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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e536-e539, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292788

ABSTRACT

El melanoma es la forma más grave de cáncer de piel. La morbimortalidad es variable, ya que se relaciona con las medidas de prevención implementadas, la detección temprana y el acceso al tratamiento temprano. La incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años a pesar de la mayor concientización con respecto a la exposición a la luz solar y la utilización de cremas protectoras. A su vez, el rango etario se ha ampliado, y esta enfermedad afecta a individuos cada vez más jóvenes. Se estima que del 1 % al 4 % de todos los casos de melanoma ocurren en menores de 20 años.Se presentan dos casos pediátricos, con evolución prolongada y diagnóstico inicial erróneo. Es fundamental para el pediatra general, primer contacto del paciente con el sistema de salud, conocer las características de estas lesiones. Un alto índice de sospecha permitiría la derivación al especialista de forma temprana.


Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer. Morbimortality is variable as it is related to the preventive measures, early detection, and access to early treatment. The incidence has increased in recent years, despite the raise in awareness of avoiding sun exposure and the use of sunscreen. What is more, the disease age range has expanded, affecting increasingly younger individuals. It is estimated that 1 to 4 % of all melanoma cases occurred in people younger than twenty years old.We present two pediatric cases with prolonged evolution and wrong initial diagnosis. Since the general pediatrician is the patient's first contact with the health system, it is extremely important to know the characteristics of these lesions. A high index of suspicion would allow an early referral to the specialist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/therapy , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 731-736, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142121

ABSTRACT

Abstract This is a narrative review of azathioprine. This medication is immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive, and it has been used widely through different medical specialties to modify disease. It has been proven useful for several dermatoses and it has encountered success when used as an off-label indication for other dermatologic diseases. Its mechanism of action is described thoroughly, as well as precautions for monitoring adequate levels in patients using it. Dermatologists should also be aware of the possible adverse events it may present. In dermatology it can be used in bullous and autoimmune diseases, and in other conditions, including intractable pruritus, atopic dermatitis, photodermatoses, psoriasis, and others. Azathioprine offers an alternative as a steroid-sparing agent and this review helps dermatologists prescribe it safely to all patients who require it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Dermatology , Eczema , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 133-143, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients with psychocutaneous disorders often refuse psychiatric intervention in their first consultations, leaving initial management to the dermatologist. The use of psychotropic agents in dermatological practice, represented by antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and mood stabilizers, should be indicated so that patients receive the most suitable treatment rapidly. It is important for dermatologists to be familiar with the most commonly used drugs for the best management of psychiatric symptoms associated with dermatoses, as well as to manage dermatologic symptoms triggered by psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychophysiologic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Skin Diseases/psychology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Dermatology
5.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 91-100, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125810

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La plasmocitosis cutánea es una enfermedad poco frecuente, de curso crónico y benigno, que predomina en hombres entre los 20 y 62 años, particularmente en poblaciones asiáticas. Presentamos un caso de un hombre colombianoquien presentabamáculas y placas pardo-violáceas de bordes definidos, ligeramente infiltradas en tórax posterior y dorso de pies, sin otroshallazgos. Debido a que es una enfermedad que puede tener manifestaciones extracutáneaso transformación maligna por infiltración de células plasmáticas en otros órganos, se realizaron estudios de extensión que determinaron en este paciente que el compromiso era exclusivamente cutáneo. No existe un tratamiento estándar para esta enfermedad, se han usado antibióticos, corticosteroides tópicos y sistémicos, tacrolimus tópico, quimioterapia, talidomida, fototerapia UVB de banda estrecha y azatioprina, con resultados variables.


