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Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343130


El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes

Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e10426, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153520


The prognosis of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is usually poor when it occurs in aged adults or in patients with chronic diseases, which brought a great challenge to clinical practice. Furthermore, widespread depression, anxiety, and panic related to SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2) infection affected treatment compliance and recovery. Here we report the successful treatment of a 57-year-old male with severe COVID-19, schizophrenia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The patient's negative emotions (such as tension, panic, and anxiety), particularly his aggression and paranoia, seriously hindered treatment, leading to a deteriorating condition. Psychological counseling and supportive psychotherapy were given but the effect was weak. To improve adherence, risperidone and quetiapine fumarate were replaced by olanzapine for anti-schizophrenic treatment to reduce insomnia and anxiety side effects, associated with sedative-hypnotic drugs as well as psychological counseling. The treatment compliance of the patient improved significantly. The patient's serum alanine aminotransferase increased abnormally in the late stage of hospitalization, suggesting potential liver damage after complex medication strategies. We also monitored the changes of lymphocyte subsets and retrospectively analyzed the virus-specific antibody response. The results suggested that dynamic monitoring of lymphocyte subsets and virus-specific antibody response could facilitate disease progression evaluation and timely treatment plan adjustments. An effective psychotropic drug intervention associated with psychological counselling and psychotherapy are essential for the successful adherence, treatment, and rehabilitation of psychiatric disorders in COVID-19 patients.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , SARS-CoV-2
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 167-169, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337839


For years, the management of schizophrenia has represented a challenge for clinicians, with antipsychotic treatments usually resulting in relapses and new hospitalizations. Clozapine has been shown to be an effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), but is currently underused due to its potential side effects. Nevertheless, research has suggested that clozapine reduces future hospitalizations in patients with TRS. This study aims to verify the rates of hospitalizations in patients with TRS under long-term use of clozapine. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 52 individuals with TRS before and after the use of clozapine. The mean duration of treatment with and without clozapine was 6.6 (± 3.9) and 8.5 years (± 6.6), respectively. Patients had a median of 0.5 (0.74) hospitalizations per year before the use of clozapine and 0 (0.74) hospitalizations after it (p = 0.001). Therefore, the use of clozapine resulted in an expected reduction in the number of hospitalizations per year in individuals with TRS. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1358133


Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, antipsicóticos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Indicação: Tratamento da esquizofrenia em adultos. Pergunta: O Aripiprazol é mais eficaz e seguro para promover controle sintomático, que os antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bases de dados PUBMED, com estratégias estruturadas de busca, e a qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com a ferramenta AMSTAR II. Resultados: Foram identificados 109 resumos de revisões sistemáticas. Após leitura dos mesmos, foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Aripiprazol tem eficácia e segurança similar à Ziprasidona e Haloperidol, mas eficácia semelhante e maior segurança metabólica que a Quetiapina, Olanzapina, Clozapina e Risperidona. Ziprasidona apresenta vantagem sobre o Aripiprazol, pois tem menor risco de efeito colateral de mudanças na função sexual. Considerando que o perfil de eficácia e segurança do Aripiprazol é muito parecido com o dos outros antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS, com mínimas diferenças, e seu custo de tratamento é inferior ao da Ziprasidona e Quetiapina, essa droga poderia estar disponível no SUS

Technology: Aripiprazole, antipsychotics available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS). Indication: Treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Question: Is Aripiprazole more effective and safer to promote symptomatic control than antipsychotics available in BPHS? Methods: A bibliographic survey was carried out in PUBMED databases, with structured search strategies, and the methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR II tool. Results: 109 abstracts of systematic reviews were identified. After reading them, 2 systematic reviews were selected. Conclusion: Aripiprazole has identical effectiveness and safety to Ziprasidone and Haloperidol, but similar efficacy and greater safety than Quetiapine, Olanzapine, Clozapine and Risperidone. Ziprasidone has an advantage over Aripiprazole as it has a lower risk of side effects of changes in sexual function. Since the Aripiprazole's effectiveness and safety profile is very similar to profile of others antipsychotics available in BPHS, with minimal differences, and it has cost lower than Ziprasidone and Quetiapine, this drug could be available in BPHS

