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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1381-1390, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285908

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar os fatores sociodemográficos e alimentares associados ao estado nutricional de iodo do grupo materno-infantil. A revisão foi baseada no método PRISMA. As bases consultadas foram: Medline (PubMed), Scopus e Lilacs. A busca ocorreu em dezembro de 2018, utilizando os descritores estado nutricional, iodo, lactente, gestante e lactante. A seleção seguiu as etapas de exclusão dos duplicados, leitura dos títulos, resumos e análise na íntegra. Foram identificados 1.500 estudos e 26 contemplaram os critérios de inclusão. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos foi avaliada pelo questionário proposto por Downs e Black. Houve associação entre os fatores sociodemográficos renda, escolaridade, idade materna e gestacional, paridade e local de residência rural ou urbano com o estado nutricional de iodo. Já em relação aos fatores alimentares, o consumo de suplementos, sal iodado e alimentos fontes de iodo, em especial os produtos lácteos, exercem papel protetor contra a deficiência. É preciso criar estratégias mais específicas, efetivas e que contemplem todos esses fatores que afetam o estado nutricional de iodo para evitar as desordens provocadas pela deficiência.


Abstract This article sets out to identify the socio-demographic and nutritional factors associated with the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group. The review was based on the Prisma method and the Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Lilacs databases were consulted. The search was conducted in December 2018, using the key words nutritional status, iodine, infant, pregnant and lactating. The selection followed the stages of excluding duplicated articles, reading the titles, abstracts and texts in full. A total of 1,500 studies were identified and 26 met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the questionnaire proposed by Downs and Black. There was an association between the sociodemographic factors of income, education, maternal and gestational age, uniformity and place of residence in rural or urban areas with the nutritional state of iodine. In relation to dietary factors, the consumption of supplements, iodized salt and dietary sources of iodine, especially dairy products, play a protective role to avoid the deficiency. It is necessary to create more specific and effective strategies that address all the factors that affect the nutritional state of iodine to avoid the disorders resulting from the deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Nutritional Status , Iodine , Lactation , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Dietary Supplements , Diet
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 555-567, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153771

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar os fatores associados ao consumo elevado de sal na população brasileira adulta. Estudo transversal com dados de 8.083 adultos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, 2014/15). O consumo de sal foi baseado na estimativa de excreção urinária de sódio de 24 horas, calculada pela relação sódio/creatinina em amostra de urina casual. Considerou-se consumo elevado o quartil mais alto da distribuição. A relação entre consumo elevado de sal e fatores sociodemográficos, estilos de vida, morbidade e autoavaliação do estado de saúde foi analisada pelo cálculo das razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas por idade e sexo. 28,1% apresentavam consumo estimado de sal maior que 10,56 g/dia. Estiveram positivamente associados ao consumo elevado de sal a presença de sobrepeso (Razão de Prevalência ajustada; IC95% - RPaj 1,23; 1,09-1,39), obesidade (RPaj 1,61; 1,43-1,83) e diabetes (RPaj 1,36; 1,17-1,58). Foram fatores de proteção o sexo feminino (RPaj 0,73; 0,66-0,80), escolaridade elevada (RPaj 0,88; 0,79-0,99), morar na região Norte e presença de doença renal crônica (RPaj 0,71; 0,56-0,90). O consumo de sal é elevado em todo o país e em todos os subgrupos da população, demandando ações coordenadas para seu enfrentamento.