SUMMARY Cutaneous plasmacytosis is a rare disease of chronic and benign course, which occurs more frequently in men between 20 and 62 years, particularly in Asian populations. We present the case of a Colombian man who presents macules and violet-brown patches with defined edges, slightly infiltrated in the posterior thorax and feet, without any other manifestation. Because it is a disease that can have extracutaneous manifestations or malignant transformation due to the infiltration of plasma cells in other organs, extension studies were carried out, which determinedwhich determined exclusive cutaneous involvement. There is no standard treatment for this disease, antibiotics, topical and systemic corticosteroids, topical tacrolimus, chemotherapy, thalidomide, narrow-band UVB treatment and azathioprine have been used with variable results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Plasma Cells/pathology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Rare Diseases
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 57-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of granulomas in various organs. Cutaneous involvement is common and the reported incidence has varied from 9% to 37%. Studies on cutaneous sarcoidosis in Brazil are lacking. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis diagnosed at the Department of Dermatology of the University of São Paulo, from May 1994 to March 2018. Methods: Clinical data of patients with confirmed cutaneous sarcoidosis were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to gender, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, cutaneous presentation, systemic involvement and treatment. Results: Cutaneous sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 72 patients with a female predominance (74%). The mean age at diagnosis was 49.6 years and most of the patients were white (61%). Papules and plaques were the most common lesions. Systemic sarcoidosis was detected in 81% of patients, affecting mainly the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes (97%). Typically, cutaneous lesions were the first manifestation (74%). Systemic therapy was necessary for 72% of patients; the dermatologist managed many of these cases. Oral glucocorticoids were the most commonly used systemic medication (92%). The mean number of systemic drugs used was 1.98 per patient. Limitations: Insufficient data in medical records. Conclusions: This series highlights the dermatologist role in recognizing and diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis, evaluating patients for systemic disease involvement and treating the skin manifestations. Cutaneous sarcoidosis was once considered exceedingly infrequent in Brazil in comparison to infectious granulomatous diseases; however, the present series seems to suggest that the disease is not so rare in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Sarcoidosis/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Administration, Cutaneous , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 361-362, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011102

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Perinevic dermatosis neglecta is an underestimated skin condition usually affecting children and adolescents, characterized by the appearance of dirt-like brownish pigmentation around a preexisting nevus and often a matter of concern for parents. We describe the clinical and dermoscopic findings in a case of perinaevic dermatosis neglecta and discuss the possible etiology of this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Hyperpigmentation/complications , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Nevus, Pigmented/complications
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(6): 2083-2096, nov.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978719

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El pénfigo es una enfermedad autoinmune potencialmente mortal, que causa ampollas y erosiones en la piel y en la membrana mucosa. Las lesiones epiteliales son el resultado de autoanticuerpos que reaccionan con las glicoproteínas desmosomales y están presentes en la superficie celular del queratinocito. La reacción autoinmune contra estas glicoproteínas causa una pérdida de adhesión celular, resultando en la formación de ampollas intraepiteliales. Del 80 al 90 % de los pacientes con pénfigo vulgar, desarrollan trastornos cutáneos y en el 60 % de los casos alteraciones en la mucosa que es el primer o único signo. El diagnóstico de las lesiones en cavidad bucal es fundamental, ya que pueden prevenir su afectación a la piel. Si se establece el tratamiento en su etapa inicial, la enfermedad es más fácil de controlar y aumenta la posibilidad de una remisión temprana del trastorno y mejor calidad de vida. Este reporte de caso mostró a una paciente de 35 años, la que comenzó a presentar lesiones ulceradas en toda la orofaringe, con sensación de ardor e incapacidad para la ingestión de alimentos. El diagnóstico fue pénfigo vulgar (AU).


ABSTRACT Pemphigus is a potentially deadly autoimmune disease causing blisters and erosions in the skin and the mucous membrane. The epithelial lesions are the result of antibodies reacting to desmosomal glycoproteins, and are present in the keratinocytes cellular surface. The autoimmune reaction to these glycoproteins causes a cellular adhesion loss resulting in the formation of intraepithelial blisters. From 80 to 90 % of the patients with vulgar pemphigus develop skin disorders, and 60 % of the cases show mucosa changes as the first or unique sign. The diagnosis of the lesions in oral cavity is essential because it could prevent the skin damage. If the treatment begins in an initial stage, it is easier to control the disease and the possibility of the disorder's early remission and a better life quality increases. This is the report of the case of a female patient, aged 35 years, who presented ulcerated lesions in the entire oropharyngeal region, with itching sensation and inability for food consumption. The diagnosis was vulgar pemphigus (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Skin Diseases/etiology , Surgery, Oral , Pemphigus/etiology , Oral Ulcer/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Triamcinolone/therapeutic use , Pemphigus/diagnosis , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Gingivitis/diagnosis
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 238-241, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887175

