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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881073

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 79-90, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880969

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells, a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes, can infiltrate into ischemic brain and exacerbate neuronal cell death. Astragaloside IV (ASIV) is the major bioactive ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese herbal medicine, and possesses potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of ASIV on post-ischemic brain infiltration and activation of NK cells. ASIV reduced brain infarction and alleviated functional deficits in MCAO rats, and these beneficial effects persisted for at least 7 days. Abundant NK cells infiltrated into the ischemic hemisphere on day 1 after brain ischemia, and this infiltration was suppressed by ASIV. Strikingly, ASIV reversed NK cell deficiency in the spleen and blood after brain ischemia. ASIV inhibited astrocyte-derived CCL2 upregulation and reduced CCR2


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Histone Deacetylases , Killer Cells, Natural , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of tripterine on adhesion molecules and cell biological characteristics in mice with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) tumor.@*METHODS@#Eighteen SCID beige mice were caudal vein injected with NB4 cell lines (5×10@*RESULTS@#The neutrophil decrased and promyelocytes, NB4 cells, B lymphocytes and white blood cells increased in tumor-bearing group as compared with control group (P<0.05), and the expressions of serum P-selectin (P-selectin), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, sICAM-1) all increased (P<0.05). The cell cycle showed that the proportion of G@*CONCLUSION@#Tripterine may not only inhibit the expression of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 proteins in APL tumor-bearing mice and reduce the adhesion of tumor cells, but also block tumor cells at G


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, SCID , Triterpenes , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD).@*METHODS@#A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, an HIBD group, and an AS-IV treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. After 24 hours of modeling, brain tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining, yo-PRO-1 staining, and EthD-2 immunofluorescent staining in order to observe the cerebral protection effect of AS-IV in vivo. HT22 cells were used to prepare a model of oxygen-glycogen deprivation (OGD), and a concentration gradient (50-400 μmol/L) was established for AS-IV. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the viability of HT22 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to observe the effect of different concentrations of AS-IV on the mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β).@*RESULTS@#Yo-Pro-1 and EthD-2 staining showed that compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had an increase in pyroptotic cells with a small number of necrotic cells, and the AS-IV group had reductions in both pyroptotic and necrotic cells. Compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had significantly higher protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1β, caspase-1, and GSDMD (@*CONCLUSIONS@#AS-IV may alleviate HIBD in neonatal rats by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-1β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Inflammasomes , NLR Proteins , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Triterpenes
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287344

ABSTRACT

Extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. The main active components are the saponin glycyrrhizin (GLR) and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) which both display activities against Plasmodium falciparum. We have identified three main mechanisms at the origin of their anti-plasmodial activity: (i) drug-induced disorganisation of membrane lipid rafts, (ii) blockade of the alarmin protein HMGB1 and (iii) potential inhibition of the detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) considered as an important drug target for malaria. Our analysis shed light on the mechanism of action of GLR against P. falciparum.


Subject(s)
Triterpenes , Glycyrrhiza , Plasmodium falciparum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): 10222-0, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153529

ABSTRACT

Platycodin D (PD) is a major constituent of Platycodon grandiflorum and has multiple functions in disease control. This study focused on the function of PD in bladder cancer cell behaviors and the molecules involved. First, we administered PD to the bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 and the human uroepithelial cell line SV-HUC-1. Cell viability and growth were evaluated using MTT, EdU, and colony formation assays, and cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The microRNAs (miRNAs) showing differential expression in cells before and after PD treatment were screened. Moreover, we altered the expression of miR-129-5p and PABPC1 to identify their functions in bladder cancer progression. We found that PD specifically inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells; miR-129-5p was found to be partially responsible for the cancer-inhibiting properties of PD. PABPC1, a direct target of miR-129-5p, was abundantly expressed in T24 and 5637 cell lines and promoted cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis. In addition, PABPC1 promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in bladder cancer cells. Altogether, PD had a concentration-dependent suppressive effect on bladder cancer cell growth and was involved in the upregulation of miR-129-5p and the subsequent inhibition of PABPC1 and inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Saponins , Triterpenes , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879170

