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Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1105-1114, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985475


Excessive sodium/salt intake is the leading dietary risk factor for the loss of healthy life in the Chinese population. The "Healthy China 2030" Action Plan set the goal of reducing salt intake by 20% by 2030. However, salt intake in China is still at a very high level in the world, with adults reaching 11 g/d, more than twice the recommended limit of 5 g/d. The current policies and action plans of China have targeted catering workers, children, adolescents, and home chefs in salt, oil, and sugar reduction actions. However, there are still obvious deficiencies in the coordinated promotion and implementation. This study, therefore, proposed a set of comprehensive strategies (named CHRPS that is composed of communication and education, salt reduction in home cooking, salt reduction in restaurants, reducing salt content in pre-packaged food, and surveillance and evaluation) and key implementation points for further deepening the salt reduction action in China. These strategies were developed based on the main sources of dietary sodium for Chinese residents, the status of "knowledge, attitude and practice" in salt reduction, evidence of effective intervention measures, existing policies and requirements, and the salt reduction strategies of the World Health Organization and experience from some other countries. As a scientific reference, the CHRPS strategies will help the government and relevant organizations quickly implement salt reduction work and facilitate the earlier realization of China's salt reduction goal.

Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sodium, Dietary , Diet , Food , China
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 10-23, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970287


OBJECTIVE@#This study assesses the impact of iodine-rich processed foods and dining places on the iodine nutritional status of children.@*METHODS@#School-aged children (SAC) in seven provinces in China were selected by school-based multi-stage sampling. Urinary iodine, salt iodine, and thyroid volume (TVOL) were determined. Questionnaires were used to investigate dining places and iodine-rich processed foods. The water iodine was from the 2017 national survey. Multi-factor regression analysis was used to find correlations between variables.@*RESULTS@#Children ate 78.7% of their meals at home, 15.1% at school canteens, and 6.1% at other places. The percentage of daily iodine intake from water, iodized salt, iodine-rich processed foods, and cooked food were 1.0%, 79.2%, 1.5%, and 18.4%, respectively. The salt iodine was correlated with the urinary iodine and TVOL, respectively (r = 0.999 and -0.997, P < 0.05). The iodine intake in processed foods was weakly correlated with the TVOL (r = 0.080, P < 0.01). Non-iodized salt used in processed foods or diets when eating out had less effect on children's iodine nutrition status.@*CONCLUSION@#Iodized salt remains the primary source of daily iodine intake of SAC, and processed food has less effect on iodine nutrition. Therefore, for children, iodized salt should be a compulsory supplement in their routine diet.

Humans , Child , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iodine , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , China , Water
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 917-929, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007866


OBJECTIVE@#This study explored whether thyroglobulin and thyroid disease prevalence rates were higher in pregnant Chinese women with a median urinary iodine concentration of 100-149 µg/L, compared with those with a median urinary iodine concentration of 150-249 μg/L maintained through sustainable universal salt iodization.@*METHODS@#This was a cross-sectional study in which 812 healthy pregnant women were enrolled to collect samples of their household edible salt, urine, and blood during their routine antenatal care in the 18 counties in Fujian Province, China. The levels of salt iodine concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody were assessed during the routine antenatal care visits.@*RESULTS@#The median UIC (mUIC) in pregnant women was 130.8 μg/L (interquartile range = 91.5-198.1 μg/L) in the counties with an mUIC of 100-149 μg/L (Group I), and 172.0 μg/L (interquartile range = 123.5-244.4 μg/L) in the counties with an mUIC of 150-249 μg/L (Group II). Goiter prevalence and thyroid nodule detection rates showed no difference between Group I and Group II ( P > 0.05). Except for FT4 values, the TSH, FT4, FT3, Tg and Tg values > 40 (μg/L) and the thyroid diseases prevalence rate (TDR) showed no significant differences between Group I and Group II ( P > 0.05), whether or not iodine supplementation measures were taken.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with an mUIC of 150-249 μg/L, not only there was no difference in thyroid morphology, but also the Tg value, rate of Tg values > 40 µg/L, and TDR were not higher in pregnant women in the counties with an mUIC of 100-149 μg/L achieved through sustainable universal salt iodization in Fujian Province, China.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iodine/urine , Pregnant Women , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , East Asian People
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220216, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521590


ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to estimate the epidemiological burden of excessive salt intake reduction and achieve the World Health Organization salt reduction target for 2025 in Paraguay, in 2019. Methods We used the Preventable Risk Integrated Model, a comparative risk assessment macro-simulation model, to estimate the averted deaths, disease incidence, and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease attributable to salt intake in the population of Paraguay for different salt reduction policy scenarios. Results As a result, in Paraguay, excessive salt intake (over 5 g/day) is responsible for approximately 2,656 cardiovascular disease deaths (95% Uncertainty Interval: 1,250-3,765), 4,816 cardiovascular disease cases (95% UI: 2,251-6,947), and 60,529 disability-adjusted life years (95% UI: 27,828-86,258) per year. By reducing salt consumption by 30%, as recommended by the World Health Organization until 2025, approximately 1,188 deaths (95% UI: 520 to 1,820), 2,100 incident cases (95% UI: 923-3,234), and 27,272 disability-adjusted life years (95% UI: 11,999-41,675) from cardiovascular disease could be averted every year. Conclusion In conclusion, the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to excessive salt intake is significant and salt reduction policies must become a priority in Paraguay.