Abstract This paper aims to identify the factors associated with high salt intake in the Brazilian adult population. This is a cross-sectional study with 8,083 adults participating in the National Health Survey (PNS, 2014/15). Salt intake was based on the estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium calculated from the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot urine samples. The highest quartile of the distribution was considered high salt intake. The relationship between high salt consumption and sociodemographic factors, lifestyles, morbidity, and self-rated health status was analyzed by calculating the crude prevalence ratios and the prevalence ratios adjusted for age and gender. Approximately 28.1% had an estimated salt intake higher than 10.56 g/day. Overweight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio; 95%CI - PRadj 1.23; 1.09-1.39), obesity (PRadj 1.61; 1.43-1.83), and diabetes (PRadj 1.36; 1.17-1.58) were positively associated with high salt intake. Female gender (PRadj 0.73; 0.66-0.80), high schooling level (PRadj 0.88; 0.79-0.99), living in the North and chronic kidney disease (PRadj 0.71; 0.56-0.90) were protective factors. Salt consumption is elevated nationwide and in all population subgroups, requiring coordinated actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Feeding Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
3.
Odontoestomatol ; 23(38): 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1370747

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evaluar la concentración de fluoruro en la sal de mesa disponible comercialmente en Montevideo, Uruguay. Método: Fueron analizados catorce paquetes de sal para determinar la concentración de iones fluoruro libres. Las muestras se pesaron, se diluyeron en agua desionizada, se mezclaron con TISAB II y se utilizó un electrodo específico conectado a un analizador de iones para determinar la concentración de fluoruro Resultado: La mayoría de los paquetes presentaron valores inferiores a 250 mgF / kg. Las muestras de sal gruesa mostraron concentraciones mayores a las de sal fina (p <0.05). Aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de sodio presentaron mayor concentración de fluoruro que aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de potasio (p <0.05). Dos marcas presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro cercanas a las informadas en el envase. Conclusiones: Las sales de mesa comercializadas en Montevideo, Uruguay presentaron gran variabilidad en las concentraciones de fluoruro


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of fluoride (F) in household salt marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay. Methods: Fourteen household salt brands marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay were analyzed to determine the F concentrations. Salt samples were prepared and F concentrations were determined using a fluoride-specific electrode connected to an ion analyzer. Results: Most of the salt brands showed values lower than 250 mgF/kg. Coarse salt samples showed higher F concentrations compared to the refined salt samples (p < 0.05). Salt brands contained sodium fluoride presented higher F concentrations than salt brands contained potassium fluoride (p < 0.05). Only two brands had F concentrations close to that informed in product packages. Conclusions: Household salt brands marketed in Montevideo (Uruguay) present a great variability in their F concentrations.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações de flúor (F) no sal de uso doméstico comercializado em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Métodos: Quatorze marcas de sal doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) foram analisadas para determinar as concentrações de F. As amostras de sal foram preparadas e as concentrações de flúor foram determinadas através de um eletrodo específico para F conectado a um analisador de íons. Resultados: A maioria das marcas de sal mostraram valores menores que 250mgF/ kg. Amostras de sal grosso apresentaram as maiores concentrações de F comparadas às amostras de sal refinado (p < 0,05). Apenas duas marcas tiveram as concentrações de F próximas àquelas informadas nas embalagens dos produtos. Conclusões: As marcas de sal de uso doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) apresentam uma grande variabilidade em suas concentrações de F.


Subject(s)
Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Uruguay , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorine/analysis
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(3): 554-561, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088882

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Os efeitos da redução na ingestão do sal sobre a pressão arterial (PA) casual de hipertensos já foram amplamente estudados, entretanto essa análise ainda é escassa no contexto da redução exclusiva do sal de adição na rigidez arterial e em indivíduos normotensos e pré-hipertensos. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da redução progressiva na ingestão do sal de adição (de 6 para 4 g/dia) sobre os valores da pressão periférica e central, a rigidez arterial em normotensos, pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Métodos Ensaio clínico, simples cego com 13 semanas de seguimento. Foram avaliados normotensos (≤130/85 mmHg), pré-hipertensos (≥130 e <139/≥85 e <90 mmHg) e hipertensos estágio 1 (≥140 e <160/≥90 e <100 mmHg). Utilizou-se medida casual e monitorização residencial da PA com aparelho automático OMRON 705CP, medida central da PA com Sphygmocor®, dosagem do sódio urinário de 24h (colhido no intervalo entre cada visita) e mensuração de sal de adição. Foi adotado nível de significância p<0,05 para todas as análises. Resultados Foram avaliados 55 participantes (18 normotensos; 15 pré-hipertensos; 22 hipertensos) com mediana 48 anos (IQ:39-54). Os grupos foram semelhantes em relação a idade e sexo. Não houve diferença entre medidas de PA e excreção de sódio antes e depois da intervenção. Os parâmetros de rigidez arterial também não sofreram alterações significativas. Conclusão A redução gradativa da ingestão de sal de adição num seguimento de 13 semanas não foi capaz de reduzir de maneira significativa os valores periféricos e centrais da PA. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):554-561)