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Unified Health System , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(6): 599-607, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132149


Objective: To assess health-related quality of life and associated factors in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine utility values using the EuroQol-5D-3L instrument. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a state-run pharmacy in the Brazilian National Health System. Individuals were included if they were using a single atypical antipsychotic and completed the EuroQol-5D-3L. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. The dependent variable was the EuroQol-5D-3L utility score. Associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model. Results: A total of 394 patients were included, and their mean utility score was 0.664±0.232. Patients treated with clozapine had the highest mean score (0.762 [0.202]), followed by olanzapine (0.687 [0.230]), risperidone (0.630 [0.252]), ziprasidone (0.622 [0.234]), and quetiapine (0.620 [0.243]). The following variables were related to higher utility scores: income, employment, clozapine use, no illicit psychoactive substance use, no suicide attempts, and no comorbidities. Conclusion: Evaluating health-related quality of life differences in the available atypical antipsychotics can facilitate the choice of treatment, improve health outcomes, and ensure rational prescriptions.

Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quetiapine Fumarate
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1121615


Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, medicamento antipsicótico de segunda geração. Indicação: tratamento da esquizofrenia. Objetivos: Apresentar evidências de análise econômicas em saúde, no cenário do SUS e contextos internacionais, do tratamento com Aripiprazol para esquizofrenia, comparado a outros antipsicóticos de uso oral de primeira e segunda geração utilizados no SUS. Realizar uma análise de impacto orçamentário para o contexto do SUS em Goiás e estimar uma projeção de gastos diretos com aquisição de Aripiprazol pela Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás, em cenário de incorporação do Aripiprazol para tratamento de esquizofrenia, no período de 2021 a 2025. Materiais e Métodos: Levantamentos bibliográficos nas bases de dados PUBMED e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, no mês de junho de 2020. Realizada avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas e dos estudos econômicos com as ferramentas Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), e Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) checklist, respectivamente. Foi calculado o impacto orçamentário, seguindo diretrizes do Ministério da Saúde, e projeção de gastos para a Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás. Resultados: Foram selecionadas e incluídas 1 revisão sistemática e 1 estudo econômico brasileiro no estudo de revisão rápida de evidências. Conclusão: No contexto brasileiro, o Aripiprazol é custo-efetivo, quando comparado a Clorpromazina, Haloperidol, Quetiapina e Ziprasidona. Porém, é menos custo-efetivo que Risperidona e Olanzapina. Caso seja padronizado pela Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás, promoverá economia anual para o SUS de R$ 250.042,05 a R$ 407.418,41, em sua máxima difusão. A projeção de gastos diretos é estimada em R$1.582.115,24 a R$27.960.108,08

Technology: Aripiprazole, second generation antipsychotic medication. Indication: treatment of schizophrenia. Objectives: To show evidence of health economic analysis in the scenario of Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) and international contexts, for schizophrenia treatment with Aripiprazole, compared to other oral antipsychotics used in BPHS. To make a budget impact analysis for the Goias Public Health System perspective and estimate direct expenditures for the acquisition of Aripiprazole by State Department of Health of Goias, in a scenario of technology incorporation of Aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia, in the period from 2021 to 2025. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were done in the PUBMED and Virtual Health Library databases, in 2020 June. An evaluation of the methodological quality of systematic reviews and economic studies was done using the tools AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews), and QHES (Quality of Health Economic Studies) checklist, respectively. Calculation of budget impact, following guidelines of the Brazilian Health Ministry, and projection of expenditures for the State Department of Health of Goias. Results: 1 systematic review and 1 Brazilian economic study were selected and included in the study of rapid evidence review. Conclusion: In the Brazilian context, Aripiprazole is cost-effective when compared to Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, Quetiapine and Ziprasidone. However, it is less cost-effective than Risperidone and Olanzapine. If it is standardized by State Department of Health of Goias, it will promote anual savings for BPHS from R$ 250,042.05 to R$ 407,418.41, in its maximum dissemination. The direct expenses are estimated at R$ 1,582,115.24 to R $ 27,960,108.08

Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances , Antipsychotic Agents/economics , Unified Health System/economics , Aripiprazole/economics
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055350


Objective: Patients with schizophrenia have visual processing impairments. The main findings from the literature indicate that these deficits may be related to differences in paradigms, medications, and illness duration. This study is part of a large-scale study investigating visual sensitivity in schizophrenia. Here we aimed to investigate the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use on contrast sensitivity function. Methods: Data were collected from 50 healthy controls and 50 outpatients with schizophrenia (classified according to illness duration and medication type) aged 20-45 years old. The contrast sensitivity function was measured for spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 20 cycles per degree using linear sine-wave gratings. Results: Patients with an illness duration > 5 years had more pronounced deficits. Differences in the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use were marked in patients on typical antipsychotics who had been ill > 10 years. No significant differences were found between typical and atypical antipsychotics in patients with an illness duration < 5 years. Conclusion: Visual impairment was related to both long illness duration and medication type. These results should be tested in further studies to investigate pharmacological mechanisms.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Vision Disorders/chemically induced , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Schizophrenia/complications , Time Factors , Vision, Ocular/drug effects , Contrast Sensitivity/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Chlorpromazine/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 22-26, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055359


Objective: German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider proposed the concept of first-rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia in 1959. However, their relevance for diagnosis and prediction of treatment response are still unclear. Most studies have investigated FRS in chronic or medicated patients. The present study sought to evaluate whether FRS predict remission, response, or improvement in functionality in antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis. Methods: Follow-up study of 100 patients at first episode of psychosis (FEP), with no previous treatment, assessed at baseline and after 2 months of treatment. The participants were evaluated with the standardized Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and for presence of FRS. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that, in this sample, up to three individual FRS predicted remission: voices arguing, voices commenting on one's actions, and thought broadcasting. Conclusion: Specific FRS may predict remission after treatment in FEP patients. This finding could give new importance to Kurt Schneider's classic work by contributing to future updates of diagnostic protocols and improving estimation of prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Remission Induction , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-7, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103265


Objetivo: mensurar a prevalência da coprescrição de psicofármacos inibidores clinicamente significativos da enzima CYP2D6. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado com usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial de um município da Amazônia Legal. Os dados foram coletados de prontuário (medicamentos e diagnóstico clínico) e questionário semiestruturado (sociodemográficos). As informações referentes às medicações (substrato/inibidor da CYP2D6) foram consultadas no Micromedex®, Drug Interaction Checker, Food and Drug Administration e The Pharmacogene Variation Consortium. Os dados foram interpretados utilizando estatística descritiva percentual simples, considerando a média e o desvio-padrão. Para a confecção do banco de dados, utilizou-se o Office Excel®2010. Estudo aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa sob o Parecer nº 289.937. Resultados: participaram deste estudo 43 pessoas com média de idade de 40,98 (±11,04) anos, sendo 55,81% do sexo masculino, 81,39% solteiros, 88,37% não brancos (pretos/pardos), 58,14% estudaram até o ensino médio e 62,79% tiveram diagnóstico F20 (esquizofrenia e subdivisões). Entre a população estudada, 100% (43/43) faziam uso diário de haloperidol, e 95,34% (41/43) encontravam-se em uso rotineiro de mais de uma droga metabolizada pela enzima CYP2D6. Verificou-se que 93% (40/43) dos participantes continham coprescrição de substratos e inibidores da enzima CYP2D6, sendo a maior prevalência de prescrições envolvendo ácido valproico, clorpromazina, levomepromazina, prometazina e risperidona. Conclusão: o estudo pôde mensurar alta prevalência de coprescrição de psicofármacos inibidores clinicamente significativos da enzima CYP2D6.