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visa estimar a carga epidemiológica do consumo excessivo de sal e o alcance da meta da Organização Mundial de Saúde para 2025 no Paraguai, em 2019. Métodos Foi usado um modelo de avaliação comparativa de risco (Preventable Risk Integrated Model) para análise comparativa de risco para estimar mortes, casos incidentes e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALYs) por doenças cardiovasculares atribuíveis ao consumo excessivo de sal na população paraguaia em diferentes cenários. Resultados No Paraguai, o consumo excessivo de sal é responsável por aproximadamente 2.656 mortes (Intervalo de Incerteza 95%: 1.250-3.765), 4.816 casos incidentes (95% II: 2.251-6.947) e 60.529 DALYs (95% II: 27.828-86.258) por doenças cardiovasculares por ano. Com uma redução de 30% no consumo de sal, como recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde até 2025, aproximadamente 1.188 mortes (95% II: 520-1.820), 2.100 casos incidentes (95% II: 923-3.234) e 27.272 DALYs (95% II: 11.999-41.675) por doenças cardiovasculares poderiam ser prevenidos ou adiados por ano. Conclusão Concluiu-se que a carga de doenças cardiovasculares atribuível ao consumo excessivo de sal no Paraguai é significante e políticas de redução deveriam ser priorizadas no país.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sodium, Dietary/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Paraguay , World Health Organization , Mortality/ethnology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Health Policy , Hypertension/mortality
In. Aya Pastrana, Nathaly; Besada Paullier, Inés; Garré Castro, Laura; González Bula, Gabriela; León, Carolina de. Mercadeo social para la salud pública: cambios de comportamientos para el bien social. [Montevideo], Comisión Honoraria para la Salud Cardiovascular, [2023?]. p.98-114.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1425637
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 47-58, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927580


The kidney is one of the main target organs involved in hypertension, and it regulates water and salt metabolism, blood volume and vascular resistance. High salt intake induces salt and water retention, persistent endothelial dysfunction and elevation of blood pressure in salt sensitive individuals. Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl-SS) rats, as a classic animal model for salt sensitive hypertension, have many similar stably inherited physiological characteristics to human with salt sensitive hypertension, such as salt sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, renal failure, increased urinary protein secretion and low plasma renin activity. Based on renal physiology and biochemistry researches and multi-omics analyses in Dahl-SS rats, this review will summarize the relationship between salt sensitive hypertension and renal redox, NO, amino acids, glucose and lipid metabolism.

Animals , Rats , Blood Pressure , Hypertension , Kidney/metabolism , Rats, Inbred Dahl , Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 340-345, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935290


Objective: To explore the knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction in adults of Beijing in 2017. Methods: Based on the monitoring data of chronic diseases and corresponding risk factors in adults of Beijing in 2017, the indicators of salt reduction knowledge, attitude and behavior of 13 240 participants aged 18-79 years old were analyzed. The awareness rate, attitude support rate and behavior rate were calculated by complex weighting method, and compared among different age groups, genders, residential areas, and history of hypertension. The proportion of people taking various salt reduction measures to the total number of people was compared. Results: The awareness rate of recommended daily salt intake, the awareness of hypertension caused or aggravated by more salt intake, the attitude support rate and behavior rate of adults were 31.77%, 88.56%, 90.27% and 53.86%, respectively. After weighted adjustment, the awareness rate of recommended daily salt intake was 31.08%, which increased with age (χ2trend=431.56, P<0.001) and education level (χ2trend=95.44, P<0.001). The awareness rate of women was higher than that of men (χ²=118.89, P<0.001), and the awareness rate of population in urban areas was higher than that of population in suburban areas (χ²=34.09, P=0.001). The awareness rate of hypertension caused or aggravated by eating more salt was 86.73%. The support rate of salt reduction attitude was 90.45%. The rate of salt-reducing behavior was 54.05%. Among different salt reduction measures, reducing salt when cooking was the most common measure (52.41%), while the least common one (35.22%) was using low sodium salt. Logistic regression model analysis showed that the gender, age, education level, self-reported history of hypertension, awareness of salt recommendation, awareness of hypertension caused or aggravated by eating more salt, and salt reduction attitude were significantly associated with salt reduction behavior. Conclusion: In 2017, adults in Beijing have a basic understanding of the impact of high-salt diet on health and support salt reduction, but the rate of salt reduction behavior is still relatively low. There are obvious gender and age differences, and the salt reduction measure is simple. Targeted measures should be taken to promote the formation of salt reduction behavior.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beijing , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hypertension/prevention & control , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00118821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374866