Abstract Background Although the effects of salt intake reduction on casual blood pressure have been extensively studied in hypertensive individuals, data on reductions of added salt on arterial stiffness in both normotensive and prehypertensive subjects are scarce. Objective To evaluate the effects of progressive reduction in added salt intake (from 6 grams to 4 grams per day) on peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Methods This was a single-blinded clinical trial with 13 weeks of follow-up. Normotensive (≤ 130/85 mmHg), prehypertensive (≥ 130 e < 139/≥ 85 e < 90 mmHg) and stage 1 hypertensive individuals (< 139/≥ 85 and < 90 mmHg) were assessed. Casual blood pressure measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed using the automated OMRON 705CP device, and central blood pressure was measured using the Sphygmocor®. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion and the amounts of added salt consumed were measured. Statistically significance level was set at p < 0.05 for all analysis. Results A total of 55 participants (18 normotensive, 15 prehypertensive and 22 hypertensive), median age 48 years (IQR:39-54) were studied. The groups were not different in age or sex. No difference was observed in blood pressure or sodium excretion levels before and after the intervention. No significant changes in arterial stiffness parameters were observed. Conclusion The progressive reduction in added salt intake during a period of 13 weeks did not cause significant reductions in peripheral and central blood pressure. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):554-561)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Hypertension
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 97-104, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092749

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) relacionados con la ingesta de sal/sodio en niños, desde la perspectiva de los cuidadores. Este, es un estudio de corte transversal en el que participaron 2997 cuidadores que asistieron a una sesión educativa sobre alimentación saludable realizada en el marco del proyecto "Acciones Complementarias del Programa de Alimentación Escolar y Maná Infantil" de la Gobernación de Antioquia, liderado por la Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética de la Universidad de Antioquia, entre agosto y septiembre de 2015. Al recolectar la información, se obtuvo que un alto porcentaje de encuestados refieren no conocer la diferencia entre sal y sodio (79,1%) y desconocen la cantidad de sodio contenida en los alimentos que consumen sus hijos; no obstante, consideran importante limitar la ingesta de sal en los niños. Finalmente, se identifica un alto número de personas dispuestas a disminuir la ingesta de sal en sus hijos, pero no sucede lo mismo cuando se hace referencia al sodio, debido a que se requiere un conocimiento más especializado y específico para tomar decisiones relacionadas con el contenido de este mineral en los alimentos, dado que está oculto.


