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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 15-30, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011008

ABSTRACT

Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Since its initial isolation and identification, numerous studies have reported on the structural modifications and pharmacological activities of OA and its derivatives. Despite this, there has been a dearth of comprehensive reviews in the past two decades, leading to challenges in subsequent research on OA. Based on the main biological activities of OA, this paper comprehensively summarized the modification strategies and structure-activity relationships (SARs) of OA and its derivatives to provide valuable reference for future investigations into OA.


Subject(s)
Oleanolic Acid , Structure-Activity Relationship , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 22(6): 864-878, nov. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554462

ABSTRACT

Triterpenes are very important secondary metabolites with wide structural diversity and significant role in pharmacy and medicine. In the present research, a comparative study of pharamacological activities of the triterpene fractions obtained from several plant species belonging to Lamiaceae family, was carried out. In - vitro anti - proliferative activity was performed using a standard proliferation assay based on tetrazolium salts. In vitro anti - inflammatory activity of triterpene fractions was determined by an assay of inhibition of albumin denaturation. In general, the triterpene fractions obtained from plant species belonging to Lam iaceae family showed a strong anti - proliferative activity and anti - inflammatory activity. The triterpene fraction of Rosmarini folium showed the strongest anti - proliferative activity (GI 50 range from 4 to 37 µg/ml) and the strongest anti - inflammatory activ ity in the range from 57.27% to 80.69%. This comparative study provides scientific evidence to support the traditional use of Lamiacae plant species for medical purposes as anti - inflammatory and anti - proliferative medicines.


Los triterpenos son metabolitos secundarios muy importantes, con una amplia diversidad estructural y un rol significativo en la farmacia y la medicina. En esta investiga ción, se realizó un estudio comparativo de las actividades farmacológicas de las fracciones de triterpenos obtenidas de varias especies de plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae. La actividad antiproliferativa in vitro se realizó mediante un ensayo estándar de proliferación basado en sales de tetrazolio. Se determinó la actividad antinflamatoria de las fracciones de triterpeno s mediante un ensayo de inhibición de desnaturalización de la albúmina. En general, las fracciones de triterpeno s obtenidas de las plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae mostraron una actividad antiproliferativa y antinflamatoria fuerte. La fracción de triterpeno de Folium Rosmarini mostró la actividad antiproliferativa más fuerte (rango GI 50 entre 4 y 37 µg/m L ) y la más f uerte actividad antinflamatoria en el rango de 57,27% a 80,69%. Este estudio comparativo provée evidencia científica para apoyar el uso tradicional de especies de plantas Lamiaceae para usos médicos como medicinas antinflamatorios y antiproliferativas.


Subject(s)
Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 789-800, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010990

ABSTRACT

Five new saponins, including three steroid saponins, paristenoids A-C (1-3), and two triterpenoid saponins, paristenoids D-E (4-5), along with four known ones (6-9) were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified mainly by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR, MS, as well as chemical methods. Compound 3 is a new cyclocholestanol-type steroidal saponin with a rare 6/6/6/5/5 fused-rings cholestanol skeleton, and this skeleton has been first found from the genus Paris. The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human three glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and SHG44) were evaluated, and compound 7 displayed certain inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 15.22 ± 1.73, 18.87 ± 1.81 and 17.64 ± 1.69 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhizome/chemistry , Steroids/chemistry , Liliaceae/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 599-609, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010973

ABSTRACT

Gypenosides, structurally analogous to ginsenosides and derived from a sustainable source, are recognized as the principal active compounds found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese medicinal plant used in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. By bioactive tracking isolation of the plants collected from different regions across China, we obtained four new gypenosides (1-4), together with nine known gypenosides (5-13), from the methanol extract of the plant. The structures of new gypenosides were elucidated by one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, complemented by chemical degradation experiments. Through comprehensive evaluation involving COL1A1 promoter assays and PP2Cα activity assays, we established a definitive structure-activity relationship for these dammarane-type triterpenoids, affirming the indispensability of the C-3 saccharide chain and C-17 lactone ring in effectively impeding extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition within hepatic stellate cells. Further in vivo study on the CCl4-induced liver damage mouse model corroborated that compound 5 significantly ameliorated the process of hepatic fibrosis by oral administration. These results underscore the potential of dammarane-type triterpenoids as prospective anti-fibrotic leads and highlight their prevalence as key molecular frameworks in the therapeutic intervention of chronic hepatic disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Gynostemma , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Extracellular Matrix , Dammaranes
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1174-1179, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010592