This study objective was to describe the distribution of food consumption markers in Brazil per sociodemographic characteristics and its evolution from 2013 to 2019. Healthy food consumption markers (regular consumption of beans, fruits, vegetables, and fish, recommended consumption of red meat, and never replacing meals with snacks) and unhealthy food consumption markers (regular consumption of sweetened beverages and confectionery and excessive salt intake) were studied for adult participants of the Brazilian National Health Survey. The prevalence of food consumption markers was estimated according to sociodemographic characteristics and compared to data of 2013 and 2019. Most of the population regularly consumes beans, fruits, and vegetables, they also follows the recommendation to limit red meat consumption, and never replaces meals with snacks. The percentage of people who regularly consume sweetened beverages and perceive their salt intake as excessive is relatively low. The distribution of food consumption markers was associated with sex, age, income, race/skin color, area of dwelling, and schooling level. From 2013 to 2019, the prevalence of most food consumption markers declined, except for the regular consumption of fruits and recommended consumption of red meat, that increased 8.5% and 18.5%, respectively, and the regular consumption of vegetables, which did not vary. Healthy and unhealthy food consumption markers should be monitored to evaluate the effect of healthy eating policies implemented in the country.

O estudo teve como objetivo descrever a distribuição de marcadores de consumo alimentar no Brasil de acordo com características sociodemográficas e sua evolução entre 2013 e 2019. Foram estudados os marcadores de consumo alimentar saudável (consumo regular de feijão, frutas, verduras e peixe, consumo de carne vermelha em níveis recomendados e consumo de refeições em vez de lances) e de consumo alimentar não saudável (consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas e doces e ingestão excessiva de sal) entre os adultos que participaram na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. A prevalência de marcadores de consumo alimentar foi estimada de acordo com as características sociodemográficas e comparada com os dados entre 2013 e 2019. A maioria da população relata consumo regular de feijão, frutas e verduras, segue a recomendação de limitar o consumo de carne vermelha e nunca substituir refeições por lanches. É relativamente baixa a proporção de pessoas que consome bebidas açucaradas regularmente e que relata alta ingestão de sal. A distribuição de marcadores de consumo alimentar esteve associada a gênero, idade, raça/cor, área de residência e escolaridade. Entre 2013 e 2019, diminuiu a prevalência da maioria dos marcadores de consumo alimentar, exceto do consumo regular de frutas e do consumo recomendado de carne vermelha, que aumentaram em 8,5% e 18,5%, respectivamente, e do consumo regular de verduras, que não variou. Os alimentos marcadores de consumo saudável e não saudável devem ser monitorados para avaliar o efeito das políticas de alimentação saudável no país.

El objetivo del estudio fue describir la distribución de los marcadores de consumo de alimentos en Brasil, según sus características sociodemográficas y su evolución de 2013 a 2019. Se estudiaron los marcadores de consumo de comida saludable (consumo regular de frijoles, frutas, verduras, pescado, consumo recomendado de carne roja y nunca sustituir comidas por aperitivos) y marcadores de comida no saludable (consumo regular de bebidas azucaradas, repostería y consumo de sal percibido como excesivo) entre adultos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud. La prevalencia de los marcadores de consumo de alimentos se estimó según características sociodemográficas y se comparó la prevalencia de los años 2013 y 2019. Una gran parte de la población regularmente consume frijoles, frutas y verduras y cumple la recomendación del consumo de carne roja, además, nunca sustituye comidas por aperitivos. El porcentaje de gente que regularmente consume bebidas azucaradas y percibe su consumo de sal como excesivo es relativamente más bajo. La distribución de los marcadores de consumo de alimentos estuvo asociada con sexo, edad, ingresos, raza/color de piel, lugar de residencia y nivel educativo. Desde 2013 a 2019, la prevalencia de la mayoría de los marcadores de consumo de alimentos decayó, excepto en el caso del consumo regular de frutas y consumo recomendado de carne roja, que se incrementó en un 8,5% y 18,5% respectivamente, al igual que el consumo regular de verduras, que no varió. La supervisión de los marcadores de consumo de las comidas sanas e insanas puede ser útil para evaluar el impacto de políticas de promoción de la comida sana implementadas en el país.

Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Feeding Behavior , Vegetables , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Diet , Fruit
Brasília; Instituto Veredas; maio. 2021. 56 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1398542


