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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935788

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the dynamic changes of brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) damage in Parkinson' s disease (PD) -like mice by paraquat (PQ) . Methods: In October 2019, 36 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the exposure group and the control group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in the exposure group were given intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg PQ, and the mice in the control group were given intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% saline, twice a week for 8 weeks. Neurobehavioral changes (pole climbing test, swimming test, open field test, tail hanging test, high plus maze test and water maze test) were observed at 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks, respectively, and the changes of motor ability, emotion and cognitive function were evaluated. The brain tissue of mice were taken and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) to observe the pathological changes of LC. Nissl staining was used to detect the changes of neuronal Nissl bodies in LC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to detect the expression of neuron nuclear antigen (NeuN) , dopamine (DA) neurons and norepinephrine (NE) neuron markers tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) , α-synuclein (α-syn) in substantia nigra (SN) and LC. The expression levels of NeuN, TH and α-syn in the midbrain and brainstem were detected by Western blotting. TUNEL staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis in LC. Results: Compared with the 4th week of PQ exposure group, the time of pole climbing and swimming immobility were gradually increased, the ratio of open arm residence time of high plus maze test and the number of times of the platform and the residence time of platform quadrant in water maze test were gradually decreased (P<0.05) in the exposure group with the progress of exposure time. The results of HE and Nissl staining showed that the neurons in LC gradually arranged loosely, the nucleus were deeply stained, the cytoplasm was pyknosis, and the number of Nissl bodies gradually decreased (P<0.05) in the exposure group with the progress of exposure time. IHC results showed that the number of NeuN and TH positive cells in SN and LC of mice were gradually decreased, and the positive expression of α-syn was gradually increased (P<0.05) in the exposure group with the progress of exposure time. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of NeuN and TH in the midbrain and brainstem were gradually decreased, and the expression level of α-syn was gradually increased (P<0.05) in the exposure group with the progress of exposure time. TUNEL staining showed that the apoptosis rates of neurons in LC were gradually increased (P<0.05) in the exposure group with the progress of exposure time. Conclusion: PQ induces progressive damage in the LC area of PD-like mice, which may be caused by the abnormal accumulation of pathological α-syn in the LC area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons , Locus Coeruleus/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Paraquat/toxicity , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929241

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system where a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons exist. However, the pathogenesis of PD remains undefined, which becomes the main limitation for the development of clinical PD treatment. Demethylenetetrahydroberberine (DMTHB) is a novel derivative of natural product berberine. This study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects and pharmacological mechanism of DMTHB on Parkinson's disease using C57BL/6 mice. A PD model of mice was induced by administration of MPTP (20 mg·kg-1) and probenecid (200 mg·kg-1) twice per week for five weeks. The mice were administered with DMTHB daily by gavage at the dose of 5 and 50 mg·kg-1 for one- week prophylactic treatment and five-week theraputic treatment. The therapeutic effects of DMTHB were evaluated by behavior tests (the open field, rotarod and pole tests), immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Nissl staining and biochemical assays. The molecular mechanisms of DMTHB on the key biomarkers of PD pathological states were analyzed by Western blot (WB) and qRT-PCR. DMTHB treatment alleviated the behavioral disorder induced by MPTP-probenecid. Nissl staining and TH staining showed that the damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was remarkably suppressed by DMTHB treatment. Western blot results showed that the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and TH increased, but the level of α-synuclein (α-syn) was remarkably reduced, which indicated that the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in mice was significantly reduced. The protein phosphorylation of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR also increased about 2-fold, compared with the model group. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results demonstrated that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, were reduced, but the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased after DMTHB treatment. Finally, the cellular assay displayed that DMTHB was also a strong antioxidant to protect neuron cell line PC12 by scavenging ROS. In this study, we demonstrated DMTHB alleviates the behavioral disorder and protects dopaminergic neurons through multiple-target effects includubg anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/chemically induced , Substantia Nigra
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922671

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common and fastest-growing neurodegenerative disorder. In recent years, it has been recognized that neurotransmitters other than dopamine and neuronal systems outside the basal ganglia are also related to PD pathogenesis. However, little is known about whether and how the caudal zona incerta (ZIc) regulates parkinsonian motor symptoms. Here, we showed that specific glutamatergic but not GABAergic ZIc