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom widely used for its edible and medicinal properties. Primary bioactive constituents of G. lucidum are ganoderic triterpenoids (GTs), which exhibit important pharmacological activity. Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, is associated with plant growth, development, and stress responses. ABA can also affect the growth, metabolism, and physiological activities of different fungi and participates in the regulation of the tetracyclic triterpenes of some plants. Our findings indicated that ABA treatment promoted GT accumulation by regulating the gene expression levels (squalene synthase (sqs), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (hmgr), and lanosterol synthase (ls)), and also activated cytosolic Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, under ABA mediation, exogenous Ca2+ donors and inhibitors directly affected the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and related gene expression in Ca2+ signaling. Our study also revealed that ABA-mediated cytosolic Ca2+ played a crucial regulatory role in GT biosynthesis, accompanied by antioxidant defense modulation with increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and the resistance ability of O2•- and glutathione (GSH) contents.


Subject(s)
Reishi/metabolism , Triterpenes/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4402-4412, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008694

ABSTRACT

This study first optimized the processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum and investigated its in vitro anticoagulant activity. A multi-index-response surface methodology was used, with yield, powder yield, and the relative percentage of the content of six non-volatile components [11-keto-boswellic acid(KBA), 3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid(AKBA), β-elemonic acid, α-boswellic acid(α-BA), β-boswellic acid(β-BA), and α-acetyl-boswellic acid(α-BA)] and three volatile components(octyl acetate, incensole, and incensole acetate) as evaluation indicators. Analytical hierarchy process(AHP) combined with coefficient of variation method was used to calculate the weight of each indicator and calculate the comprehensive score(OD). Furthermore, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of frying temperature(A), burning time(B), rice vinegar dosage(C), and steaming time(D) on the processing technology of vinegar-processed Olibanum. Vinegar-steamed Olibanum was prepared according to the optimal processing technology for in vitro anticoagulant experiments. The results showed that the weights of octyl acetate, incensole, incensole acetate, KBA, AKBA, β-elemonic acid, α-BA, β-BA, α-ABA, yield, and powder yield were 0.358 2, 0.104 5, 0.146 4, 0.032 9, 0.123 7, 0.044 4, 0.022 1, 0.042 2, 0.110 1, 0.012 2, and 0.0032, respectively. The optimal processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum was as follows. Olibanum(50 g) with a particle size of 1-5 mm was continuously stir-fried at a low heat of 150-180 ℃ until in a gel-like state, ignited for burning for 15 s, sprayed with 7.5 g of rice vinegar(15%), and steamed for 3 min without fire. Subsequently, the cover was removed, and the product was continuously stir-fried at 150-180 ℃ until in a soft lump shape, removed, cooled, and crushed. The results of the in vitro anticoagulant experiments showed that compared with the blank group, both Olibanum and vinegar-processed Olibanum significantly prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), and prothrombin time(PT) of rat platelet-poor plasma(PPP), and the effect of vinegar-processed Olibanum was significantly better than that of Olibanum(P<0.05). The optimized processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum is stable, feasible, and beneficial for the further development and utilization of Olibanum slices. At the same time, using the content of volatile and non-volatile components, yield, and powder yield as indicators, and verifying through pharmacological experiments, the obtained results are more reasonable and credible, and have positive guiding significance for the clinical application of characteristic processed Olibanum products.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Frankincense , Acetic Acid , Powders , Triterpenes , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Technology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4834-4842, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008653