ABSTRACT

Atractylodis Rhizoma(AR) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material for food and medicine, with the functions of eli-minating dampness, strengthening the spleen, expelling wind evil and dispersing cold. AR contains a variety of compounds, including sesquiterpenoids, alkynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, polysaccharides and so on. At present, the researches on AR mainly focus on volatile components, with relatively fewer researches on non-volatile components. Polysaccharide from Atractylodis Rhizoma(ARP) is an important material basis among non-volatile components for the efficacy. Due to its many biological activities such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-tumors, anti-virus and anti-oxidation, ARP has certain research value and potential. The diversity of the polysaccharide structure is the basis for biological functions, but it also increases the difficulty of carbohydrate research. The research on the extraction, separation, purification, structure and activity of ARP is in the preliminary exploration stage, still with many shortcomings. Herein, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of ARP were summarized in this article to provide scientific reference for the in-depth systematic research of ARP and the development of AR resources.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Polysaccharides , Rhizome , Triterpenes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879092

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents were isolated and purified from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma calidophilum by various column chromatographic techniques, and their chemical structures were identified through combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. As a result, 11 compounds were isolated and identified as(24E)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3,11-dione-26-al(1), ganoderone A(2), 3-oxo-15α-acetoxy-lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-26-oleic acid(3),(23E)-27-nor-lanosta-8,23-diene-3,7,25-trione(4), ganodecanone B(5), ganoderic aldehyde A(6), 11β-hydroxy-lucidadiol(7), 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone(8), methyl gentiate(9), ganoleucin C(10), ganotheaecolumol H(11). Among them, compound 1 is a new triterpenoid. The cytotoxic activities of all of the compounds against tumor cell lines were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed cytotoxic activity against BEL-7402, with IC_(50) values of 26.55, 11.35, 23.23, 18.66 μmol·L~(-1); compounds 1 and 3-6 showed cytotoxic activity against K562, with IC_(50) values of 5.79, 22.16, 12.16, 35.32, and 5.59 μmol·L~(-1), and compound 4 showed cytotoxic activity against A549, with IC_(50) value of 42.50 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal , Ganoderma , Molecular Structure , Triterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879054

ABSTRACT

This study is to observe whether platycodin D has the guiding role in treatment of mouse lung cancer with doxorubicin and explore its guiding mechanism. In vitro, platycodin D and doxorubicin(alone or in combination) were added into Lewis lung cancer(LLC) cells to detect the cell proliferation and doxorubicin uptake. Cell morphological changes were analyzed by cell holographic analysis system; cell gap junctional intercellular communication(GJIC) was tested by fluorescent yellow tracer; lyso-tracker red was used to examine lysosomal function; LC-3 B(Light chain 3 beta)and P62(heat shock 90-like protein)staining were used to test auto-phagy and autophagic degradation respectively; and P-glycoprotein(P-gp) expression was examined by Western blot. In vivo, lung solid tumor was formed in mouse LLC cells via intravenous injection. Platycodin D and doxorubicin(alone or in combination) were used to treat tumor-bearing mice for four weeks, and then the tumor size was examined, mouse survival time was recorded, doxorubicin uptake in lung tissues was tested, and lung tissues were stained for observation by HE(hematoxylin-eosin) and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that platycodin D at the experimental concentration had no effect on LLC cell proliferation but decreased LLC cell volume, promoted the cells to uptake doxorubicin and enhanced the inhibitory action of doxorubicin on cell proliferation. Platycodin D could promote GJIC and lysosomal function, increase autophagy and autophagic degradation and suppress P-gp expression. Platycodin D at the experimental dose in this study had no effect on LLC lung solid tumors in mice, increased doxorubicin uptake in lung tissues and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin on lung solid tumors. Platycodin D could improve the extracellular matrix deposition in lung solid tumors, decreased the lung mucin 5 AC secretion and pulmonary vessel permeability. In summary, platycodin D had the guiding role in treating mouse lung cancer with doxorubicin, and its guiding mechanism may be associated with the promotion of cell communication, lysosomal function, and improvement of extracellular environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Doxorubicin , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice , Saponins , Triterpenes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879043