Pergunta: Quais são as estratégias alimentares mais efetivas para o tratamento de pessoas com hipertensão? Métodos: As buscas foram realizadas em cinco bases de dados com restrição de ano de publicação (a partir do ano 2010). Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas em inglês, português e espanhol que avaliaram o efeito de dietas no tratamento da hipertensão na população adulta. Nesta revisão rápida, produzida em dez dias, a seleção, a extração dos artigos e avaliação da qualidade metodológica (por meio do AMSTAR 2) não foram feitas em duplicidade, ou seja, cada trabalho foi avaliado por apenas um(a) dos pesquisadores(as). Resultados: Foram incluídas 21 revisões sistemáticas, a maioria com qualidade metodológica criticamente baixa. Foram identificadas estratégias alimentares relacionadas à redução no consumo de sal ou baixo teor de sódio; dieta DASH; dietas com baixo índice glicêmico; dieta ovo-lacto-vegetarianas; dieta mediterrânea; dieta com restrição de calorias; consumo de alimentos específicos, como extrato de tomate, proteína de soja e óleo de gergelim; consumo de bebidas específicas, como leite com lactobacilos e sucos; e as quais envolveram prescrições de dieta em conjunto com aconselhamento nutricional e outras ações educativas. Em relação aos desfechos de interesse, a maioria dos estudos considerou a redução na pressão arterial sistólica e na pressão arterial diastólica. Embora o desfecho de perda de peso seja relevante para os resultados em relação à hipertensão, não foram extraídas informações dos estudos sobre esse tema. Destacam-se as medidas dietéticas de redução de sódio ou substituição do sal, as quais tiveram importantes resultados com relação à redução da pressão sanguínea. Apenas uma revisão sistemática relatou eventos adversos leves ocorridos ­ gases estomacais e flatulências ­ elacionados ao consumo de leite fermentado com lactobacilos. Conclusão e limitações: Apenas uma revisão sistemática avaliada com qualidade metodológica alta estudou dietas de redução de sódio e encontrou resultados positivos para redução das medidas de pressão arterial. Os demais estudos incluídos nesta revisão, apesar de informarem resultados positivos das dietas de redução de sódio, de substituição do sal, dieta DASH, dietas com baixo índice glicêmico, dieta ovo-lacto-vegetarianas, consumo de alimentos específicos, como extrato de tomate, proteína de soja e óleo de gergelim; consumo de bebidas específicas, como leite com lactobacilos e sucos, nos desfechos relacionados à hipertensão (redução de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólicas), foram avaliados, em sua maioria, com qualidade criticamente baixa ou baixa. Isso significa que o grau de confiança que pode ser atribuído a esses achados é pequeno e, portanto, mais estudos são necessários para afirmar com segurança o efeito das dietas no desfecho hipertensão arterial. Esta revisão rápida possui limitações que precisam ser consideradas na interpretação dos achados, como as restrições relativas à metodologia de sínteses rápidas, com filtros, processos de seleção e extração e critérios de elegibilidade reduzidos. Em relação às limitações dos estudos primários que compõem as revisões sistemáticas incluídas, os autores relataram a existência de heterogeneidade entre os estudos incluídos em relação à composição da dieta, ao tempo de seguimento e mesmo às medidas de hipertensão. Por fim, os resultados aqui apresentados fornecem elementos importantes a serem considerados na construção de estratégias alimentares para o tratamento da hipertensão. Além das intervenções aqui relatadas, é importante ressaltar a necessidade de adaptação das estratégias nutricionais para as diferentes populações e contextos, bem como o levantamento de possíveis barreiras e facilitadores que podem impactar a adesão a diferentes dietas.

Question: What are the most effective dietary strategies for treating people with hypertension? Methods: Searches were carried out in five databases with publication year restriction (from the year 2010). Systematic reviews in English, Portuguese and Spanish that evaluated the effect of diets in the treatment of hypertension in the adult population were included. In this rapid review, produced in ten days, the selection, extraction of articles and assessment of methodological quality (through AMSTAR 2) were not done in duplicate, that is, each work was evaluated by only one of the researchers (at). Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews were included, most of which were of critically low methodological quality. Dietary strategies related to reduced salt intake or low sodium were identified; DASH diet; low glycemic index diets; ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet; Mediterranean diet; calorie-restricted diet; consumption of specific foods, such as tomato paste, soy protein and sesame oil; consumption of specific drinks, such as milk with lactobacilli and juices; and involving dietary prescriptions combined with nutritional guidelines and other educational actions. Regarding the outcomes of interest, most studies considered the reduction in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Although the weight loss outcome is relevant to the results in relation to hypertension, no information was extracted from studies on this topic. Dietary measures to reduce sodium or replace salt stand out, which had important results in reducing blood pressure. Only one systematic review reported mild adverse events ­ stomach gas and flatulence ­ related to the consumption of milk fermented with lactobacilli. Conclusion and limitations: Only one systematic review evaluated with high methodological quality studied diets with reduced sodium and found positive results for the reduction of blood pressure measurements. The other studies included in this review, despite reporting positive results from sodium reduction diets, salt replacement, DASH diet, low glycemic index diets, ovo-lacto-vegetarian diets, consumption of specific foods, such as tomato paste, protein soybean and sesame oil; consumption of specific beverages, such as milk with lactobacilli and juices, on hypertension-related outcomes (reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure), were mostly rated as critically low or of poor quality. This means that the degree of confidence that can be attributed to these findings is small and, therefore, further studies are needed to confirm with certainty the effect of diets on the arterial hypertension outcome. This rapid review has limitations that need to be considered when interpreting the findings, such as restrictions on the rapid synthesis methodology, with filters, selection and extraction processes, and reduced eligibility criteria. Regarding the limitations of the primary studies that make up the included systematic reviews, the authors reported the existence of heterogeneity among the included studies in relation to diet composition, follow-up time and even hypertension measurements. Finally, the results presented here provide important elements to be considered in the construction of dietary strategies for the treatment of hypertension. In addition to the interventions reported here, it is important to emphasize the need to adapt nutritional strategies to different populations and contexts, as well as the survey of possible barriers and facilitators that may impact adherence to different diets.