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of total triterpenes of Euphorbium in treating rheumatoid arthritis(RA). The rat model of RA was established with Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA). Male rats were randomly assigned into control, model, Tripterygium glycosides(7.5 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total triterpenes of Euphorbium(32, 64, and 128 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups, with 10 rats in each group. In other groups except the control group, 0.2 mL FCA was injected into the right hind toe. Rats in the intervention groups were administrated with corresponding drugs by gavage, and the control group and the model group with the same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution once a day. During the treatment period, the swelling degree of the hind paw was measured and the arthritis was scored until day 30. At the end of drug administration, the pathological changes of the joint tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The content of malondialdehyde(MDA), glutathione(GSH), and Fe~(2+) and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the joint tissue were measured by biochemical colorimetry. RT-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), and acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4(ACSL4) in the joint tissue. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of Nrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), SOD2, GPX4, and ACSL4 in the joint tissue. The results showed that the treatment with Tripterygium glycosides(7.5 mg·kg~(-1)) and total triterpenes of Euphorbium(32, 64, and 128 mg·kg~(-1)) alleviated the swelling degree of bilateral hind limbs, decreased the arthritis score, reduced joint tissue lesions and the content of MDA and Fe~(2+) in the joint tissue, and increased GSH content and SOD activity. Furthermore, the interventions up-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and GPX4, down-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of ACSL4, and up-regulated the protein levels of Keap1, NQO1, HO-1, and SOD2 in the Nrf2/HO-1/GPX4. In summary, the total triterpenes of Euphorbium can treat RA by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and abnormal ferroptosis, which may involve the Nrf2/HO-1/GPX4 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Glutathione , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4569-4588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008625

ABSTRACT

Prunellae Spica is the dried spica of Prunella vulgaris belonging to Labiatae and it is widely used in pharmaceutical and general health fields. As a traditional Chinese medicine cultivated on a large scale, it produces a large amount of non-medicinal parts, which are discarded because they are not effectively used. To analyze the chemical constituents in the different samples from spica, seed, stem, and leaf of P. vulgaris, and explore the application value and development prospect of these parts, this study used ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupoles time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to detect chemical constituents in different parts of P. vulgaris. As a result, 117 compounds were detected. Among them, 87 compounds were identified, including 32 phenolic acids, 8 flavonoids, and 45 triterpenoid saponins. Some new triterpenoid saponins containing the sugar chain with 4-6 sugar units were found. Further, multivariate statistical analysis was conducted on BPI chromatographic peaks of multiple batches of different parts, and the results showed that spica had the most abundant chemical constituents, including salviaflaside and linolenic acid highly contained in the seed and phenolic acids, flavonoids, and triterpenoid saponins in the stem and leaf. In general, the constituents in the spica were composed of those in the seed, stem, and leaf. UPLC was used to determine the content of 6 phenolic acids(danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside, and rosmarinic acid) in different parts. The content of other phenolic acids in the seed was generally lower than that in the spica except that of salviaflaside. The content of salviaflaside in the spica was higher than that in the stem and leaf, but the content of other phenolic acids in the spica was not significantly different from that in the stem. The content of protocatechuic aldehyde and caffeic acid in the spica was lower than that in the leaf. DPPH free radical scavenging method was used to detect the antioxidant activity of four parts, and there was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity between the spica and the stem and leaf, but that was significantly higher than the seed. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these parts was correlated with the content of total phenolic acids. Based on the above findings, the stem and leaf of P. vulgaris have potential application value. Considering the traditional medication rule, it is feasible to use the whole plant as a medicine. Alternatively, salviaflaside, occurring in the seed, can be used as a marker compound for the quality evaluation of Prunellae Spica, if only using spica as the medicinal part of P. vulgaris, as described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition).