ABSTRACT

Platycodon grandiflorum is a medicinal and edible medicinal material. Our study is aimed to explore the differences in the gene expression of P. grandiflorum in different growth years, and the expression rules of key genes in the biosynthesis of the main active substances of P. grandiflorum. Illumina Hiseq 4000 sequencing platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of P. grandiflorum in different years. Then, 59 654 unigenes were obtained through filtering, assembly, splicing and bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data, of which 1 671 unigenes were differentially expressed between at least two samples. The results of cluster analysis showed that there was a great difference in the gene expression of P. grandiflorum from one-year-old to two/three-year-old. There were 1 128 different genes between one-and three-year old P. grandiflorum, and only 57 different genes between two-and three-year-old P. grandiflorum. KEGG enrichment results showed that the differential genes of P. grandiflorum in different years were mainly concentra-ted in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes and triterpenes, and the biosynthesis of terpenoid skeletons. In the triterpenoid biosynthesis-related pathways, a total of 15 unigenes were identified, involving 5 enzymes. The expression levels of ACAT, HMGR, FDFT1, SQLE decreased with the increase of the growth year of P. grandiflorum. The expression of HMGS was the highest in the one-year-old P. grandiflorum, followed by the three-year-old sample. This study provides useful data for the development of P. grandiflorum, and also provides a basis for the study of related genes in the biosynthetic pathway of platycodin.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Plant Roots , Platycodon/genetics , Saponins , Transcriptome , Triterpenes
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879025

ABSTRACT

To prove that ursolic acid(UA)could activate the autophagy of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells by inhibiting hedgehog signaling pathway. The effect of UA on the viability of HCT116 cells was determined by MTT assay. The effect of UA on the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells was detected by crystal violet staining and scratch test. In the study on autophagy, the time points were screened out first: the autophagy fluorescence intensity of UA acting on HCT116 at different time points were detected by Cell Meter~(TM) Autophagy Assay Kit; Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy protein P62 at different time points. Then, Cell Meter~(TM) Autophagy Assay Kit was used to detect the effect of UA on autophagy fluorescence intensity of HCT116 cells. The effect of different doses of UA on the expressions of LC3Ⅱ and P62 proteins in HCT116 cells were detected by Western blot. Further, AdPlus-mCherry-GFP-LC3 B adenovirus transfection was used to detect the effects of UA on autophagy flux of HCT116 cells; UA combined with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine(CQ) was used to detect the expression of LC3Ⅱ by Western blot. In terms of mechanism, the effect of UA on hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins in HCT116 cells was detected by Western blot. The results showed that UA inhibited the activity, proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells. UA enhanced the fluorescence intensity of autophagy in HCT116 cells, while promoting the expression of LC3Ⅱ and inhibiting the expression of P62, in a time and dose dependent manner. UA activated the autophagy in HCT116 cells, which manifested that UA resulted in the accumulation of fluorescence spots and strengthened the fluorescence intensity of autophagosomes; compared with UA alone, UA combined with autophagy inhibitor CQ promoted the expression of LC3Ⅱ. UA reduced the expressions of PTCH1, GLI1, SMO, SHH and c-Myc in hedgehog signaling pathway, while increased the expression of Sufu. In conclusion, our study showed that UA activated autophagy in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, which was related to the mechanism in inhibiting hedgehog signaling pathway activity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hedgehog Proteins/genetics , Humans , Signal Transduction , Triterpenes
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879019

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoids are one of the most active constituents in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, but only oleanolic acid has been mostly studied. In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that other triterpenes from Ligustri Lucidi Fructus also have various biological activities, so it is necessary to build up a detailed profile of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature of 25 ℃. The HPLC fingerprint of triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus was built by testing 21 batches of samples from different sources. The structures of the total 15 common chromatographic peaks were elucidated with UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technique and six of them were identified as tormentic acid, pomolic acid, maslinic acid, botulin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid by comparison to the reference substances. Under the same chromatographic condition, four main triterpenes(podocarboxylic acid, hawthorn acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) were quantified and the results of system adaptability and methodology investigation all met the requirements of content determination. Meanwhile, with oleanolic acid(A) as the internal reference substance, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method was used to analyze the above four components. The relative correction factor of oleanolic acid(B), hawthorn acid(C) and ursolic acid(D) to oleanolic acid was f_(B/A)=1.12, f_(C/A)=1.02 and f_(D/A)=0.88, respectively, and the relative retention values of these three to oleanolic acid was RRV_(B/A)=0.46, RRV_(C/A)=0.70 and RRV_(D/A)=1.03, respectively. The contents determined by two methods were similar. In conclusion, the method built in this paper is proved to be simple, reliable and specific for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, which can lay foundation for further assays of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and the relative products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Ligustrum , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879017