Introduction: Clinically significant adverse drug reactions are seldomly frequent, but their incidence rises when there is co-prescription, especially psychoactive drugs metabolized by the enzyme CYP2D6. Objective: To measure the prevalence of co-prescription of clinically significant CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitors. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with users of the Center for Psychosocial Attention in a city of Legal Amazon. Sociodemographic, health and drug profile data were collected from patients' records. Possible enzymatic inductions or inhibitions were researched in Micromedex®, Drug Interaction Checker, Food and Drug Administration e The Pharmacogene Variation Consortium. The data were interpreted using simple percentage descriptive statistics, considering the mean and standard deviation. To make the database, Office Excel®2010 was used. The research has the approval of the Research Ethics Committee under opinion no. 289,937. Results: Forty-three people with a mean age of 40.98 (±11.04) years participated in this study, 24 (55.81%) men, 81,39% single, 88,37% non-white, 58,14% have high school and 62,79% were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among the studied population, 100% (43/43) used haloperidol daily and 95.34% (41/43) used more than one drug inhibitor or metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. It was found that 93% of the participants contained co-prescription of CYP2D6 substrates and inhibitors, with the highest prevalence of prescriptions involving valproic acid, chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, promethazine and risperidone. Conclusion: The study was able to measure the high prevalence of co-prescription of clinically significant CYP2D6 inhibitor drugs in the studied population.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Prescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors/adverse effects
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(1): 58-67, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123594


Cuando la esquizofrenia no responde satisfactoriamente a tratamiento farmacológico, alcanzar una terapia efectiva para el paciente es una tarea bastante frustrante para el médico psiquiatra. Es en este contexto que la terapia electroconvulsiva y la estimulación magnética transcraneal repetitiva han tomado fuerza en la investigación clínica, a pesar de los grandes cuestionamientos sobre su efectividad y mala reputación. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en las principales bases de datos disponibles. Concluyendo que ambas terapias demuestran ser herramientas útiles en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia resistente a tratamiento farmacológico, así como también complementarias a los antipsicóticos

When schizophrenia does not respond satisfactorily to pharmacological treatment, achieving effective therapy for the patient is quite a frustrating task for the psychiatrist. It is in this context that electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have gained strength in clinical research, despite huge questions about its success and bad reputation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the main available databases. Concluding that both specific therapies will be useful tools in the treatment of schizophrenia resistant to pharmacological treatment, as well as complementary to antipsychotics.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/therapy , Electroconvulsive Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trial
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880607


Antipsychotic medication is the primary treatment for schizophrenia, which is effective on ameliorating positive symptoms and can reduce the risk of recurrence, but it has limited efficacy for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction seriously affects the life quality and social function for the patients with schizophrenia. Currently, there is plenty evidence that antipsychotic drugs combined with adjuvant therapy drugs can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. These drugs include anti-oxidants, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuro-inflammatory drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs, minocycline), which show potential clinical effects.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Minocycline/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(6): 165-168, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054913


Abstract Objective Schizophrenia is a complex and chronic psychiatric disorder. In recent years, studies have found glutamatergic system participation in its etiopathogenesis, especially through aberrant NMDA receptors functioning. Thus, drugs that modulate this activity, as amantadine and memantine, could theoretically be used in its treatment. To perform a systematic literature review about memantine and amantadine use as adjunct in schizophrenia treatment. Methods A systematic review of papers published in English indexed in the electronic database PubMed ® using the terms "memantine", "amantadine" and "schizophrenia" published until October 2016. Results We found 144 studies, 8 selected for analysis due to meet the objectives of this review. Some of these have shown benefits from such drug use, especially in symptoms measured by PANSS and its subdivisions, while others do not. Discussion: The data in the literature about these drugs use for schizophrenia treatment is still limited and have great heterogeneity. Thus, assay with greater robustness are needed to assess real benefits of these drugs as adjuvant therapy.

Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Memantine/therapeutic use , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Placebos , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Amantadine/adverse effects , Memantine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , PubMed , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(6): 499-510, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055341


Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate 3-monthly (PP3M) in Latin American patients with schizophrenia vs. rest-of-world (ROW). Methods: We analyzed data from two multinational, double-blind (DB), randomized, controlled phase 3 studies including patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) previously stabilized on PP1M/PP3M (open-label [OL] phase). Patients were randomized to PP3M or PP1M (noninferiority study A) and PP3M or placebo (study B) in DB phase. The subgroup analysis included Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico) patients. Primary efficacy endpoints were relapse-free rates (study A) and time-to-relapse (study B). Results: In study A, 63/71 (88.7%) and in study B 38/43 (88.4%) Latin American patients completed the DB phase. In study A, relapse-free percentage was similar in Latin America (PP3M: 97%, PP1M: 100%) and ROW (PP3M: 91%, PP1M: 89%). In study B, median time-to-relapse was not estimable in the Latin American subgroup for either placebo or PP3M groups, nor for the ROW PP3M group; the median time-to-relapse in the ROW placebo group was 395 days. Caregiver burden improved in patients switching from oral antipsychotics (OL baseline) to PP3M/PP1M in DB phase (Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire score mean ± SD change, -9.4±15.16; p < 0.001). Treatment emergent adverse events with PP3M during DB phase were similar in Latin America (study A: 24/34 [70.6%]; study B: 15/21 [71.4%]) and ROW (study A: 318/470 [67.7%]; study B: 84/139 [60.4%]) subgroups. Conclusion: PP3M was efficacious and showed no new safety concerns in patients with schizophrenia from Latin America, corroborating ROW findings. Clinical trial registration: NCT01515423, NCT01529515

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Paliperidone Palmitate/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Time Factors , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Secondary Prevention , Latin America , Middle Aged
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(2): 33-39, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011143


Abstract Objective To compare sex difference in metabolic effect of olanzapine versus aripiprazole on schizophrenia. Methods A twelve-week prospective open-label cohort study to compare four subgroups according to first-episode schizophrenia patients' type of drug usage and sex: female aripiprazole (n = 11), male aripiprazole (n = 11), female olanzapine (n = 10), and male olanzapine (n = 11) for body mass index, fasting serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results Aripiprazole may be associated with weight gain in female patients with low-baseline weight. Aripiprazole may have an adverse effect of weight and favorable effects of circulating glucose and lipid on female over male schizophrenia patients. The aripiprazole-induced changes in glucose and lipid may be independent of body fat storage, especially for female schizophrenia patients. Olanzapine may have adverse effects of weight, glucose and lipid profiles on female over male schizophrenic patients. Discussion Our findings fill the gap in knowledge and provide a sex-specific guidance to psychiatrist better tailoring treatment to individual sex-differential characteristics and a key clue to understand the sex-differential mechanism of antipsychotics-induced metabolic dysfunction.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Aripiprazole/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Gain/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Prospective Studies , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 472-478, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979377


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.

Humans , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Fibromyalgia/drug therapy , Tourette Syndrome/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Dementia/drug therapy , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Nausea/drug therapy
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 169-173, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959225


Objective: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial in psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit mesolimbic dopamine hyperfunction consequent to an endogenous sensitization process. This sensitization can be modeled in rodents by repeated exposure to psychostimulants, provoking an enduring amplified response at subsequent exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on amphetamine sensitization in mice. Methods: D-amphetamine was administered to C57BL/6 mice three times a week for 3 weeks; the dose was increased weekly from 1 to 3 mg/kg. NAC (60 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally before saline or amphetamine during the second and third weeks. After a 4-week washout period, latent inhibition (LI) and the locomotor response to amphetamine 2 mg/kg were assessed. Results: Sensitization disrupted LI and amplified the locomotor response; NAC disrupted LI in control mice. In sensitized animals, NAC attenuated the enhanced locomotion but failed to prevent LI disruption. Conclusion: NAC warrants consideration as a candidate for early intervention in ultra-high risk subjects due to its safety profile and the relevance of its mechanism of action. Supplementing this proposition, we report that NAC attenuates sensitization-induced locomotor enhancement in mice. The finding that NAC disrupted LI incites a cautionary note and requires clarification.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Amphetamine/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(2): 85-92, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-963093