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Substantia Nigra , Zona Incerta
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1726-1731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Reports evaluating the efficacy of transcranial sonography (TCS) for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and other movement disorders in China are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the application of TCS for the differential diagnosis of PD, multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and essential tremor (ET) in Chinese individuals.@*METHODS@#From 2017 to 2019, 500 inpatients treated at the Department of Dyskinesia, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University underwent routine transcranial ultrasound examination. The cross-sections at the midbrain and thalamus levels were scanned, and the incidence rates of substantia nigra (SN) positivity and the incidence rates of lenticular hyperechoic area were recorded. The echo of the SN was manually measured.@*RESULTS@#Of the 500 patients, 125 were excluded due to poor signal in temporal window sound transmission. Among the 375 individuals with good temporal window sound transmission, 200 were diagnosed with PD, 90 with ET, 50 with MSA, and 35 with PSP. The incidence rates of SN positivity differed significantly among the four patient groups (χ2 = 121.061, P  0.017).@*CONCLUSION@#SN positivity could effectively differentiate PD from ET, PSP, and MSA in a Chinese population.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Multiple System Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Parkinson Disease/diagnostic imaging , Substantia Nigra/diagnostic imaging , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 89-102, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878239

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Genetic vulnerability, aging, environmental insults are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of dopaminergic neurons degeneration remains incompletely understood. Dopamine (DA) metabolism is a cardinal physiological process in dopaminergic neurons, which is closely related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. DA metabolism takes part in several pathological processes of PD neurodegeneration, such as iron metabolism disturbance, α-synuclein mis-folding, endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein degradation dysfunction, neuroinflammatory response, etc. In this review, we will describe altered DA metabolism and its contributions to PD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Humans , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Substantia Nigra , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
6.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 284-288, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362329

ABSTRACT

Discovered in 1865 by Jules Bernard Luys, the subthalamic nucleus is a set of small nuclei located in the diencephalon, inferior to the thalamus and superior to the substantia nigra, that can be visualized in a posterior coronal section. Histologically, it consists of neurons compactly distributed and filled with a large number of blood vessels and sparse myelinated fibers. This review presents an analysis of this anatomical region, considering what is most recent in the literature. Subthalamic neurons are excitatory and use glutamate as the neurotransmitter. In healthy individuals, these neurons are inhibited by nerve cells located in the side globus pallidus. However, if the fibers that make up the afferent circuit are damaged, the neurons become highly excitable, thus causing motor disturbances that can be classified as hyperkinetic, for example ballism and chorea, or hypokinetic, for example Parkinson disease (PD). The advent of deep brain stimulation has given the subthalamic nucleus great visibility. Studies reveal that the stimulation of this nucleus improves themotor symptoms of PD.


Subject(s)
Subthalamic Nucleus/anatomy & histology , Subthalamic Nucleus/abnormalities , Subthalamic Nucleus/surgery , Parkinson Disease , Substantia Nigra/anatomy & histology , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Corpus Striatum/anatomy & histology , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Globus Pallidus/anatomy & histology , Motor Cortex/anatomy & histology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of cerebral subcortical nuclei in healthy adults.@*METHODS@#QSM was performed in 21 healthy adults on two different 3.0T MR scanners, and the region of interest (ROI) method was used to measure the magnetic susceptibility value of the left subcortical nuclei (the head of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra and red nucleus). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman method were used to evaluate the inter-scanner and intra-scanner reliability.@*RESULTS@#The ICCs of the susceptibility value ranged from 0.90 to 0.99 for all the subcortical gray nuclei except for the head of the caudate nucleus measured on the same MR scanner by the same observer. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the points with susceptibility differences for all the subcortical gray nuclei except for substantia nigra located in the 95% CI of limits of agreement for the same MR scanner. The ICCs of the susceptibility value for the inter-scanner was 0.49 (0.08-0.75) for the head of the caudate nuleus, 0.80 (0.57-0.91) for the putamen, 0.77 (0.51-0.90) for the globus pallidus, 0.78 (0.54-0.91) for the thalamus, 0.80 (0.56-0.91) for the substantia nigra and 0.93 (0.83-0.97) for the red nucleus. The points with susceptibility difference (95.2%, 20/21) located in the 95% CI of limits of agreement for the putamen and the thalamus measured on two different MR scanners.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The intra-scanner reproducibility of QSM of the subcortical gray nuclei is superior to the inter-scanner reproducibility in healthy adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter , Humans , Iron , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Substantia Nigra/diagnostic imaging
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8303, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011594