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents of water extracts of Asplenium ruprechtii were investigated. Five compounds were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatographies and preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by various spectral analyses as aspleniumside G(1), trans-p-coumaric acid(2), trans-p-coumaric acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside(3), cis-p-coumaric acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside(4), and(E)-ferulic acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside(5). Among them, compound 1 is a new 9,19-cycloartane glycoside.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Glucosides , Glycosides , Triterpenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878986

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to solve the problems of complicated-unstable test solution preparation process and insufficient extraction of the active ingredient astragaloside Ⅳ in the legal method for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix. The continuous single-factor analysis of seven main factors affecting the content of astragaloside Ⅳ was carried out by HPLC-ELSD, and then the pre-paration method of test solution was optimized. This optimized method exhibited excellent performance in precision, repeatability and stability. The average recovery rate of astragaloside Ⅳ was 99.65% with RSD 2.2%. Astragaloside Ⅳ showed a good linearity between the logarithm of peak area and the logarithm of injection quantity in the range of 0.46-9.1 μg(r=0.999 6). The contents of astragaloside Ⅳ in 29 batches of Astragali Radix were determined by the new and the legal methods. The results showed that the average content of astragaloside Ⅳ in these Astragali Radix samples determined by the former method was 1.458 times than that of the latter one, indicating the new method was simple, reliable and more adequate to extract target compound. According to the results, it is suggested to improve the content standard of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix in the new edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saponins , Triterpenes/analysis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878984

ABSTRACT

One new and two known dammarane-type saponins were isolated from the leaves of Gynostemma pentaphyllum using various chromatographic methods. Their structures were identified by HR-ESI-MS,~( 1)H-NMR, ~(13)C-NMR, 2 D-NMR spectra as 2α,3β,12β,20,24(S)-tetrahdroxydammar-25-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside(1, a new compound, namely gypenoside J5) and 2α,3β,12β,20,24(R)-tetrahdroxydammar-25-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2) and 2α,3β,12β,20-tetrahydroxy-25-hydroperoxy-dammar-23-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopy-ranoside(3), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were a pair of C-24 epimers. All compounds showed weak cytotoxicity agxinst H1299, HepG2, PC-3, SH-SY5 Y cancer cell lines. However, they exerted protective effect against SH-SY5 Y cellular damage induced by H_2O_2 dose-dependently, of which compound 1 displayed the strongest antioxidant effect. The present study suggested that G. pentaphyllum has antioxidative potential and the saponins from G. pentaphyllum are considered as the active compounds with neuroprotecitve effect.


Subject(s)
Gynostemma , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878888