Pregunta: ¿Cuáles son las estrategias dietéticas más efectivas para tratar a las personas con hipertensión? Métodos: Las búsquedas se realizaron en cinco bases de datos con restricción de año de publicación (a partir del año 2010). Se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas en inglés, portugués y español que evaluaron el efecto de las dietas en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en la población adulta. En esta revisión rápida, realizada en diez días, la selección, extracción de artículos y evaluación de la calidad metodológica (a través de AMSTAR 2) no se hizo por duplicado, es decir, cada trabajo fue evaluado por uno solo de los investigadores (at). Resultados: Se incluyeron veintiuna revisiones sistemáticas, la mayoría de las cuales tenían una calidad metodológica críticamente baja. Se identificaron estrategias dietéticas relacionadas con la ingesta reducida de sal o baja en sodio; Dieta tablero; dietas de bajo índice glucémico; dieta ovo-lacto-vegetariana; Dieta mediterránea; dieta restringida en calorías; consumo de alimentos específicos, como pasta de tomate, proteína de soja y aceite de sésamo; consumo de bebidas específicas, como leche con lactobacilos y jugos; e involucrando prescripciones dietéticas combinadas con guías nutricionales y otras acciones educativas. En cuanto a los resultados de interés, la mayoría de los estudios consideraron la reducción de la presión arterial sistólica y la presión arterial diastólica. Aunque el resultado de la pérdida de peso es relevante para los resultados en relación con la hipertensión, no se extrajo información de los estudios sobre este tema. Destacan las medidas dietéticas para reducir el sodio o sustituir la sal, que tuvieron importantes resultados en la reducción de la presión arterial. Solo una revisión sistemática reportó eventos adversos leves -gases estomacales y flatulencia- relacionados con el consumo de leche fermentada con lactobacilos. Conclusión y limitaciones: Solo una revisión sistemática evaluada con alta calidad metodológica estudió dietas bajas en sodio y encontró resultados positivos para la reducción de las medidas de presión arterial. Los otros estudios incluidos en esta revisión, a pesar de informar resultados positivos de dietas de reducción de sodio, reemplazo de sal, dieta DASH, dietas de bajo índice glucémico, dietas ovo-lacto-vegetarianas, consumo de alimentos específicos, como pasta de tomate, proteína de soja y aceite de sésamo ; el consumo de bebidas específicas, como leche con lactobacilos y jugos, sobre los resultados relacionados con la hipertensión (reducción de la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica), se calificaron en su mayoría como críticamente bajos o de mala calidad. Esto significa que el grado de confianza que se puede atribuir a estos hallazgos es pequeño y, por lo tanto, se necesitan más estudios para confirmar con certeza el efecto de las dietas en el resultado de la hipertensión arterial. Esta revisión rápida tiene limitaciones que deben tenerse en cuenta al interpretar los hallazgos, como restricciones en la metodología de síntesis rápida, con filtros, procesos de selección y extracción y criterios de elegibilidad reducidos. En cuanto a las limitaciones de los estudios primarios que componen las revisiones sistemáticas incluidas, los autores informaron la existencia de heterogeneidad entre los estudios incluidos en relación con la composición de la dieta, el tiempo de seguimiento e incluso las medidas de hipertensión. Finalmente, los resultados aquí presentados aportan elementos importantes a ser considerados en la construcción de estrategias dietéticas para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial. Además de las intervenciones reportadas aquí, es importante enfatizar la necesidad de adaptar las estrategias nutricionales a diferentes poblaciones y contextos, así como el levantamiento de posibles barreras y facilitadores que pueden impactar la adherencia a diferentes dietas.

Humans , Adult , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Diet, Healthy , Hypertension/diet therapy
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 124-133, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154560


Abstract Background High dietary sodium intake can induce endothelial stiffness even without changes in blood pressure. Objectives To evaluate the effects of exercise training and chronic intake of sodium chloride solution on aortic morphology of male offspring of rat dams who consumed flaxseed during lactation. Methods Female rats were fed with a control diet or a flaxseed diet during lactation. At weaning, two male offspring of each rat dam were allocated into eight groups for 180 days: four groups received a control diet e four received a flaxseed diet, with /without exercise and with/without NaCl solution supply. Aorta was collected for histomorphometric analysis. The one-way analysis of variance was used and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The chronic use of 1% NaCl solution led to changes in aortic histoarchitecture in the control group: increase in aortic intima-media thickness (10,4%, p<0.0001) and reduced number of elastic lamellae (-8,1%, p<0.0001). Groups of offspring of mother that consumed flaxseed during lactation, the chronic use of 1% NaCl alone did not lead to an increase in the aortic intima-media thickness. Exercise training of adult offspring increased aortic intima-media thickness (13.3%, p<0.0001), with preservation of elastic components and aortic flexibility. Conclusion Chronic salt overload caused adverse effects on the aorta of rats, and maternal consumption of the flaxseed diet during lactation protected against aortic remodeling. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Aorta/anatomy & histology , Seeds , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Flax , Aorta/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Endothelium/physiopathology , Animals, Suckling
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1381-1390, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285908


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar os fatores sociodemográficos e alimentares associados ao estado nutricional de iodo do grupo materno-infantil. A revisão foi baseada no método PRISMA. As bases consultadas foram: Medline (PubMed), Scopus e Lilacs. A busca ocorreu em dezembro de 2018, utilizando os descritores estado nutricional, iodo, lactente, gestante e lactante. A seleção seguiu as etapas de exclusão dos duplicados, leitura dos títulos, resumos e análise na íntegra. Foram identificados 1.500 estudos e 26 contemplaram os critérios de inclusão. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos foi avaliada pelo questionário proposto por Downs e Black. Houve associação entre os fatores sociodemográficos renda, escolaridade, idade materna e gestacional, paridade e local de residência rural ou urbano com o estado nutricional de iodo. Já em relação aos fatores alimentares, o consumo de suplementos, sal iodado e alimentos fontes de iodo, em especial os produtos lácteos, exercem papel protetor contra a deficiência. É preciso criar estratégias mais específicas, efetivas e que contemplem todos esses fatores que afetam o estado nutricional de iodo para evitar as desordens provocadas pela deficiência.

Abstract This article sets out to identify the socio-demographic and nutritional factors associated with the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group. The review was based on the Prisma method and the Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Lilacs databases were consulted. The search was conducted in December 2018, using the key words nutritional status, iodine, infant, pregnant and lactating. The selection followed the stages of excluding duplicated articles, reading the titles, abstracts and texts in full. A total of 1,500 studies were identified and 26 met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the questionnaire proposed by Downs and Black. There was an association between the sociodemographic factors of income, education, maternal and gestational age, uniformity and place of residence in rural or urban areas with the nutritional state of iodine. In relation to dietary factors, the consumption of supplements, iodized salt and dietary sources of iodine, especially dairy products, play a protective role to avoid the deficiency. It is necessary to create more specific and effective strategies that address all the factors that affect the nutritional state of iodine to avoid the disorders resulting from the deficiency.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Nutritional Status , Iodine , Lactation , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Dietary Supplements , Diet
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 555-567, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153771


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar os fatores associados ao consumo elevado de sal na população brasileira adulta. Estudo transversal com dados de 8.083 adultos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, 2014/15). O consumo de sal foi baseado na estimativa de excreção urinária de sódio de 24 horas, calculada pela relação sódio/creatinina em amostra de urina casual. Considerou-se consumo elevado o quartil mais alto da distribuição. A relação entre consumo elevado de sal e fatores sociodemográficos, estilos de vida, morbidade e autoavaliação do estado de saúde foi analisada pelo cálculo das razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas por idade e sexo. 28,1% apresentavam consumo estimado de sal maior que 10,56 g/dia. Estiveram positivamente associados ao consumo elevado de sal a presença de sobrepeso (Razão de Prevalência ajustada; IC95% - RPaj 1,23; 1,09-1,39), obesidade (RPaj 1,61; 1,43-1,83) e diabetes (RPaj 1,36; 1,17-1,58). Foram fatores de proteção o sexo feminino (RPaj 0,73; 0,66-0,80), escolaridade elevada (RPaj 0,88; 0,79-0,99), morar na região Norte e presença de doença renal crônica (RPaj 0,71; 0,56-0,90). O consumo de sal é elevado em todo o país e em todos os subgrupos da população, demandando ações coordenadas para seu enfrentamento.

Abstract This paper aims to identify the factors associated with high salt intake in the Brazilian adult population. This is a cross-sectional study with 8,083 adults participating in the National Health Survey (PNS, 2014/15). Salt intake was based on the estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium calculated from the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot urine samples. The highest quartile of the distribution was considered high salt intake. The relationship between high salt consumption and sociodemographic factors, lifestyles, morbidity, and self-rated health status was analyzed by calculating the crude prevalence ratios and the prevalence ratios adjusted for age and gender. Approximately 28.1% had an estimated salt intake higher than 10.56 g/day. Overweight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio; 95%CI - PRadj 1.23; 1.09-1.39), obesity (PRadj 1.61; 1.43-1.83), and diabetes (PRadj 1.36; 1.17-1.58) were positively associated with high salt intake. Female gender (PRadj 0.73; 0.66-0.80), high schooling level (PRadj 0.88; 0.79-0.99), living in the North and chronic kidney disease (PRadj 0.71; 0.56-0.90) were protective factors. Salt consumption is elevated nationwide and in all population subgroups, requiring coordinated actions.

Humans , Female , Adult , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Feeding Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 16(1): e57854, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428147


Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso de um tempero à base de ervas em preparações proteicas como estratégia para a redução da ingestão de sódio por comensais atendidos em uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN). Material e Métodos:Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado em uma UAN de uma fábrica. O tempero à base de ervas foi desenvolvido com o auxílio das cozinheiras da unidade. A composição nutricional das preparações proteicas foi determinada com o auxílio de tabelas de composição de alimentos. Para avaliar a aceitação das preparações, foram realizadas análises sensoriais de duas preparações culinárias: peito de frango e acém bovino adicionados do tempero à base de ervas. Foram considerados os seguintes atributos: cor, textura, aroma, aparência e avaliação global, em uma escala hedônica de 9 pontos que varia de "desgostei muitíssimo" a "gostei muitíssimo". O índice de aceitabilidade também foi calculado para todos os atributos. Resultados: Quarenta e um juízes consumidores foram recrutados para realizar a análise sensorial. Houve uma redução importante nos níveis de sódio de 60,2% (de 939,2 mg para 375,3 mg) e 23,3% (de 709,7 mg para 544,0 mg) por 100g de peito de frango e acém bovino, respectivamente, e um aumento no teor de fibra das preparações que receberam o tempero à base de ervas. O índice de aceitação global de peito de frango temperado e filé de carne bovina foi de 87,8% e 83,8%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A substituição de temperos ultraprocessados por temperos à base de ervas em preparações de proteínas foi bem aceita entre comensais da UAN.