The present study aims to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to salt / sodium intake in children from the perspective of caregivers. We conducted a crosssectional study involving 2997 caregivers who attended an educational session on healthy eating carried out within the framework of the project "Complementary Actions of the School Feeding Program and Children's Mana" carried out by the Government of Antioquia and led by the School of Nutrition and Dietetics of the University of Antioquia between August and September 2015. When collecting the information, it was found that a high percentage of persons surveyed reported not knowing the difference between salt and sodium (79.1%) and not knowing the amount of sodium contained in their child's foods; however, they considered the limiting of salt intake important for their children. Finally, a high percentage of participants were willing to reduce the salt intake of their children, but this was not the case with regard to sodium, because more specialized and specific knowledge is required to make decisions related to the content of this mineral in food, since it is hidden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Caregivers/psychology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Colombia , Eating/psychology
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important public health problem. Overweight and high salt intake are risk factors for its development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between salt taste sensitivity threshold (STST) and blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private institution. METHODS: 104 healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were evaluated. Sociodemographic, clinical and dietary data were collected. Nutritional status and BP were assessed using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). STST was assessed using graded saline solutions with sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0.228 to 58.44 g/l. Identification of salty taste in solutions ≥ 3.652 g/l was used as the cutoff point for high STST. RESULTS: Participants with high STST presented higher daily average intakes for energy (2017.4 ± 641.5 versus 1650.5 ± 357.7 kcal/day; P = 0.01) and sodium (3070.2 ± 1195.1 versus 2435.2 ± 963.6 mg/day; P = 0.01) and higher BMI (P = 0.008) and WC (P = 0.002). After adjustment for age, sex, sodium and potassium intake, WC and family history of hypertension, the averages for SBP and DBP in subjects with high STST were higher than in those with normal STST (SBP: 138.2 ± 1.7 versus 119.7 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001; DBP: 81.2 ± 1.9 versus 75.1 ± 1.0 mmHg; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: High STST was associated with elevated blood pressure in healthy adults, regardless of other risk factors for hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Hypertension , Taste , Sodium Chloride , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 392-399, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038551

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Seasoning is one of the recommended strategies to reduce salt in foods. However, only a few studies have studied salt preference changes using seasoning. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare preference for salty bread, and if seasoning can change preference in hypertensive and normotensive, young and older outpatients. Methods: Outpatients (n = 118) were classified in four groups: older hypertensive subjects (OH) (n = 32), young hypertensive (YH) (n = 25); older normotensive individuals (ON) (n = 28), and young normotensive (YN) (n = 33). First, volunteers random tasted bread samples with three different salt concentrations. After two weeks, they tasted the same types of breads, with seasoning added in all. Blood pressure (BP), 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (UNaV, UKV) were measured twice. Analysis: Fisher exact test, McNamer's test and ANCOVA. Statistical significance: p < 0.05. Results: Systolic BP, UNaV, and UKV were greater in HO and HY and they had a higher preference for saltier samples than normotensive groups (HO: 71.9%, HY: 56% vs. NO: 25%, NY; 6%, p<0.01). With oregano, hypertensive individuals preferred smaller concentrations of salt, with reduced choice for saltier samples (HO: 71.9% to 21.9%, and HY: 56% to 16%, p = 0.02), NO preferred the lowest salt concentration sample (53.6% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.01), and NY further increased the preference for the lowest one (63.6% vs. 39.4%, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Older and younger hypertensive individuals prefer and consume more salt than normotensive ones, and the seasoned bread induced all groups to choose food with less salt. Salt preference is linked to hypertension and not to aging in outpatients.