ABSTRACT

A new taraxer-based triterpenoid ester, taraxer-14-en-30-al-3β-O-palmitate(1), was isolated from the whole plant of Wedelia trilobata, along with six known compounds, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid(2), 16α-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid(3), tara-xerol(4), β-amyrin(5), 1β-acetoxy-4α, 9α-dihydroxy-6β-isobutyroxyprostatolide(6), and stigmasterol(7). Their structures were elucidated with use of a combination of spectroscopic techniques(IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1 D, 2 D NMR data) and chemical methods.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Triterpenes , Wedelia
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of mogroside VI (MVI) on acute liver injury induced by sepsis in mice and its possible mechanisms. Methods A total of 60 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operation, model, low-dose MVI (25 mg/kg), high-dose MVI (100 mg/kg), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) inhibitor (100 mg/kg MVI+30 mg/kg PGC-1α inhibitor SR-18292), with 12 mice in each group. Cecal ligation and puncture were performed to establish a mouse model of sepsis. The drugs were given by intraperitoneal injection after the model was established, once a day for 3 consecutive days. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Colorimetry was used to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver tissue. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe liver histopathological changes. Liver mitochondrial respiratory function was measured, and mitochondrial respiratory control rate was calculated. RT-PCR was used to measure the copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in liver tissue and the mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in liver tissue. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1, and TFAM in liver tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group had significant increases in the serum levels of ALT and AST and the content of MDA in liver tissue (P0.05). The PGC-1α inhibitor SR-18292 significantly inhibited the intervention effect of high-dose MVI (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MVI can effectively alleviate acute liver injury caused by sepsis in mice, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial biosynthesis mediated by PGC-1α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sepsis/drug therapy , Triterpenes
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on microglia/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation control group, model control group and AS-Ⅳ group with 16 rats in each. Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) using the intraluminal filament. After ischemia induced, the rats in AS-Ⅳ group were intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg AS-Ⅳ once a day for 3 days. The neurological functions were evaluated by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner test on d1 and d3 after modelling. The infarct volume was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on d3 after ischemia. The expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, M2 microglia/macrophages markers CD206, arginase-1 (Arg-1), chitinase-like protein (YM1/2) and anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD16/32/Iba1 and CD206/Iba1 was determined by double labeling immunefluorescence method in the peripheral area of cerebral ischemia.@*RESULTS@#Compared with model control group, AS-Ⅳ treatment improved neurological function recovery and reduced infarct volume after ischemia (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings suggest that AS-Ⅳ ameliorates brain injury after cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be related to inhibiting inflammation through promoting the polarization of the microglia/macrophage from M1 to M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cell Polarity/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Microglia/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180735, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thevetia peruviana is an ornamental shrub grown-up in many tropical region of the world. This plant produces secondary metabolites with biological properties of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. The objective was to determine the secondary metabolites profile of callus and cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana and compare them with those from explant (fruit pulp). Extracts in 50% aqueous ethanol and ethyl acetate were prepared. The phytochemical analysis was performed using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoids compounds (TPC and TFC), total cardiac glycosides (TCG) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was determined during the cell suspension growth. Phenolic chemical profile was also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Common metabolites (alkaloids, amino acids, antioxidants, cardiac glycosides, leucoanthocyanidins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and triterpenes) were detected in all samples. The maximum production of extracellular TCG, TPC, TFC and TAA in cells suspensions were at 6-12 days; in contrast, intracellular content was relatively constant during the exponential grown phase (0 to 12-days). HPLC analysis detected one compound with retention time at 11.6 min; this compound was tentatively identified as dihydroquercetin, a flavonoid with anti-cancer properties. These results provide evidence on the utility of the in vitro cell cultures of T. peruviana for valuable pharmaceutical compounds production.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Thevetia/cytology , Phytochemicals/biosynthesis , Triterpenes , Flavonoids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Thevetia/chemistry , Culture Techniques , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of asiaticoside against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonatal rats based on the microRNA-155 (miR-155)/suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) axis.@*METHODS@#Neonatal rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose asiaticoside group (10 mg/kg), a middle-dose asiaticoside group (25 mg/kg), a high-dose asiaticoside group (50 mg/kg), and a budesonide group (1.5 mg/kg), with 12 rats in each group. All rats except those in the control group were exposed to a high concentration of oxygen for 14 days to establish a neonatal rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The low-, middle-, and high-dose asiaticoside groups were given asiaticoside at different doses by gavage, and those in the budesonide group were given budesonide aerosol treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe lung tissue development and measure radial alveolar count (RAC) and mean linear intercept (MLI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) detection kits were used to measure the levels of SOD and MDA in lung tissue. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of miR-155 and SOCS1 in lung tissue. Western blotting was used to measure the protein expression of SOCS1 in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the model group had the symptoms of bronchopulmonary dysplasia such as a disordered structure of lung tissue, enlargement of alveolar fusion, uneven alveolar septa, enlargement of average alveolar space, and a reduction in alveolar number. The model group also had significant increases in MLI, MDA level in lung tissue, serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and miR-155 level in lung tissue (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Asiaticoside can alleviate inflammation injury induced by hyperoxia in neonatal rats and improve the symptoms of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a dose-dependent manner, possibly by down-regulating the expression of miR-155 and up-regulating the expression of SOCS1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Hyperoxia , Lung , MicroRNAs , Rats , Triterpenes
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