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Prunella/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Caffeic Acids , Flavonoids/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis , Saponins , Sugars
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4130-4136, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008609

ABSTRACT

Twelve compounds were isolated from Liquidambaris Resina by silica gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Their structures were identified on the basis of spectral data, electron capture detector data, and physicochemical properties as(2'R, 3'R)-2',3'-dihydroxy-hydrocinnamyl-(E)-cinnamate(1),(E)-cinnamyl-(E)-cinnamate(2), cinnamic acid(3), 28-norlup-20(29)-en-3-one-17β-hydroperoxide(4), erythrodiol(5), 13β,28-epoxy-30-hydroxyolean-1-en-3-one(6),(3β)-olean-12-ene-3,23-diol(7), 2α,3α-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid(8), 28-hydroxyolean-12-en-3-one(9), 3-epi-oleanolic acid(10), 3-oxo-oleanolic acid(11), and hederagenin(12). Compound 1 was a new cinnamic acid ester derivative and compounds 2-4,6-8, and 12 were isolated from Liquidambaris Resina for the first time. Compounds 4, 5, 10, and 12 exerted inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) with the IC_(50) values of(17.43±2.17),(35.32±0.61),(27.50±0.80), and(46.30±0.30) μmol·L~(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oleanolic Acid , Endothelial Cells , Esters , Cinnamates , Triterpenes/chemistry , Molecular Structure
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4124-4129, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008608

ABSTRACT

Three new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides were separated from the ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis by a variety of chromatographic techniques. According to the data of NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and/or comparison with the reported data, the three novel cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides were identified as colocynthenin E(1), colocynthenin G(2), and colocynthenin H(3). The cell inflammation model was established with RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide and then used to determine the anti-inflammatory activities of the three compounds. Compounds 2 and 3 showed mild anti-inflammatory activities with the IC_(50) of 48.21 and 40.11 μmol·L~(-1), respectively, compared with that(IC_(50)=7.57 μmol·L~(-1)) of the positive control dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Citrullus colocynthis/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1144-1154, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980900

ABSTRACT

Tumor chemoprevention and treatment are two approaches aimed at improving the survival of patients with cancers. An ideal anti-tumor drug is that which not only kills tumor cells but also alleviates tumor-causing risk factors, such as precancerous lesions, and prevents tumor recurrence. Chinese herbal monomers are considered to be ideal treatment agents due to their multi-target effects. Astragaloside has been shown to possess tumor chemoprevention, direct anti-tumor, and chemotherapeutic drug sensitization effects. In this paper, we review the effects of astragaloside on tumor prevention and treatment and provide directions for further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoprevention , Antineoplastic Agents , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6676-6681, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008865

ABSTRACT

Nine compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of Salacia polysperma by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, together with preparative HPLC methods. Based on HR-ESI-MS, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses, the structures of the nine compounds were identified as 28-hydroxy wilforlide B(1), wilforlide A(2), 1β,3β-dihydroxyurs-9(11),12-diene(3),(-)-epicatechin(4),(+)-catechin(5),(-)-4'-O-methyl-ent-galloepicatechin(6), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)propan-1-one(7),(-)-(7S,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneoligna-7,9-diol-7'-aldehyde(8), and vanillic acid(9). Compound 1 is a new oleanane-type triterpene lactone. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7-9 were isolated from the Salacia genus for the first time. All compounds were assayed for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The results suggested that compound 8 exhibited moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with an IC_(50) value of 37.2 μmol·L~(-1), and the other compounds showed no α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.


Subject(s)
Salacia/chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Ethanol , Molecular Structure
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1642-1651, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970636