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Topical agents used in combination with phototherapy or photochemotherapy may have both blocking or enhancing effects in ultraviolet rays. Objective: In this in vivo study, the effects of topical petrolatum, basis cream, glycerine, and olive oil on the transmission of ultraviolet A radiation were investigated. Methods: A test was performed to determine the minimal phototoxic dose on 29 volunteers with only psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) and then the same test was repeated with white petrolatum, basis cream, glycerine, olive oil, and sunscreen (0.3cc/25cm2). The effects of each agent on the minimal phototoxic dose were determined after 72 h. Results: When compared to pure PUVA, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean minimal phototoxic dose values by the application of white petrolatum (P = 0.011), but there was no significant increase or decrease in the mean minimal phototoxic dose values after the application of basis cream (P = 0.326), glycerine (P = 0.611) or olive oil (P = 0.799). Study limitations: Low number of patients Conclusion: The application of white petrolatum, which has a blocking effect, and also of basis cream immediately before PUVA therapy should not be recommended. Although we specify that glycerine and maybe olive oil can be used before photochemotherapy, there is a need for further research in larger series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Petrolatum/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy/methods , PUVA Therapy/methods , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Ultraviolet Rays , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Emollients/pharmacology , Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Skin Tests , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Dermatitis, Phototoxic/prevention & control , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Olive Oil/pharmacology , Glycerol/pharmacology
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(spe): e01008, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974428

ABSTRACT

Topical drug delivery is an interesting approach to treat skin diseases and to avoid pain and low patient compliance in cases where a systemic delivery is required. However, the stratum corneum, which is the outermost skin layer, strongly protects the body from the entrance of substances, especially those hydrophilic. In this context, different physical methods have been studied to overcome the stratum corneum barrier and facilitate penetration of drugs into or through the skin. Among them, iontophoresis, low-frequency ultrasound and microneedles have been widely employed for transdermal drug delivery. More recently, they are also studied to aid in the treatment of dermatological disorders, such as skin tumors and inflammation. Basically, iontophoresis refers to the movement of charged and non-charged hydrophilic molecules through the skin due to the application of a low constant electric current and the contributions of electromigration and electroosmosis. In low-frequency ultrasound, cavitation is the main mechanism for skin permeabilization that consists on the formation of microbubbles that disorganize the stratum corneum. Microneedles are microprojections, minimally invasive, that can be designed with different lengths, materials and geometry to increase skin permeability. In this review, concepts, mechanisms and applications of these three physical methods will be presented and discussed with focus on their use in dermatological treatments. Moreover, comparative studies using different physical methods will be presented and also some clinical perspectives will be addressed


Subject(s)
Skin , Administration, Topical , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Ultrasonics/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Iontophoresis/methods
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 266-275, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959441

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El loxoscelismo es una patología frecuente en nuestro medio con un amplio espectro de presentaciones y diagnósticos diferenciales, con complicaciones potencialmente graves, e incluso con riesgo de muerte. A la fecha no existe un tratamiento estándar para estos pacientes. Objetivo: Describir las manifestaciones clínicas, principales complicaciones, manejo terapéutico y evolución de pacientes internados por loxoscelismo en un hospital terciario en Chile. Pacientes y Método: Se analizaron todos los pacientes consultantes e internados por loxoscelismo en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre los años 2014 y 2017, evaluados en interconsulta por Dermatología. Revisión de los registros clínicos incluyendo semiología, imágenes, informes de laboratorio y tratamientos efectuados. Resultados: Se registraron 17 casos de loxoscelismo de manejo hospitalario, cuya presentación responde al patrón epidemiológico nacional. La mayoría de los casos fue manejada con antimicrobianos, corticosteroides sistémicos, antihistamínicos y dapsona. De ellos, 11,8% correspondieron a loxoscelismo cutáneo visceral, manejados exitosamente con medidas de soporte, corticosteroides sistémicos y antihistamínicos. El 59% presentó resolución de las lesiones al mes de tratamiento, con cicatriz residual leve o hiperpigmentación postinflamatoria, sin mortalidad en nuestra serie. Discusión: La mayoría de los casos de loxoscelismo cutáneo presentó excelente respuesta y rápida resolución del cuadro tras el tratamiento asociado de corticosteroides sistémicos, antimicrobianos y dapsona, sugiriendo que el uso de estas terapias podría detener la progresión de la necrosis cutánea y prevenir las complicaciones asociadas al loxoscelismo.


Background: Loxoscelism is a common pathology in our environment with a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses and presentations, with potentially serious complications, even to the point of death. To date, there is no standard treatment for these patients. Aim: To describe the clinical manifestations, main complications, therapeutic management, and evolution of loxoscelism in an inpatient setting from a tertiary hospital in Chile. Methods: All patients consulting and hospitalized in the hospital of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile with diagnosis of loxoscelism between 2014 to 2017 and evaluated by dermatologist were included. Review of clinical files, including symptoms, images, laboratory parameters and treatment. Results: We evaluated seventeen inpatient with loxoscelism, whose presentation responds to the national epidemiological pattern. Most cases were managed with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, and dapsone. From these, 11.8% corresponded to viscerocutaneous loxoscelism, successfully managed with supportive measures, systemic corticosteroids and antihistamines. Fifty-nine percent healed their cutaneous lesions after one month of treatment, with slight residual scarring or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation, without associated mortality in our series. Discussion: Most cases of cutaneous loxoscelism presented excellent response and rapid resolution of the disease after combined therapy with systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics and dapsone, suggesting that the use of these therapies could stop the progression of cutaneous necrosis and prevent complications associated with loxoscelism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Spider Bites/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , Spider Venoms/adverse effects , Spider Bites/diagnosis , Spider Bites/drug therapy , Seasons , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Viscera/pathology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(6): 432-435, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887408

ABSTRACT

Se reporta un caso de edema agudo hemorrágico de la infancia, en un lactante de 18 meses, después de un episodio de otitis media. El cuadro comenzó con máculas eritematosas en los muslos, seguidas de lesiones purpúricas en los brazos, las piernas y edema en los tobillos. Se interpretó, inicialmente, como urticaria, por lo que recibió esteroides. Sin embargo, las características clínicas fueron de edema agudo hemorrágico de la infancia, una vasculitis leucocitoclástica benigna que se presenta en niños de entre 4 y 24 meses y que se caracteriza por fiebre, máculas y lesiones purpúricas. Estas se ubican, principalmente, en la cara, los lóbulos de las orejas y las extremidades, y se asocian, muchas veces, a edema. Los diagnósticos diferenciales son eritema multiforme, urticaria, vasculitis inducida por droga, enfermedad de Kawasaki, eccema infectado, meningococcemia y maltrato infantil, algunas de ellas, con riesgo de mortalidad. El manejo es conservador, sin embargo, los esteroides podrían ser una opción terapéutica.


We report a case of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy in an 18-month-old boy after an episode of otitis media. The clinical presentation begins with skin erythematous macules on the thighs, followed by purpuric lesions in arms, legs, and ankle edema. It was initially interpreted as urticaria, whereby steroids were indicated. However, the clinical feature was acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, a benign leukocytoclastic vasculitis that occurs in children between 4 and 24 months of age and is characterized by fever, large purpuric palpable target-like skin lesions affecting the face, lobes of the ears, limbs and frequently associated with edema. Differential diagnosis includes erythema multiforme, hemorrhagic urticaria, drug-induced vasculitis, Kawasaki disease, infected eczema, sepsis (either meningococcal or non-meningococcal) and child abuse. Some of them have risk of mortality. Management is conservative, however, steroids may be a therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Urticaria/diagnosis , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Edema/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 367-374, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886951