ABSTRACT

Reinforcement omission effects (ROEs) are characterized by higher response rates after reinforcement omission than after reinforcement delivery. This pattern of behavior is interpreted in terms of motivational and attentional processes. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex are involved in ROE modulation. Also, the literature has demonstrated a role of other areas such as substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in processes related to surprising events, such as prediction error and presentation or omission of an event (exteroceptive stimulus and reinforcement). Since these structures send projections to areas related to ROE modulation such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the SNc and VTA also integrate the circuit involved in ROE modulation. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12 s with limited-hold 6 s signaled schedule of reinforcement (Pre-lesion training). After acquisition of stable performance, the rats received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the SNc (Experiment 1) and VTA (Experiment 2). Following postoperative recovery, the rats were submitted to two refresher sessions (Post-lesion training). Subsequently, the training was changed from a 100 to a 50% schedule of reinforcement (Post-lesion testing). In both experiments, the results showed that there was no difference in performance between sham rats and rats with bilateral lesions of the SNc or the VTA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reinforcement, Psychology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Substantia Nigra/injuries , Ventral Tegmental Area/injuries , Conditioning, Operant/physiology , Pars Compacta/injuries , Substantia Nigra/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Ventral Tegmental Area/physiopathology , Pars Compacta/physiopathology , Learning/physiology
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 732-740, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777137

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra (SNpc). Postmortem analysis of PD patients and experimental animal studies found that microglial cell activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors were common features of PD brain tissue. At the same time, the invasion and accumulation of peripheric immune cells were detected in the brain of PD patients. In this paper, peripheral inflammation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced microglial cell activation and intracerebral inflammation in PD are summarized, providing potential therapeutic measures for delaying the onset of PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopaminergic Neurons , Pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Pathology , Microglia , Parkinson Disease , Pathology , Substantia Nigra , Pathology , alpha-Synuclein
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a fatal and progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system. Until recently, its promising treatment and underlying mechanisms for neuronal death are poorly understood. This study was investigated to identify the molecular mechanism of neuronal death in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of PD. METHODS: The soluble RAGE (sRAGE) secreting Umbilical Cord Blood—derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell (UCB-MSC) was generated by gene editing method using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These cells were transplanted into Corpus Striatum of rotenone-induced PD animal models then behavioral test, morphological analysis, and immunohistochemical experiments were performed to determine the neuronal cell death and recovery of movement. RESULTS: The neuronal cell death in Corpus Striatum and Substantia Nigra was dramatically reduced and the movement was improved after sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC treatment in PD mice by inhibition of RAGE in neuronal cells. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC based therapeutic approach could be a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease including PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Cell Death , Corpus Striatum , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Microglia , Models, Animal , Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Rage , Substantia Nigra , Umbilical Cord
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739660

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae), elicits neuroprotective effects in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. β-LAP reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immuno-reactive fiber loss induced by MPTP in the dorsolateral striatum, and alleviated motor dysfunction as determined by the rotarod test. In addition, β-LAP protected against MPTP-induced loss of TH positive neurons, and upregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) expression in the substantia nigra. Based on previous reports on the neuroprotective role of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether β-LAP induces upregulation of the Nrf2-hemeoxygenae-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway molecules in MPTP-injected mouse brains. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that β-LAP increased HO-1 expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Moreover, β-LAP increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of Nrf2, and the phosphorylation of upstream adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). β-LAP also increased the localization of p-AMPK and Nrf2 in astrocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that β-LAP exerts neuroprotective effect in MPTP-injected mice by upregulating the p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways in astrocytes.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Adenosine , Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Brain , DNA , Dopaminergic Neurons , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Parkinson Disease , Pars Compacta , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rotarod Performance Test , Substantia Nigra , Trees , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Up-Regulation
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 504-515, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763777