Resumo Fundamento: Adicionar temperos aos alimentos é umas das estratégias recomendadas para diminuir a quantidade de sal nos alimentos. No entanto, poucos estudos investigaram alterações na preferência ao sal através do uso de temperos. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a preferência pelo pão salgado, e até que ponto o uso de temperos pode alterar as preferências dos indivíduos hipertensos e normotensos, pacientes ambulatoriais jovens e idosos. Métodos: Os pacientes ambulatoriais (n = 118) foram classificados em quatro grupos: idosos com hipertensão (IH) (n = 32), jovens hipertensos (JH) (n = 25); indivíduos idosos normotensos (IN) (n = 28), e jovens normotensos (JN) (n = 33). Primeiro, os voluntários provaram amostras aleatórias de pão com três diferentes concentrações de sal. Após duas semanas, eles provaram os mesmos tipos de pão, porém acrescidos de temperos. A pressão arterial (PA), e a excreção urinária de sódio e potássio de 24 horas (UNaV, UKV) foram medidas duas vezes. Análise: Teste exato de Fisher, teste de McNemar e teste ANCOVA. Significância estatística: p < 0,05. Resultados: A PA sistólica e a excreção urinária de sódio e potássio foram maiores nos grupos IH e JH, e eles tiveram maior preferência por amostras mais salgadas quando comparados com os grupos de normotensos (IH: 71,9%, JH: 56% vs. IN: 25%, JN; 6%, p < 0,01). Quando o orégano foi adicionado, a preferência dos indivíduos hipertensos foi pelas amostras com menores concentrações de sal, com uma diminuição da escolha por amostras mais salgadas (IH: 71,9% a 21,9%, e JH: 56% a 16%, p = 0,02); o grupo IN preferiu a amostra com a concentração de sal mais baixa (53,6% vs. 14,3%, p < 0,01) e no grupo JN aumentou ainda mais o número de indivíduos com preferência pela amostra com concentrações mais baixas de sal (63,6% vs. 39,4%, p = 0,03). Conclusões: Os idosos e jovens hipertensos preferem e consomem mais sal do que os normotensos, e o pão adicionado de tempero ajudou todos os grupos a escolher alimentos menos salgados. A preferência ao sal está ligada à hipertensão e não à idade nos pacientes ambulatoriais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure/physiology , Potassium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Hypertension/etiology , Potassium/urine , Sodium/urine , Aging/physiology , Sodium Chloride , Double-Blind Method , Hypertension/urine
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 400-400, Sept. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038548
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007.@*METHODS@#In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929.@*RESULTS@#The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 μg/L (range 0-27 μg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Food, Fortified , Goiter , Epidemiology , History , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Iodine , Urine , Male , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sweden , Epidemiology , Thyroid Gland
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 47-56, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775463

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is an important biologically-active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of Ang-(1-7) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates sympathetic activity and elevates blood pressure by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and oxidative stress in the PVN in salt-induced hypertension. Rats were fed either a high-salt (8% NaCl) or a normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) for 10 weeks, followed by bilateral microinjections of the Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 or vehicle into the PVN. We found that the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were significantly increased in salt-induced hypertensive rats. The high-salt diet also resulted in higher levels of the PICs interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, as well as higher gp91 expression and superoxide production in the PVN. Microinjection of A-779 (3 nmol/50 nL) into the bilateral PVN of hypertensive rats not only attenuated MAP, RSNA, and NE, but also decreased the PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN. These results suggest that the increased MAP and sympathetic activity in salt-induced hypertension can be suppressed by blockade of endogenous Ang-(1-7) in the PVN, through modulation of PICs and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I , Metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Oxidative Stress , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Peptide Fragments , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Pharmacology
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 57-66, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775452

ABSTRACT

Metformin (MET), an antidiabetic agent, also has antioxidative effects in metabolic-related hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether MET has anti-hypertensive effects in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Salt-sensitive rats received a high-salt (HS) diet to induce hypertension, or a normal-salt (NS) diet as control. At the same time, they received intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of MET or vehicle for 6 weeks. We found that HS rats had higher oxidative stress levels and mean arterial pressure (MAP) than NS rats. ICV infusion of MET attenuated MAP and reduced plasma norepinephrine levels in HS rats. It also decreased reactive oxygen species and the expression of subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase, improved the superoxide dismutase activity, reduced components of the renin-angiotensin system, and altered neurotransmitters in the PVN. Our findings suggest that central MET administration lowers MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension via attenuating oxidative stress, inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system, and restoring the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the PVN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Therapeutic Uses , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Infusions, Intraventricular , Male , Metformin , Pharmacology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Pharmacology
15.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 32: e190029, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the effect of nutritional habits on kidney stone formation and recurrence. Methods This study was conducted on 44 healthy individuals and 44 patients diagnosed with nephrolithiasis and aging between 20 and 65 years. Participants shared their salt consumption habits, daily fluid consumption amounts and general information about themselves in a questionnaire form. In addition, food and beverage consumption frequencies of participants were recorded through a food frequency questionnaire. Results Salt consumption frequencies of patients are higher than that of healthy individuals in both genders (p<0.05). It was found out that male individuals in the patient group salt dishes without tasting more frequently (p<0.05). Daily total water consumption of both genders in patient group is lower than that of healthy individuals (p<0.05). Meat consumption of male patients (51.6±31.35g/day) was found to be higher than that of healthy group (34.1±22.58g/day) (p<0.05). Additionally, individuals in the patient group consume less stinging nettle, corn, plum, loquat, orange juice and lemonade than healthy individuals (p<0.05). Conclusion Results of the study showed that total fluid intake, salt consumption habits, and vegetable, fruit and beverage consumption may be correlated with stone formation risk and nutrition habits may affect stone recurrence.