ABSTRACT

Abstract Free radicals are unstable chemical species, highly reactive, being formed by cellular entities of different tissues. Increased production of these species without proper effective action of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant systems, generates a condition of oxidative stress, potentially provider of skin disorders that extend from functional impairments (skin cancer, dermatitis, chronic and acute inflammatory processes) even aesthetic character, with the destruction of structural proteins and cellular changes with the appearance of stains, marks and lines of expressions and other signs inherent to the intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging process. The antioxidants are chemical substances commonly used in clinical practice for topical application and may contribute in the fight against the radical species responsible for many skin damage. This paper summarized the main evidence of the benefits brought by the topical application of antioxidants in the skin, considering the amplitude of the indicative performance of antioxidant activity by in vitro and ex-vivo tests as well as in vivo tests. It is recognized that a breadth of product performance tests should be explored to truly identify the effectiveness of antioxidant products for an anti-aging effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin/drug effects , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Aging/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 363-366, May-June 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886957

ABSTRACT

Abstract The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Tretinoin/administration & dosage , Skin Aging/drug effects , Chemexfoliation/methods , Keratolytic Agents/administration & dosage
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 356-362, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886964

ABSTRACT

Abstract The skin cells continuously produce, through cellular respiration, metabolic processes or under external aggressions, highly reactive molecules oxidation products, generally called free radicals. These molecules are immediately neutralized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in a physiological and dynamic balance. In situations where this balance is broken, various cellular structures, such as the cell membrane, nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may suffer structural modifications, triggering or worsening skin diseases. several substances with alleged antioxidant effects has been offered for topical or oral use, but little is known about their safety, possible associations and especially their mechanism of action. The management of topical and oral antioxidants can help dermatologist to intervene in the oxidative processes safely and effectively, since they know the mechanisms, limitations and potential risks of using these molecules as well as the potential benefits of available associations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Aging/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Skin Aging/physiology , Skin Care/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Free Radicals/metabolism
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 407-409, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886979

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current report presents the case of a 41-year-old male patient with a two-month history of asthenopia and plaques in the frontotemporal region. Computed tomography revealed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Ophthalmological examination showed elevated intraocular pressure. Skin biopsy demonstrated aa dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of epithelioid cells and a few multinucleated giant cells, but no obvious lymphocytes. Findings of thorough physical examinations and auxiliary examinations suggested the presence of cutaneous sarcoidosis and secondary open-angle glaucoma. Treatment consisted mainly of oral methylprednisolone. Skin lesions, bilateral hilar, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy resolved completely. Cutaneous sarcoidosis is often accompanied by extracutaneous organ involvement. Dermatologists must be aware of the disease's extracutaneous manifestations to ensure accurate diagnosis for further treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoidosis/complications , Skin Diseases/complications , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/etiology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 32(1): 128-134, 2017. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832687

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Necrólise epidérmica tóxica é uma erupção mucocutânea aguda grave, geralmente induzida por medicamentos, associada a alta taxa de morbidade e mortalidade. Os cuidados com as lesões mucosas e cutâneas e a abordagem multidisciplinar são muito importantes para o prognóstico e sequelas futuras. Objetivos: Discutir os principais aspectos dessa síndrome por meio da revisão de literatura, ilustrada por um caso clínico. Métodos: Revisão de literatura utilizando bases de dados on-line PubMed e Scielo. Incluímos artigos em língua inglesa, portuguesa, francesa e espanhola, e ilustração com caso clínico pediátrico. Termos procurados foram "toxic epidermal necrolysis", "Stevens-Johnson overlap", ''necrólise epidérmica tóxica'', ''síndrome Stevens-Johnson''. Resultados: Apresentamos dados para guiar o manejo de pacientes com necrólise epidérmica tóxica para cirurgiões plásticos, pediatras, intensivistas, dermatologistas e emergencistas. O caso tratado teve evolução favorável, sem sequelas cutâneas. Conclusão: O alto nível de suspeição é imprescindível para um diagnóstico e estratificação de risco adequados e instituição precoce de medidas de suporte, e o tratamento deve ser realizado por uma equipe multidisciplinar treinada para reduzir sequelas e mortalidade.


Introduction: Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a severe acute mucocutaneous condition usually induced by drugs associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The care of the mucous lesions and skin and a multidisciplinary approach are very important for the prognosis and future sequelae. Objectives: To discuss the main aspects of this syndrome through a literature review illustrated by a clinical case. Methods: Review of the literature using the PubMed and SciELO online databases was performed. Articles in English, Portuguese, French, and Spanish were included and illustrated with a pediatric clinical case. The keywords used were as follows: "toxic epidermal necrolysis," "Stevens-Johnson overlap," "necrólise epidérmica tóxica," and "síndrome Stevens-Johnson." Results: We presented data to guide the management of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis for plastic surgeons, pediatricians, intensivists, dermatologists, and emergency physicians. The case treated had a favorable disease course without sequelae. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion is necessary for an adequate diagnosis and risk stratification, and early support measures and treatment should be performed by a multidisciplinary team trained to minimize damage and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , History, 21st Century , Skin Diseases , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds and Injuries , Review Literature as Topic , Keratinocytes , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Exanthema , Skin Diseases/surgery , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Keratinocytes/pathology , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/surgery , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/drug therapy , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/therapy , Exanthema/surgery , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/therapy
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(11): 3599-3608, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766404

ABSTRACT

A avaliação comparativa exigida para registro das formulações tópicas genéricas no Brasil é feita por meio do estudo de equivalência farmacêutica que avalia apenas os parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos dos medicamentos. Internacionalmente, estudos clínicos ou farmacodinâmicos vêm sendo exigidos para comprovar a eficácia e a segurança das formulações genéricas tópicas semissólidas. Este trabalho apresenta uma comparação entre os diferentes requerimentos para registro de uma formulação tópica, considerando diferentes autoridades regulatórias, e faz um levantamento dos produtos tópicos dermatológicos registrados no Brasil até 2013. Tal levantamento demonstrou haver uma grande quantidade de cópias desse tipo de formulação no Brasil em comparação com os EUA. Este fato, associado à grande quantidade de estudos encontrados na literatura demonstrando bioinequivalência de medicamentos tópicos, evidencia a grande importância de uma readequação da legislação brasileira no que se refere aos requisitos técnicos para o registro de medicamentos genéricos e similares de aplicação tópica dermatológica no Brasil.


The comparative evaluation required for the registration of generic topical medicines in Brazil is conducted by means of a pharmaceutical equivalence study, which merely assesses the physical/chemical and microbiological parameters of the formulations. At the international level, clinical or pharmacodynamic studies are now being required to prove the efficacy and safety of semisolid topical generic formulations. This work presents a comparison of the different requirements for the registration of topical formulations, taking into consideration the various regulatory authorities, and presents a survey of topical medicines registered in Brazil prior to 2013. The survey revealed that in comparison with the USA there were many more copies of these formulations registered in Brazil. This fact, together with the large number of studies in the literature showing the lack of bioequivalence of topical medication, is clear proof of the major importance of the need to realign Brazilian legislation with respect to the technical requirements for the registration of generic and similar medication for dermatological topical application in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Therapeutic Equivalency , Administration, Topical , Brazil , Drugs, Generic , United States
19.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2015 Jul-Aug; 81(4): 344-355
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-160051

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, originally associated with rickets and osteomalacia, has recently been shown to have a role in a number of medical and dermatological diseases. It has been found that vitamin D receptors and the enzymatic machinery capable of converting circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to the active 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] is present in most cells in the body including the skin. It is well known that vitamin D analogs are effective in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris because of their anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating effects on keratinocytes. However, new roles have been found for vitamin D in skin, such as immunomodulatory and anti-apoptotic effects thus raising a possibility of its use in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and infections. Increasing evidence now indicates that cutaneous vitamin D synthesis may help in prevention of skin malignancies and further, that cancer mortality may be reduced by oral supplementation of vitamin D. Various epidemiological studies have linked low levels of vitamin D to autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, and topical vitamin D has been used to treat vitiligo. This review focuses on a wide array of roles of vitamin D in various skin disorders with emphasis on both its well-established role as in psoriasis and the less characterized role in other disorders such as ichthyosis, tuberculosis or acne.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Humans , Ichthyosis/drug therapy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitiligo/drug therapy
20.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 38(1): 28-29, jun. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755478

ABSTRACT

El presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo difundir el conocimiento de la cronofarmacología entre los profesionales en salud que tienen la responsabilidad del uso racional de medicamentos logrando eficacia terapéutica. Se realizó una búsqueda de información en fuentes primarias y secundarias a partir de las cuales se realizó una síntesis de la información.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Skin Diseases/drug therapy
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