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors. Epigenetic regulation of specific gene expression via impaired histone acetylation is associated with neuronal dysfunction in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can improve motor function by enhancing cell survival in PD genetic model mice with LRRK2 R1441G mutation. To address this question, we administered VPA in LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice to determine whether VPA affects 1) histone acetylation and HDAC expression, 2) dopaminergic neuron survival, 3) inflammatory responses, 4) motor or non-motor symptoms. As results, VPA administration increased histone acetylation level and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in substantia nigra of LRRK2 R1441G mice. VPA reduced iba-1 positive activated microglia and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory marker genes in LRRK2 R1441G mice. In addition, VPA induced the improvement of PD-like motor and non-motor behavior in LRRK2 R1441G mice. These data suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can be further studied as potential future therapeutics for PD.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Models, Genetic , Movement Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , RNA, Messenger , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Valproic Acid
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether the decline in dopamine transporters (DAT) differs among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients with different levels of olfactory impairment. This study aimed to characterize DAT changes in relation to nonmotor features in iRBD patients by olfactory loss. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consisted of three age-matched groups: 30 polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients, 30 drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients, and 19 healthy controls without olfactory impairment. The iRBD group was divided into two groups based on olfactory testing results. Participants were evaluated for reported prodromal markers and then underwent 18F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography and 3T MRI. Tracer uptakes were analyzed in the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei. RESULTS: Olfactory impairment was defined in 38.5% of iRBD patients. Mild parkinsonian signs and cognitive functions were not different between the two iRBD subgroups; however, additional prodromal features, constipation, and urinary and sexual dysfunctions were found in iRBD patients with olfactory impairment but not in those without. Tracer uptake showed significant group differences in all brain regions, except the raphe nuclei. The iRBD patients with olfactory impairment had uptake reductions in the anterior and posterior putamen, caudate, and substantia nigra (p < 0.016 in all, adjusted for age), which ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 of age-normative values. In contrast, those without olfactory impairment had insignificant changes in all regions ranging above 0.8. CONCLUSION: There was a clear distinction in DAT loss and nonmotor profiles by olfactory status in iRBD.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parkinson Disease , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Putamen , Raphe Nuclei , REM Sleep Behavior Disorder , Sleep, REM , Smell , Substantia Nigra
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research was to examine influences of entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) stimulation, identical to human GPi, in no-lesioned (NL) rat and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)-lesioned rat on glutamate change in the striatum. METHODS: Extracellular glutamate level changes in striatum of NL category, NL with deep brain stimulation (DBS) category, 6-HD category, and 6-HD with DBS category were examined using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities in substantia nigra and striatum of the four categories were also analyzed. RESULTS: Extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of NL with DBS category and 6-HD with DBS category were significantly increased by EPN stimulation compared to those in the NL category and 6-HD category. EPN stimulation had no significant effect on the expression of TH in NL or 6-HD category. CONCLUSION: Clinical results of GPi DBS are not only limited to direct inhibitory outflow to thalamus. They also include extensive alteration within basal ganglia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basal Ganglia , Chromatography, Liquid , Deep Brain Stimulation , Entopeduncular Nucleus , Globus Pallidus , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Microdialysis , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813313

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder mainly due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Most PD cases are sporadic and only 5%-10% of patients carry mutations with inheritance. Among them, the mutation of DJ-1 is related to the autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. DJ-1, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, plays important roles in different physiopathological processes, including oxidative stress, cell translocation and regulation of transcription and translation. DJ-1 is known to be widely expressed in different areas of brain, including hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra and cortical areas. Several researchers have tried to demonstrate the clinical and neuroimaging features of DJ-1 related parkinsonism. The DJ-1 knockout mouse model was established to further explore the mechanisms of different functions. Moreover, the search for different forms of DJ-1 as potential biomarkers of PD also provides guidance for its accurate diagnosis and treatment in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons , Mice , Oncogene Proteins , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Protein Deglycase DJ-1 , Substantia Nigra
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research was to examine influences of entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) stimulation, identical to human GPi, in no-lesioned (NL) rat and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)-lesioned rat on glutamate change in the striatum.METHODS: Extracellular glutamate level changes in striatum of NL category, NL with deep brain stimulation (DBS) category, 6-HD category, and 6-HD with DBS category were examined using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities in substantia nigra and striatum of the four categories were also analyzed.RESULTS: Extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of NL with DBS category and 6-HD with DBS category were significantly increased by EPN stimulation compared to those in the NL category and 6-HD category. EPN stimulation had no significant effect on the expression of TH in NL or 6-HD category.CONCLUSION: Clinical results of GPi DBS are not only limited to direct inhibitory outflow to thalamus. They also include extensive alteration within basal ganglia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basal Ganglia , Chromatography, Liquid , Deep Brain Stimulation , Entopeduncular Nucleus , Globus Pallidus , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Microdialysis , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773592

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812381

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728031

ABSTRACT

GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic tree, it is currently unclear how regional GABA receptors in the soma and dendritic compartments regulate spontaneous firing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine actions of regional GABA receptors on spontaneous firing in acutely dissociated DA neurons from the rat using patch-clamp and local GABA-uncaging techniques. Agonists and antagonists experiments showed that activation of either GABA(A) receptors or GABA(B) receptors in DA neurons is enough to completely abolish spontaneous firing. Local GABA-uncaging along the somatodendritic tree revealed that activation of regional GABA receptors limited within the soma, proximal, or distal dendritic region, can completely suppress spontaneous firing. However, activation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor equally suppressed spontaneous firing in the soma, whereas GABA(B) receptor inhibited spontaneous firing more strongly than GABA(A) receptor in the proximal and distal dendrites. These regional differences of GABA signals between the soma and dendritic compartments could contribute to our understanding of many diverse and complex actions of GABA in midbrain DA neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carisoprodol , Dendrites , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Fires , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Mesencephalon , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, GABA-A , Substantia Nigra , Trees
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