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Arteries , Blotting, Western , Contracts , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Injections, Intravenous , Mesenteric Arteries , Negotiating , Phenylephrine , Piperazines , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Streptozocin , Veins
19.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 272-281, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diabetes on the function and distribution of vascular alpha1-adrenoceptors in the abdominal aorta and distal mesenteric artery from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats at the level of the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in 8 week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11). Age-matched normal rats (n = 14) were used as a control group. Four weeks after STZ injection, the tilting-induced change of the mean arterial pressure was recorded. The alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating the contractions of the distal mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta were investigated using the agonist phenylephrine and subtype-selective antagonists that included prazocin, 5-methylurapidil and BMY 7378. The expressions of the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes of each artery were examined by immunofluorescence staining using the subtype selective antibodies. RESULTS: The recovery of the mean arterial pressure was delayed after positional change in the diabetic rats. Compared with that of the normal rats, the contractile response to phenylephrine was increased in the abdominal aortas and it was decreased in the distal mesenteric arteries in the diabetic rats. In addition, compared with the normal rats, the fluorescent intensity of all the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes was increased in the abdominal aortas and it was decreased in the mesenteric arteries of the diabetic rats. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes increased the contractility of the abdominal aorta in response to phenylephrine, yet diabetes decreased that of the mesenteric arteries in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Those results are mainly based on the overall change of the alpha1-adrenoceptor, and not on the change of the specific alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Aorta, Abdominal , Arterial Pressure , Arteries , Contracts , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Injections, Intravenous , Mesenteric Arteries , Negotiating , Phenylephrine , Piperazines , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Streptozocin
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(5): 500-505, May 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546327

ABSTRACT

The regulatory function of á1B-adrenoceptors in mammalian heart homeostasis is controversial. The objective of the present study was to characterize the expression/activity of key proteins implicated in cardiac calcium handling (Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPases) and growth (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) in mice with cardiac-selective overexpression of constitutively active mutant á1B-adrenoceptor (CAMá1B-AR), which present a mild cardiac hypertrophy phenotype. Immunoblot assays showed that myocardial plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) expression was increased by 30 percent in CAMá1B-AR mice (N = 6, P < 0.05), although there was no change in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) expression. Moreover, total Ca2+-ATPase activity was not modified, but a significant increase in the activity of the thapsigargin-resistant (PMCA) to thapsigargin-sensitive (SERCA) ratio was detected. Neither Na+/K+-ATPase activity nor the expression of á1 and á2 subunit isoforms was changed in CAMá1B-AR mouse hearts. Moreover, immunoblot assays did not provide evidence for an enhanced activation of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases studied in this stage of hypertrophy. Therefore, these findings indicate that chronic cardiac á1B-AR activation in vivo led to mild hypertrophy devoid of significant signs of adaptive modifications concerning primary intracellular calcium control and growth-related proteins, suggesting a minor pathophysiological role of this adrenergic receptor in mouse heart at this stage of development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Myocardium/enzymology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Mice, Transgenic , Up-Regulation
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