Abstract Introduction Assessing adherence in schizophrenia facilitates interventions that optimize outcomes. Adherence rating questionnaires are feasible and non-intrusive; however, no validated measure exists in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the 10-item Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a cohort of patients with schizophrenia (n=230). A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) and the MARS were all administered by an interviewer. Results The MARS demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.76). The scale was reducible to a 3-factor construct (1 - medication adherence behavior, 2 - attitude to taking medications, and 3 - negative side effects and attitude to psychotropics), with significant though weak external validity in relation to psychopathology (p<0.001) and insight (p<0.001). The first factor showed good internal consistency (α=0.80), comprising six items that could serve as a reliable proxy measure of adherence in place of the MARS Conclusion The MARS demonstrated fair psychometric characteristics in assessing adherence in patients with schizophrenia in this cohort. The scale may be useful in the dimensional assessment of medication adherence for schizophrenia in sub-Saharan African settings.

Resumo Introdução Avaliar adesão ao tratamento na esquizofrenia facilita intervenções que otimizam desfechos. Questionários de avaliação da adesão são factíveis e não intrusivos; no entanto, não há uma medida validada na África subsaariana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da escala de 10 itens intitulada Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). Métodos Este foi um estudo transversal de uma coorte de pacientes com esquizofrenia (n=230). Um questionário sociodemográfico e os instrumentos Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) e a MARS foram todos administrados por um entrevistador. Resultados A MARS demonstrou boa confiabilidade (alfa de Cronbach: 0,76). Foi possível reduzir a escala a um construto de 3 fatores (1 - comportamento de adesão à medicação, 2 - atitude em relação a tomar medicação, e 3 - efeitos colaterais negativos e atitude em relação aos psicotrópicos), com validade externa significativa, embora fraca, em relação à psicopatologia (p<0,001) e ao insight (p<0,001). O primeiro fator mostrou boa consistência interna (α=0,80), incluindo seis itens que poderiam servir como uma medida substituta confiável de adesão no lugar da MARS Conclusão A MARS demonstrou características psicométricas satisfatórias ao avaliar adesão em pacientes com esquizofrenia nesta coorte. A escala pode ser útil na avaliação dimensional da adesão ao tratamento para esquizofrenia em contextos africanos subsaarianos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Medication Adherence , Psychometrics , Schizophrenic Psychology , Self Concept , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Cohort Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Interview, Psychological , Middle Aged , Nigeria
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(4): 309-315, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899382


Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Cognitive impairment continues to be a core and consistent deficit. Previous studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with cognitive performance. Thus, it may play a supportive role in mitigating cognitive impairments among individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and executive function among adults with schizophrenia. Methods: The weekly amount of MVPA (assessed using accelerometers) and executive function (as per Brief Neurocognitive Assessment for Schizophrenia) of 78 adults with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age 42.4 [11.4] years; illness duration 17.0 [11.0] years; 58.2% male) were assessed in this cross-sectional study. Pearson correlations were calculated, followed by a linear regression. Participants were first analyzed together and then dichotomized on the basis of illness duration. Results: There was no significant association between MVPA and executive function, independent of the duration of illness. For individuals with < 15 years of illness, there was a significant association between weekly MVPA and working memory performance. Conclusion: PA appears to be associated with executive function in some, but not all, individuals with schizophrenia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Executive Function/drug effects , Neuropsychological Tests