Objective:This study aimed to evaluate the use of a herbs-based seasoning in protein preparations as a strategy for reducing sodium intake by diners served at a Food and Nutrition Unit (FNU). Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a FNU factory. The herbs-based seasoning was developed with the help of the unit's cooks. The proximate composition of protein preparations was determined with the aid of food composition tables. To assess the acceptance of the preparations, a sensory analysis was performed for two culinary preparations: chicken breast and beef chuck steak added with the herbs-based seasoning. The following attributes were considered for evaluating colour, texture, aroma, appearance and overall evaluation, on a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from "I disliked a lot" to "I liked a lot". The acceptability index was also calculated for all attributes. Results: Forty-one consumer judges were recruited to perform the sensory analysis. There was an important reduction in sodium levels of 60.2% (from 939.2 mg to 375.3 mg) and 23.3% (from 709.7 mg to 544.0 mg) per 100g of chicken breast and beef chuck steak, respectively, and an increase in the fiber content of the preparations that received the herbs-based seasoning. The global acceptance index of seasoned chicken breast and beef chuck steak was 87.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The substitution of ultra-processed seasoning for herbs-based seasoning in protein preparations was well accepted among FNU diners.

Humans , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Collective Feeding , Food Composition , Prepared Foods , Diet, Healthy , Brazil
Odontoestomatol ; 23(38): 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY-Odon, BNUY | ID: biblio-1370747


Objetivos: Evaluar la concentración de fluoruro en la sal de mesa disponible comercialmente en Montevideo, Uruguay. Método: Fueron analizados catorce paquetes de sal para determinar la concentración de iones fluoruro libres. Las muestras se pesaron, se diluyeron en agua desionizada, se mezclaron con TISAB II y se utilizó un electrodo específico conectado a un analizador de iones para determinar la concentración de fluoruro Resultado: La mayoría de los paquetes presentaron valores inferiores a 250 mgF / kg. Las muestras de sal gruesa mostraron concentraciones mayores a las de sal fina (p <0.05). Aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de sodio presentaron mayor concentración de fluoruro que aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de potasio (p <0.05). Dos marcas presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro cercanas a las informadas en el envase. Conclusiones: Las sales de mesa comercializadas en Montevideo, Uruguay presentaron gran variabilidad en las concentraciones de fluoruro

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of fluoride (F) in household salt marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay. Methods: Fourteen household salt brands marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay were analyzed to determine the F concentrations. Salt samples were prepared and F concentrations were determined using a fluoride-specific electrode connected to an ion analyzer. Results: Most of the salt brands showed values lower than 250 mgF/kg. Coarse salt samples showed higher F concentrations compared to the refined salt samples (p < 0.05). Salt brands contained sodium fluoride presented higher F concentrations than salt brands contained potassium fluoride (p < 0.05). Only two brands had F concentrations close to that informed in product packages. Conclusions: Household salt brands marketed in Montevideo (Uruguay) present a great variability in their F concentrations.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações de flúor (F) no sal de uso doméstico comercializado em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Métodos: Quatorze marcas de sal doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) foram analisadas para determinar as concentrações de F. As amostras de sal foram preparadas e as concentrações de flúor foram determinadas através de um eletrodo específico para F conectado a um analisador de íons. Resultados: A maioria das marcas de sal mostraram valores menores que 250mgF/ kg. Amostras de sal grosso apresentaram as maiores concentrações de F comparadas às amostras de sal refinado (p < 0,05). Apenas duas marcas tiveram as concentrações de F próximas àquelas informadas nas embalagens dos produtos. Conclusões: As marcas de sal de uso doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) apresentam uma grande variabilidade em suas concentrações de F.

Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Uruguay , Dental Caries/prevention & control
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(3): 554-561, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088882


Resumo Fundamento Os efeitos da redução na ingestão do sal sobre a pressão arterial (PA) casual de hipertensos já foram amplamente estudados, entretanto essa análise ainda é escassa no contexto da redução exclusiva do sal de adição na rigidez arterial e em indivíduos normotensos e pré-hipertensos. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da redução progressiva na ingestão do sal de adição (de 6 para 4 g/dia) sobre os valores da pressão periférica e central, a rigidez arterial em normotensos, pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Métodos Ensaio clínico, simples cego com 13 semanas de seguimento. Foram avaliados normotensos (≤130/85 mmHg), pré-hipertensos (≥130 e <139/≥85 e <90 mmHg) e hipertensos estágio 1 (≥140 e <160/≥90 e <100 mmHg). Utilizou-se medida casual e monitorização residencial da PA com aparelho automático OMRON 705CP, medida central da PA com Sphygmocor®, dosagem do sódio urinário de 24h (colhido no intervalo entre cada visita) e mensuração de sal de adição. Foi adotado nível de significância p<0,05 para todas as análises. Resultados Foram avaliados 55 participantes (18 normotensos; 15 pré-hipertensos; 22 hipertensos) com mediana 48 anos (IQ:39-54). Os grupos foram semelhantes em relação a idade e sexo. Não houve diferença entre medidas de PA e excreção de sódio antes e depois da intervenção. Os parâmetros de rigidez arterial também não sofreram alterações significativas. Conclusão A redução gradativa da ingestão de sal de adição num seguimento de 13 semanas não foi capaz de reduzir de maneira significativa os valores periféricos e centrais da PA. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):554-561)