ABSTRACT

The UPLC-MS/MS was established for the determination of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid(AKBA) and β-boswellic acid(β-BA), the main active components of Olibanum and Myrrha extracts in Xihuang Formula, in rat plasma and urine. The effects of compatibility on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of AKBA and β-BA in rats were investigated, and the differences in pharmacokinetic behaviors between healthy rats and rats with precancerous lesions of breast cancer were compared. The results showed that compared with RM-NH and RM-SH groups, the AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of β-BA increased(P<0.05 or P<0.01), T_(max) decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and C_(max) increased(P<0.01) after compatibility. The trends of AKBA and β-BA were the same. Compared with RM-SH group, the T_(max) decreased(P<0.05), C_(max) increased(P<0.01), and the absorption rate increased in the normal group of Xihuang Formula. The results of urinary excretion showed that there was a decreasing trend in the urinary excretion rate and total urinary excretion of β-BA and AKBA after compatibility, but there was no statistical difference. Compared with normal group of Xihuang Formula, the AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of β-BA increased(P<0.05), T_(max) increased(P<0.05), and the clearance rate decreased in the breast precancerous lesion group. AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of AKBA showed an increasing trend, the in vivo retention time was prolonged, and the clearance rate was reduced, but there was no significant difference compared with the normal group. The cumulative urinary excretion and urinary excretion rate of β-BA and AKBA decreased under pathological conditions, indicating that pathological conditions could affect the in vivo process of β-BA and AKBA, and reduce their excretion in the form of prototype drugs, showing different pharmacokine-tic characteristics from normal physiological conditions. In this study, UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established, which was sui-table for in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of β-BA and AKBA. This study laid a foundation for the development of new dosage forms of Xihuang Formula.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Precancerous Conditions , Triterpenes/pharmacology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1558-1567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970628

ABSTRACT

Based on mass spectrometry(MS)-guided separation strategy, compound 1 was obtained from the roots of Rhus chinensis. By comprehensive analysis of high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) data, and quantum chemical calculation of NMR(qcc-NMR) parameters, compound 1 was elucidated as rhuslactone, a 17-epi-dammarane triterpenoid with a rare 17α-side chain. An HPLC-ELSD method for its quantification in R. chinensis was established and adopted for the quantification of rhuslactone in different batches of R. chinensis. Rhuslactone displayed a good linear relationship within the range of 0.021 3-1.07 μmol·mL~(-1 )(r=0.997 6), and the average recovery was 99.34% [relative standard deviation(RSD) 2.9%). Moreover, the results of the evaluation test of the preventive effects of rhusalctone on coronary heart disease(CHD) and thrombosis showed that rhuslactone(0.11 nmol·mL~(-1)) significantly alleviated heart enlargement and venous congestion and increased cardiac output(CO), blood flow velocity(BFV), and heart rate, thereby reducing thrombus formation in zebrafish with CHD. The effects of rhuslactone on CO and BFV were superior to that of digoxin(1.02 nmol·mL~(-1)), and its effect on improving heart rate was comparable to that of digoxin. This study provides experimental references for the isolation, identification, quality control, and application of rhuslactone from R. chinensis against CHD. It is worth mentioning that this study has discussed some omissions in the determination of the stereochemistry of C-17 in dammarane triterpenoids in the present coursebook Chemistry of Chinese Medicine and some research papers, that is, the compound may be 17-epi-dammarane triterpenoid. This paper has also proposed steps for the establishment of C-17 stereochemistry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Rhus/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis , Coronary Disease , Thrombosis
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1463-1482, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970618

ABSTRACT

Dolomiaea plants are perennial herbs in the Asteraceae family with a long medicinal history. They are rich in chemical constituents, mainly including sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, triterpenes, and steroids. The extracts and chemical constituents of Dolomiaea plants have various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, anti-gastric ulcer, hepatoprotective and choleretic effects. However, there are few reports on Dolomiaea plants. This study systematically reviewed the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dolomiaea plants to provide references for the further development and research of Dolomiaea plants.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Asteraceae , Triterpenes , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 155-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929246

ABSTRACT

Three new ursane-type triterpenoids, 3-oxours-12-en-20, 28-olide (1), 3β-hydroxyurs-12-en-20, 28-olide (2) and 3β-hydroxyurs-11, 13(18)-dien-20, 28-olide (3), were isolated from a potent anti-inflammatory and antibacterial fraction of the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, MS data and comparisons with literature reports. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significantly inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, but no antibacterial activity was found at a concentration of 128 μg·mL-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Rosmarinus , Triterpenes/chemistry
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 492-498, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927994

ABSTRACT

This study explores the regulatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ on miR-17-5 p and its downstream proprotein convertase subtillisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9)/very low density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR) signal pathway, aiming at elucidating the mechanism of astragaloside Ⅳ against atherosclerosis(AS). In cell experiment, oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) was used for endothelial cell injury modeling with vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs). Then cells were classified into the model group, miR-17-5 p inhibitor group, blank serum group, and astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group based on the invention. Afterward, cell viability and the expression of miR-17-5 p, VLDLR, and PCSK9 mRNA and protein in cells in each group were detected. In animal experiment, 15 C57 BL/6 mice were used as the control group, and 45 ApoE~(-/-) mice were classified into the model group, miR-17-5 p inhibitor group, and astragaloside Ⅳ group, with 15 mice in each group. After 8 weeks of intervention, the peripheral serum levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and the expression of miR-17-5 p, VLDLR, and PCSK9 mRNA in the aorta of mice were detected. The pathological changes of mice in each group were observed. According to the cell experiment, VSMC viability in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group was higher than that in the model group(P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of miR-17-5 p and VLDLR in VSMCs in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group was lower than that in the model group(P<0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of PCSK9 was higher than that in the model group(P<0.05). As for the animal experiment, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the peripheral serum of the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group were lower(P<0.05) and the serum level of IL-10 was higher(P<0.05) than that of the model group. The mRNA expression of miR-17-5 p and VLDLR in the aorta in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group was lower(P<0.05), and PCSK9 mRNA expression was higher(P<0.05) than that in the model group. Pathological observation showed mild AS in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group. In summary, astragaloside Ⅳ can prevent the occurrence and development of AS. The mechanism is that it performs targeted regulation of miR-17-5 p, further affecting the PCSK9/VLDLR signal pathway, inhibiting vascular inflammation, and thus alleviating endothelial cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proprotein Convertase 9/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/metabolism , Saponins , Signal Transduction , Triterpenes
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 469-475, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ in mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) and its effect on the percentage of peripheral blood T helper(Th17) cells. Following the establishment of UC mouse model with 2% sodium dextran sulfate(DSS), mice in the positive control group and low-and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ groups were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage. Disease activity index(DAI) was calculated, and serum interleukin-17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) levels were assayed by ELISA. The pathological changes in colon tissue were observed by HE staining, and Th17/regulatory T cells(Treg) ratio in the peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot was conducted for detecting the relative protein expression levels of forkhead box protein P3(Foxp3) and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γT(ROR-γt). The findings demonstrated that in normal mice, the colonic structure was intact. The goblet cells were not reduced and the glands were neatly arranged, with no mucosal erosion, bleeding, or positive cell infiltration. In the model group, the colonic mucosal structure was seriously damaged, manifested as disordered arrangement or missing of glands, vascular dilatation, congestion, and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. The pathological injury of colon tissue was alleviated to varying degrees in drug treatment groups. Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited elevated percentage of Th17 cells, increased IL-17 and TNF-α content, up-regulated relative ROR-γt protein expression, lowered TGF-β, reduced percentage of Treg cells, and down-regulated relative Foxp3 protein expression. The comparison with the model group showed that DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the positive control group, low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were decreased, while TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were increased. The DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were higher than those in the positive control group, whereas the content of TGF-β, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were lower. DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, relative ROR-γt protein expression in the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group declined in contrast to those in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, while the TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression rose. There was no significant difference between the positive control group and the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group. Astragaloside Ⅳ is able to inhibit inflammatory response and diminish the percentage of Th17 cells in mice with UC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Triterpenes/pharmacology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1004-1024, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927759

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoid saponins are widely used in medicine, health cares, cosmetics, food additives and agriculture because of their unique chemical properties and rich pharmacological activities. UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the key enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, and play important roles in the diversity of triterpenoid saponin structures and pharmacological activities. This review summarized the UGTs involved in plant triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis based on the sources of UGTs and the types of receptors. Moreover, the application of UGTs in heterologous biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins based on synthetic biology was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Plants , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes
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