RESUMO Objetivo Determinar o efeito de hábitos nutricionais na formação e recorrência de cálculos renais. Métodos Este estudo foi realizado em 44 indivíduos saudáveis e 44 pacientes com diagnóstico de nefrolitíase e envelhecimento entre 20 e 65 anos. Os participantes compartilharam seus hábitos de consumo de sal, quantidades diárias de consumo de líquidos e informações gerais sobre si mesmos em um questionário. Além disso, as frequências de consumo de alimentos e bebidas dos participantes foram registradas por meio de um questionário de frequência alimentar. Resultados As frequências de consumo de sal dos pacientes são maiores que as de indivíduos saudáveis em ambos os sexos (p<0,05). Verificou-se que os indivíduos do sexo masculino no grupo de pacientes salgam os pratos sem degustar com maior frequência (p<0,05). O consumo diário total de água de ambos os sexos no grupo de pacientes é menor que o dos indivíduos saudáveis (p<0,05). O consumo de carne de pacientes do sexo masculino (51,6±31,35g/dia) foi maior que o do grupo saudável (34,1±22,58g/dia) (p<0,05). Além disso, indivíduos do grupo de pacientes consomem menos urtiga, milho, ameixa, nêspera, suco de laranja e limonada do que indivíduos saudáveis (p<0,05). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo mostraram que a ingestão total de líquidos, os hábitos de consumo de sal e o consumo de vegetais, frutas e bebidas podem estar correlacionados com o risco de formação de pedra e os hábitos de nutrição podem afetar a recorrência da pedra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Feeding Behavior , Beverages , Kidney Calculi , Eating , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Food
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(12): 4065-4075, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974763

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this paper is to evaluate the sodium content and additive usage in packaged food products targeted at Brazilian children. Commercial database and manufactures' websites were used to identify major brands of child-oriented foods. Samples were categorized as "children's foods" (n = 214) and "infant's foods" (n = 86). Nutrition Facts labels were used to calculate the median Na content (mg/serving, mg/kcal, and mg/100g); the ingredient lists to note the use of food additives. The sodium content found in samples varied widely among brands. The amount of sodium was high (> 210 mg/serving) in 20% of the products. Sodium density exceeded 1 mg/kcal in 40% of the products with the savory foods had the highest densities. More than 30% of the foods categories (corn snacks, filled biscuits, sliced loaf bread, and cereals) did not fulfill the 2014 sodium reduction targets. Food additives present in all children's foods varied from two to nine additives numbers. However, some products had incredible numbers of additives, such as instant noodles and mini cakes. Although some infants' foods categories were additives free, most products contained up to three numbers of additives. Continuing surveillance is crucial to evaluate the progress of salt reduction and to revise the maximum permissible limit of additives.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o teor de sódio e a utilização de aditivos em alimentos industrializados destinados às crianças no Brasil. Bancos de dados comerciais foram usados para identificar as principais marcas de alimentos. Foram classificadas como "alimentos para crianças" (n = 214) e "alimentos infantis" (n = 86). Os rótulos nutricionais foram usados para calcular a mediana de sódio (mg/porção, mg/kcal e mg/100g) e a lista de ingredientes comprovou o uso de aditivos alimentares. O teor de sódio encontrado em amostras variou entre as marcas. A quantidade de sódio foi elevada (> 210 mg/porção) em 20% dos produtos. A concentração de sódio superior a 1 mg/kcal em 40% dos produtos com os alimentos salgados representou as maiores quantidades. Mais de 30% das categorias (salgadinho de milho, biscoitos recheados, pão de forma e cereais) não cumpriram as metas de 2014 de redução de sódio. Os aditivos presentes em alimentos de crianças variaram de dois a nove aditivos. No entanto, alguns produtos tiveram mais aditivos, tais como macarrão instantâneo e mini bolo. Alguns alimentos infantis estavam livres de aditivos, mas a maioria dos produtos continha até três. Um constante monitoramento é fundamental para avaliar o progresso na redução de sódio e no limite máximo admissível de aditivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Sodium, Dietary/analysis , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Food Additives/analysis , Food Analysis , Brazil , Food Labeling
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 328-332, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973663

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipertensión enmascarada (HE) en niños se define por registros de presión arterial normal en la consulta y elevados fuera de ella. El monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial de 24 horas (MAPA) permite su diagnóstico. Existe poca información sobre su prevalencia en nuestra población. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de HE en niños con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial. Material y método. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, corte transversal. Se incluyeron en forma consecutiva pacientes asistidos en el Hospital General de Niños P. de Elizalde entre 1/7/2015 y 1/12/2016, de 5 a 11 años, con presión arterial normal y, al menos, un factor de riesgo para hipertensión arterial. Se realizó MAPA durante 24 horas (SpaceLabs 90207/90217). Muestra estimada: 110 pacientes. Se contó con las aprobaciones pertinentes. Resultados. Se incluyeron 110 pacientes, edad de 8,7 ± 1,8 años, 60 mujeres. Tiempo de MAPA: 23,18 ± 1,8 horas. Tenían antecedentes neonatales 23 pacientes; todos tenían, al menos, un antecedente personal (los más frecuentes, ingesta aumentada de sal y obesidad); 101 tenían, al menos, un antecedente familiar. El MAPA permitió identificar a 10 pacientes con HE (9,1%; IC 95%: 5,1-15,9); 7 con hipertensión nocturna aislada (6,4%; IC 95%: 3,1-23,5) y 28, prehipertensión (25,4%; IC 95%: 18,2-34,3). Los 10 pacientes con HE fueron 7 varones, 9 obesos y con, al menos, un antecedente familiar. Conclusión. La prevalencia de HE en niños con factores de riesgo de desarrollar hipertensión arterial fue cercana al 10%.


Introduction. Masked hypertension (MH) in children is defined as normal office blood pressure values and high values outside the clinical setting. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is helpful for diagnosis. There is little information on MH prevalence in our population. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of MH in children with risk factors for arterial hypertension. Material and method. Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Patients seen at Hospital General de Niños "P. de Elizalde" between July 1st, 2015 and December 1st, 2016, aged 5-11 years, with normal blood pressure and at least one risk factor for arterial hypertension were included in consecutive order. A 24-hour ABPM was done (SpaceLabs 90207/90217). Estimated sample: 110 patients. All relevant authorizations were obtained. Results. One hundred and ten patients aged 8.7 ± 1.8 years were included; 60 were girls. ABPM duration: 23.18 ± 1.8 hours. Twenty-three patients had neonatal history; all had at least one factor corresponding to personal history (the most common ones were increased salt intake and obesity); 101 had at least one factor corresponding to family history. ABPM helped to identify 10 patients with MH (9.1%; 95% confidence interval --1;CI--3;: 5.1-15.9); 7 had isolated nocturnal hypertension (6.4%; 95% CI: 3.1-23.5) and 28 had prehypertension (25.4%; 95% CI: 18.234.3). Among the 10 patients with MH, 7 were boys, 9 were obese and had at least one factor corresponding to family history. Conclusion. The prevalence of MH in children with risk factors for arterial hypertension was close to 10%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Masked Hypertension/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Family Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Prehypertension/epidemiology , Masked Hypertension/diagnosis
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(4): 414-422, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979165

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de padecer hipertensión arterial en individuos normotensos con hiperreactividad cardiovascular, identificados mediante la ergometría isométrica. Material y métodos Se desarrolló un estudio de cohorte, de cinco años de evolución, con un total de 419 personas; de ellas, 215 normorreactivos cardiovasculares y 204 hiperreactivos cardiovasculares. Se determinó el riesgo relativo que tienen los individuos hiperreactivos cardiovasculares de ser hipertensos y el peso de la hiperreactividad cardiovascular en la aparición de hipertensión arterial; se fijó un nivel de significación estadística de p igual 0.05. Resultados La frecuencia de nuevos hipertensos en la cohorte de hiperreactivos cardiovasculares respecto a los normorreactivos cardiovasculares fue dos veces superior (RR: 2.23 IC95% 1.42;3.51). La hiperreactividad cardiovascular fue la variable de mayor influencia. Conclusiones Los individuos normotensos hiperreactivos cardiovasculares tienen mayor riesgo de hipertensión arterial que los normotensos normorreactivos cardiovasculares.


Abstract Objective To determine the risk of high blood pressure in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals identified by the isometric hand-held weight test. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study was conducted for 5 years, including a total of 419 individuals. Of them, 215 were normoreactive and 204 hyperreactive. The relative risk of hypertension in the hyperreactive individuals and the contribution of cardiovascular hyperreactivity to the development of high blood pressure were determined. The significance level was 0.05. Results The frequency of new hypertension cases after five years was twice as high in the cohort of hyperreactive subjects compared to the cohort of normoreactive subjects (RR 2.23, 95%CI 1.42, 3.51). The cardiovascular hyperreactivity was the most important variable for predicting of the high blood pressure (OR: 2.73; 95%CI 1.59, 4.54). Conclusions Cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals have a higher risk of high blood pressure than normorreactive individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prehypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prognosis , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Exercise , Smoking/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Weight-Bearing , Ergometry , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Risk Assessment , Prehypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/etiology
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 581-590, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777227

ABSTRACT

Fructose intake has increased dramatically over the past century and the upward trend has continued until recently. Increasing evidence suggests that the excessive intake of fructose induces salt-sensitive hypertension. While the underlying mechanism is complex, the kidney likely plays a major role. This review will highlight recent advances in the renal mechanisms of fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension, including (pro)renin receptor-dependent activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, increased nephron Na transport activity via sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter, increased renal uric acid production, decreased renal nitric oxide production, and increased renal reactive oxygen species production, and suggest actions based on these mechanisms that have therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Fructose , Humans , Hypertension , Kidney , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 , Metabolism , Uric Acid , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773627

ABSTRACT

Bamboo salt (BS) is a traditional Korean food, and has been reported to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects. However, the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) activity of BS has not been described yet. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of BS on AD. The effect of oral administration of BS was tested in a 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced AD animal model, by histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting analysis. BS administration reduced the total clinical severity and scratching frequencies, compared with the AD group. In the serum of DNFB-induced AD mice, the levels of IgE, histamine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-13 were significantly reduced by BS treatment. BS significantly reduced the protein and mRNA expression of TSLP, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the AD skin lesions. BS markedly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-1 was reduced by BS in the AD skin lesions. Our results suggested that BS should be considered as a candidate treatment for allergic inflammatory diseases including AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Dinitrofluorobenzene , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Histamine , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-13 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-5 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sodium Chloride, Dietary
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