Abstract Background Although the effects of salt intake reduction on casual blood pressure have been extensively studied in hypertensive individuals, data on reductions of added salt on arterial stiffness in both normotensive and prehypertensive subjects are scarce. Objective To evaluate the effects of progressive reduction in added salt intake (from 6 grams to 4 grams per day) on peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Methods This was a single-blinded clinical trial with 13 weeks of follow-up. Normotensive (≤ 130/85 mmHg), prehypertensive (≥ 130 e < 139/≥ 85 e < 90 mmHg) and stage 1 hypertensive individuals (< 139/≥ 85 and < 90 mmHg) were assessed. Casual blood pressure measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed using the automated OMRON 705CP device, and central blood pressure was measured using the Sphygmocor®. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion and the amounts of added salt consumed were measured. Statistically significance level was set at p < 0.05 for all analysis. Results A total of 55 participants (18 normotensive, 15 prehypertensive and 22 hypertensive), median age 48 years (IQR:39-54) were studied. The groups were not different in age or sex. No difference was observed in blood pressure or sodium excretion levels before and after the intervention. No significant changes in arterial stiffness parameters were observed. Conclusion The progressive reduction in added salt intake during a period of 13 weeks did not cause significant reductions in peripheral and central blood pressure. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):554-561)

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Hypertension
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 97-104, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092749


El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) relacionados con la ingesta de sal/sodio en niños, desde la perspectiva de los cuidadores. Este, es un estudio de corte transversal en el que participaron 2997 cuidadores que asistieron a una sesión educativa sobre alimentación saludable realizada en el marco del proyecto "Acciones Complementarias del Programa de Alimentación Escolar y Maná Infantil" de la Gobernación de Antioquia, liderado por la Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética de la Universidad de Antioquia, entre agosto y septiembre de 2015. Al recolectar la información, se obtuvo que un alto porcentaje de encuestados refieren no conocer la diferencia entre sal y sodio (79,1%) y desconocen la cantidad de sodio contenida en los alimentos que consumen sus hijos; no obstante, consideran importante limitar la ingesta de sal en los niños. Finalmente, se identifica un alto número de personas dispuestas a disminuir la ingesta de sal en sus hijos, pero no sucede lo mismo cuando se hace referencia al sodio, debido a que se requiere un conocimiento más especializado y específico para tomar decisiones relacionadas con el contenido de este mineral en los alimentos, dado que está oculto.

The present study aims to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to salt / sodium intake in children from the perspective of caregivers. We conducted a crosssectional study involving 2997 caregivers who attended an educational session on healthy eating carried out within the framework of the project "Complementary Actions of the School Feeding Program and Children's Mana" carried out by the Government of Antioquia and led by the School of Nutrition and Dietetics of the University of Antioquia between August and September 2015. When collecting the information, it was found that a high percentage of persons surveyed reported not knowing the difference between salt and sodium (79.1%) and not knowing the amount of sodium contained in their child's foods; however, they considered the limiting of salt intake important for their children. Finally, a high percentage of participants were willing to reduce the salt intake of their children, but this was not the case with regard to sodium, because more specialized and specific knowledge is required to make decisions related to the content of this mineral in food, since it is hidden.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Caregivers/psychology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Colombia , Eating/psychology
São Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099385


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important public health problem. Overweight and high salt intake are risk factors for its development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between salt taste sensitivity threshold (STST) and blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private institution. METHODS: 104 healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were evaluated. Sociodemographic, clinical and dietary data were collected. Nutritional status and BP were assessed using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). STST was assessed using graded saline solutions with sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0.228 to 58.44 g/l. Identification of salty taste in solutions ≥ 3.652 g/l was used as the cutoff point for high STST. RESULTS: Participants with high STST presented higher daily average intakes for energy (2017.4 ± 641.5 versus 1650.5 ± 357.7 kcal/day; P = 0.01) and sodium (3070.2 ± 1195.1 versus 2435.2 ± 963.6 mg/day; P = 0.01) and higher BMI (P = 0.008) and WC (P = 0.002). After adjustment for age, sex, sodium and potassium intake, WC and family history of hypertension, the averages for SBP and DBP in subjects with high STST were higher than in those with normal STST (SBP: 138.2 ± 1.7 versus 119.7 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001; DBP: 81.2 ± 1.9 versus 75.1 ± 1.0 mmHg; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: High STST was associated with elevated blood pressure in healthy adults, regardless of other risk factors for hypertension.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Hypertension , Taste , Sodium Chloride , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies