Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 254
Filter
1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 89-102, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878239

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Genetic vulnerability, aging, environmental insults are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of dopaminergic neurons degeneration remains incompletely understood. Dopamine (DA) metabolism is a cardinal physiological process in dopaminergic neurons, which is closely related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. DA metabolism takes part in several pathological processes of PD neurodegeneration, such as iron metabolism disturbance, α-synuclein mis-folding, endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein degradation dysfunction, neuroinflammatory response, etc. In this review, we will describe altered DA metabolism and its contributions to PD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Humans , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Substantia Nigra , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of cerebral subcortical nuclei in healthy adults.@*METHODS@#QSM was performed in 21 healthy adults on two different 3.0T MR scanners, and the region of interest (ROI) method was used to measure the magnetic susceptibility value of the left subcortical nuclei (the head of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra and red nucleus). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman method were used to evaluate the inter-scanner and intra-scanner reliability.@*RESULTS@#The ICCs of the susceptibility value ranged from 0.90 to 0.99 for all the subcortical gray nuclei except for the head of the caudate nucleus measured on the same MR scanner by the same observer. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the points with susceptibility differences for all the subcortical gray nuclei except for substantia nigra located in the 95% CI of limits of agreement for the same MR scanner. The ICCs of the susceptibility value for the inter-scanner was 0.49 (0.08-0.75) for the head of the caudate nuleus, 0.80 (0.57-0.91) for the putamen, 0.77 (0.51-0.90) for the globus pallidus, 0.78 (0.54-0.91) for the thalamus, 0.80 (0.56-0.91) for the substantia nigra and 0.93 (0.83-0.97) for the red nucleus. The points with susceptibility difference (95.2%, 20/21) located in the 95% CI of limits of agreement for the putamen and the thalamus measured on two different MR scanners.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The intra-scanner reproducibility of QSM of the subcortical gray nuclei is superior to the inter-scanner reproducibility in healthy adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter , Humans , Iron , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Substantia Nigra/diagnostic imaging
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a fatal and progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system. Until recently, its promising treatment and underlying mechanisms for neuronal death are poorly understood. This study was investigated to identify the molecular mechanism of neuronal death in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of PD. METHODS: The soluble RAGE (sRAGE) secreting Umbilical Cord Blood—derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell (UCB-MSC) was generated by gene editing method using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These cells were transplanted into Corpus Striatum of rotenone-induced PD animal models then behavioral test, morphological analysis, and immunohistochemical experiments were performed to determine the neuronal cell death and recovery of movement. RESULTS: The neuronal cell death in Corpus Striatum and Substantia Nigra was dramatically reduced and the movement was improved after sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC treatment in PD mice by inhibition of RAGE in neuronal cells. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC based therapeutic approach could be a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease including PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Cell Death , Corpus Striatum , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Microglia , Models, Animal , Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Rage , Substantia Nigra , Umbilical Cord
4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 504-515, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763777

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors. Epigenetic regulation of specific gene expression via impaired histone acetylation is associated with neuronal dysfunction in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can improve motor function by enhancing cell survival in PD genetic model mice with LRRK2 R1441G mutation. To address this question, we administered VPA in LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice to determine whether VPA affects 1) histone acetylation and HDAC expression, 2) dopaminergic neuron survival, 3) inflammatory responses, 4) motor or non-motor symptoms. As results, VPA administration increased histone acetylation level and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in substantia nigra of LRRK2 R1441G mice. VPA reduced iba-1 positive activated microglia and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory marker genes in LRRK2 R1441G mice. In addition, VPA induced the improvement of PD-like motor and non-motor behavior in LRRK2 R1441G mice. These data suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can be further studied as potential future therapeutics for PD.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Models, Genetic , Movement Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , RNA, Messenger , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Valproic Acid
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether the decline in dopamine transporters (DAT) differs among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients with different levels of olfactory impairment. This study aimed to characterize DAT changes in relation to nonmotor features in iRBD patients by olfactory loss. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consisted of three age-matched groups: 30 polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients, 30 drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients, and 19 healthy controls without olfactory impairment. The iRBD group was divided into two groups based on olfactory testing results. Participants were evaluated for reported prodromal markers and then underwent 18F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography and 3T MRI. Tracer uptakes were analyzed in the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei. RESULTS: Olfactory impairment was defined in 38.5% of iRBD patients. Mild parkinsonian signs and cognitive functions were not different between the two iRBD subgroups; however, additional prodromal features, constipation, and urinary and sexual dysfunctions were found in iRBD patients with olfactory impairment but not in those without. Tracer uptake showed significant group differences in all brain regions, except the raphe nuclei. The iRBD patients with olfactory impairment had uptake reductions in the anterior and posterior putamen, caudate, and substantia nigra (p < 0.016 in all, adjusted for age), which ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 of age-normative values. In contrast, those without olfactory impairment had insignificant changes in all regions ranging above 0.8. CONCLUSION: There was a clear distinction in DAT loss and nonmotor profiles by olfactory status in iRBD.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parkinson Disease , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Putamen , Raphe Nuclei , REM Sleep Behavior Disorder , Sleep, REM , Smell , Substantia Nigra
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research was to examine influences of entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) stimulation, identical to human GPi, in no-lesioned (NL) rat and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)-lesioned rat on glutamate change in the striatum. METHODS: Extracellular glutamate level changes in striatum of NL category, NL with deep brain stimulation (DBS) category, 6-HD category, and 6-HD with DBS category were examined using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities in substantia nigra and striatum of the four categories were also analyzed. RESULTS: Extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of NL with DBS category and 6-HD with DBS category were significantly increased by EPN stimulation compared to those in the NL category and 6-HD category. EPN stimulation had no significant effect on the expression of TH in NL or 6-HD category. CONCLUSION: Clinical results of GPi DBS are not only limited to direct inhibitory outflow to thalamus. They also include extensive alteration within basal ganglia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basal Ganglia , Chromatography, Liquid , Deep Brain Stimulation , Entopeduncular Nucleus , Globus Pallidus , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Microdialysis , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research was to examine influences of entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) stimulation, identical to human GPi, in no-lesioned (NL) rat and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)-lesioned rat on glutamate change in the striatum.METHODS: Extracellular glutamate level changes in striatum of NL category, NL with deep brain stimulation (DBS) category, 6-HD category, and 6-HD with DBS category were examined using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities in substantia nigra and striatum of the four categories were also analyzed.RESULTS: Extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of NL with DBS category and 6-HD with DBS category were significantly increased by EPN stimulation compared to those in the NL category and 6-HD category. EPN stimulation had no significant effect on the expression of TH in NL or 6-HD category.CONCLUSION: Clinical results of GPi DBS are not only limited to direct inhibitory outflow to thalamus. They also include extensive alteration within basal ganglia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basal Ganglia , Chromatography, Liquid , Deep Brain Stimulation , Entopeduncular Nucleus , Globus Pallidus , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Microdialysis , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8303, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011594

ABSTRACT

Reinforcement omission effects (ROEs) are characterized by higher response rates after reinforcement omission than after reinforcement delivery. This pattern of behavior is interpreted in terms of motivational and attentional processes. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex are involved in ROE modulation. Also, the literature has demonstrated a role of other areas such as substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in processes related to surprising events, such as prediction error and presentation or omission of an event (exteroceptive stimulus and reinforcement). Since these structures send projections to areas related to ROE modulation such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the SNc and VTA also integrate the circuit involved in ROE modulation. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12 s with limited-hold 6 s signaled schedule of reinforcement (Pre-lesion training). After acquisition of stable performance, the rats received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the SNc (Experiment 1) and VTA (Experiment 2). Following postoperative recovery, the rats were submitted to two refresher sessions (Post-lesion training). Subsequently, the training was changed from a 100 to a 50% schedule of reinforcement (Post-lesion testing). In both experiments, the results showed that there was no difference in performance between sham rats and rats with bilateral lesions of the SNc or the VTA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reinforcement, Psychology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Substantia Nigra/injuries , Ventral Tegmental Area/injuries , Conditioning, Operant/physiology , Pars Compacta/injuries , Substantia Nigra/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Ventral Tegmental Area/physiopathology , Pars Compacta/physiopathology , Learning/physiology
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 732-740, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777137

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra (SNpc). Postmortem analysis of PD patients and experimental animal studies found that microglial cell activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors were common features of PD brain tissue. At the same time, the invasion and accumulation of peripheric immune cells were detected in the brain of PD patients. In this paper, peripheral inflammation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced microglial cell activation and intracerebral inflammation in PD are summarized, providing potential therapeutic measures for delaying the onset of PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopaminergic Neurons , Pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Pathology , Microglia , Parkinson Disease , Pathology , Substantia Nigra , Pathology , alpha-Synuclein
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739660

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae), elicits neuroprotective effects in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. β-LAP reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immuno-reactive fiber loss induced by MPTP in the dorsolateral striatum, and alleviated motor dysfunction as determined by the rotarod test. In addition, β-LAP protected against MPTP-induced loss of TH positive neurons, and upregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) expression in the substantia nigra. Based on previous reports on the neuroprotective role of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether β-LAP induces upregulation of the Nrf2-hemeoxygenae-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway molecules in MPTP-injected mouse brains. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that β-LAP increased HO-1 expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Moreover, β-LAP increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of Nrf2, and the phosphorylation of upstream adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). β-LAP also increased the localization of p-AMPK and Nrf2 in astrocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that β-LAP exerts neuroprotective effect in MPTP-injected mice by upregulating the p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways in astrocytes.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Adenosine , Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Brain , DNA , Dopaminergic Neurons , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Parkinson Disease , Pars Compacta , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rotarod Performance Test , Substantia Nigra , Trees , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Up-Regulation
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813313

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder mainly due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Most PD cases are sporadic and only 5%-10% of patients carry mutations with inheritance. Among them, the mutation of DJ-1 is related to the autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. DJ-1, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, plays important roles in different physiopathological processes, including oxidative stress, cell translocation and regulation of transcription and translation. DJ-1 is known to be widely expressed in different areas of brain, including hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra and cortical areas. Several researchers have tried to demonstrate the clinical and neuroimaging features of DJ-1 related parkinsonism. The DJ-1 knockout mouse model was established to further explore the mechanisms of different functions. Moreover, the search for different forms of DJ-1 as potential biomarkers of PD also provides guidance for its accurate diagnosis and treatment in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons , Mice , Oncogene Proteins , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Protein Deglycase DJ-1 , Substantia Nigra
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773592

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of rapamycin on Parkinson's disease (PD) and its underlying mechanism in mice.@*METHODS@#Sixty SPF adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) was used to induce Parkinson's disease in model group and treatment group. All mice were trained to cross the runway and were subjected to computer-assisted CatWalk. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were assessed by unbiased stereology using the optical fractionator method; protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis; and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by spectrophotometry.@*RESULTS@#In the model group, a decrease in stride rate and an increase in variation of stance and swing were noted by CatWalk system (<0.05 or <0.01); the numbers of TH neurons decreased (<0.01); expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK increased (all <0.01); LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio decreased (<0.01); MDA level was elevated while the levels of SOD and GSH-PX were reduced (all <0.01). Compared with the model group, after treated with rapamycin, the abnormal behavior including the stride length, variation of stance and swing and step patterns induced by MPTP were all improved (<0.05 or <0.01); the numbers of TH neurons increased (<0.05); the expression of p-Akt, p-S6K, p-S6 and p-ULK was suppressed (all <0.01); the LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio was upregulated (<0.05); MDA level decreased while the levels of GSH-Px and SOD increased (all <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Rapamycin inhibits the activation of mTOR pathway, which contributes to protect against the loss of dopaminergic neurons and provide behavioral improvements in mice with Parkinson's disease. These results are partially related to the ability of rapamycin in inducing autophagy and reducing oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Drug Therapy , Random Allocation , Sirolimus , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Substantia Nigra
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718083

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, hallucination, delusion, apathy and anhedonia, impulsive and compulsive behaviors, and cognitive dysfunction, may also manifest in most patients with PD. Given that the quality of life — and the need for institutionalization — is so highly dependent on the psychiatric well-being of patients with PD, psychiatric symptoms are of high clinical significance. We reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychiatric symptoms to get a better understanding of PD for improved management.


Subject(s)
Anhedonia , Anxiety , Apathy , Compulsive Behavior , Delusions , Dementia , Depression , Dopaminergic Neurons , Hallucinations , Humans , Institutionalization , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Prevalence , Psychotic Disorders , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Substantia Nigra
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 103-111, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714116

ABSTRACT

A recent study reveals that missense mutations of EWSR1 are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the function of wild-type (WT) EWSR1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is not known yet. Herein, we investigated the neuroanatomical and motor function changes in Ewsr1 knock out (KO) mice. First, we quantified neuronal nucleus size in the motor cortex, dorsal striatum and hippocampus of three different groups: WT, heterozygous Ewsr1 KO (+/−), and homozygous Ewsr1 KO (−/−) mice. The neuronal nucleus size was significantly smaller in the motor cortex and striatum of homozygous Ewsr1 KO (−/−) mice than that of WT. In addition, in the hippocampus, the neuronal nucleus size was significantly smaller in both heterozygous Ewsr1 KO (+/−) and homozygous Ewsr1 KO (−/−) mice. We then assessed motor function of Ewsr1 KO (−/−) and WT mice by a tail suspension test. Both forelimb and hindlimb movements were significantly increased in Ewsr1 KO (−/−) mice. Lastly, we performed immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of TH, DARPP-32, and phosphorylated (p)-DARPP-32 (Thr75) in the striatum and substantia nigra, which are associated with dopaminergic signaling. The immunoreactivity of TH and DARPP-32 was decreased in Ewsr1 KO (−/−) mice. Together, our results suggest that EWSR1 plays a significant role in neuronal morphology, dopaminergic signaling pathways, and motor function in the CNS of mice.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Animals , Central Nervous System , Dopamine , Forelimb , Hindlimb , Hindlimb Suspension , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Motor Cortex , Mutation, Missense , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , RNA , RNA-Binding Proteins , Substantia Nigra
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 309-319, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716236

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed a significant loss of nigral DA neurons at 3 and 7 day post-LPS. In parallel, IL-4 immunoreactivity was upregulated as early as 1 day, reached a peak at 3 day and remained elevated at 7 day post-LPS. IL-4 immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in microglia. IL-4 neutralizing antibody (NA) significantly increased survival of DA neurons in LPS-treated SN in vivo by inhibiting microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediator such as IL-1β as assessed by immunihistochemical, RT-PCR and ELISA analysis, respectively. Accompanying neuroprotection are IL-4NA effects on decreased disruption of blood-brain barrier and astrocytes. The present data suggest that endogenously expressed IL-4 from reactive microglia may be involved in the neuropathological processes of degeneration of DA neurons occurring in Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Astrocytes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Lipopolysaccharides , Microglia , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766676

ABSTRACT

Secondary degeneration after ischemic stroke has been demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We report a 77-year-old man with striatal infarction followed by multifocal degeneration that developed in a stepwise manner at the ipsilateral substantia nigra and thalamus on diffusion-weighted images obtained at 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 20 weeks after onset. We also review the underlying pathophysiology and its clinical meanings.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stroke , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812381

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728031

ABSTRACT

GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic tree, it is currently unclear how regional GABA receptors in the soma and dendritic compartments regulate spontaneous firing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine actions of regional GABA receptors on spontaneous firing in acutely dissociated DA neurons from the rat using patch-clamp and local GABA-uncaging techniques. Agonists and antagonists experiments showed that activation of either GABA(A) receptors or GABA(B) receptors in DA neurons is enough to completely abolish spontaneous firing. Local GABA-uncaging along the somatodendritic tree revealed that activation of regional GABA receptors limited within the soma, proximal, or distal dendritic region, can completely suppress spontaneous firing. However, activation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor equally suppressed spontaneous firing in the soma, whereas GABA(B) receptor inhibited spontaneous firing more strongly than GABA(A) receptor in the proximal and distal dendrites. These regional differences of GABA signals between the soma and dendritic compartments could contribute to our understanding of many diverse and complex actions of GABA in midbrain DA neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carisoprodol , Dendrites , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Fires , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Mesencephalon , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, GABA-A , Substantia Nigra , Trees
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL