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1.
Hepatología ; 4(2): 152-164, 2023. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1429016

ABSTRACT

La colangitis biliar primaria es una enfermedad hepática autoinmune que conduce a la destrucción progresiva de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, lo que aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar cirrosis e hipertensión portal. Actualmente, el ácido ursodesoxicólico es el medicamento de primera línea para el tratamiento de esta entidad. Este medicamento desplaza los ácidos biliares hidrofóbicos y aumenta las concentraciones de ácidos biliares hidrofílicos en la bilis, lo cual favorece la integridad de los conductos biliares, adicionalmente, tiene efectos antiinflamatorios y propiedades inmunomo-duladoras y antiapoptóticas. En los últimos 40 años, numerosos ensayos clínicos han respaldado la eficacia clínica del ácido ursodesoxicólico y su seguridad cuando se utiliza en pacientes con colan-gitis biliar primaria. Se realiza una revisión del ácido ursodesoxicólico en el contexto de colangitis biliar primaria, se describe su historia, mecanismos de acción, efectos secundarios y dosificación. Finalmente, se menciona su uso en situaciones especiales como son el embarazo y la lactancia


Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune liver disease that leads to progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, increasing the risk of developing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Currently, ursodeoxycholic acid is the first-line drug for the treatment of this condition. This drug displaces hy-drophobic bile acids and increases concentrations of hydrophilic bile acids in the bile, which favors the integrity of the bile ducts, additionally, it has anti-inflammatory effects and immunoprotective and antiapoptotic properties. Over the past 40 years numerous clinical trials have supported the clinical efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid and its safety when used in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. A review of ursodeoxycholic acid in the context of primary biliary cholangitis is carried out, and its history, mechanisms of action, side effects and dosage are described. Finally, its use in special situations such as pregnancy and lactation are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Safety , Bile , Bile Ducts , Bile Acids and Salts , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2739-2748, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981377

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis(UC) is a recurrent, intractable inflammatory bowel disease. Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, serving as heat-clearing and toxin-removing drugs, have long been used in the treatment of UC. Berberine(BBR) and ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), the main active components of Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, respectively, were employed to obtain UDCA-BBR supramolecular nanoparticles by stimulated co-decocting process for enhancing the therapeutic effect on UC. As revealed by the characterization of supramolecular nanoparticles by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering(DLS), the supramolecular nanoparticles were tetrahedral nanoparticles with an average particle size of 180 nm. The molecular structure was described by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance(H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the formation of the supramolecular nano-particle was attributed to the mutual electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction between BBR and UDCA. Additionally, supramolecular nanoparticles were also characterized by sustained release and pH sensitivity. The acute UC model was induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in mice. It was found that supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve body mass reduction and colon shortening in mice with UC(P<0.001) and decrease disease activity index(DAI)(P<0.01). There were statistically significant differences between the supramolecular nanoparticles group and the mechanical mixture group(P<0.001, P<0.05). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6), and the results showed that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels(P<0.001) and exhibited an obvious difference with the mechanical mixture group(P<0.01, P<0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce the recruitment of neutrophils in the lamina propria of the colon(P<0.05), which was significantly different from the mechanical mixture group(P<0.05). These findings suggested that as compared with the mechanical mixture, the supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve the symptoms of acute UC in mice. The study provides a new research idea for the poor absorption of small molecules and the unsatisfactory therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine and lays a foundation for the research on the nano-drug delivery system of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Berberine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Colon , Nanoparticles , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e302, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420114

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Alagille es una patología poco frecuente, de herencia autosómica dominante. Se caracteriza por la presencia de colestasis crónica progresiva ocasionada por hipoplasia de las vías biliares; anomalías vertebrales, oculares y cardíacas, y fenotipo facial particular. Entre sus diagnósticos diferenciales se incluyen las infecciones, enfermedades endocrinometabólicas, atresia biliar y causas idiopáticas. El pronóstico de este síndrome es variable y depende de la entidad de la afectación hepática y los defectos cardiovasculares. El abordaje terapéutico suele ser interdisciplinario e individualizado, enfocado en el control sintomático, prevención de la malnutrición y el déficit de vitaminas liposolubles. Se presenta el caso de un lactante de 2 meses en el que se estudiaron las causas más frecuentes de colestasis y se llegó al diagnóstico de síndrome de Alagille. Se describe su abordaje terapéutico y seguimiento.


Alagille syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant rare disease. It is characterized by the presence of progressive chronic cholestasis caused by hypoplasia of the bile ducts; vertebral, ocular and cardiac anomalies, and particular facial phenotype. Its differential diagnoses include infections, endocrine-metabolic diseases, biliary atresia and idiopathic causes. The prognosis of this syndrome is variable and depends on the degree of liver involvement and cardiovascular defects. The therapeutic approach is usually interdisciplinary and customized, focused on symptomatic control, prevention of malnutrition and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. We present the case of a 2-month-old infant in whom the most frequent causes of cholestasis were studied and to whom Alagille Syndrome was diagnosed. We hereby describe its therapeutic approach and follow-up.


A síndrome de Alagille é uma doença rara, hereditária, autossômica e dominante. Caracteriza-se pela presença de colestase crônica progressiva causada por hipoplasia das vias biliares; anomalias vertebrais, oculares e cardíacas e fenótipo facial particular. Seus diagnósticos diferenciais incluem infecções, doenças endócrino-metabólicas, atresia biliar e causas idiopáticas. O prognóstico desta síndrome é variável e depende do grau de envolvimento hepático e defeitos cardiovasculares. A abordagem terapêutica geralmente é interdisciplinar e personalizada, focada no controle sintomático, prevenção da desnutrição e deficiência de vitaminas lipossolúveis. Apresentamos o caso de uma criança de 2 meses de idade em que foram estudadas as causas mais frequentes de colestase e a quem foi diagnosticada Síndrome de Alagille. Descrevemos a sua abordagem terapêutica e seguimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Alagille Syndrome/diagnosis , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Fat Soluble Vitamins , Cholestasis/etiology , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Alagille Syndrome/complications , Alagille Syndrome/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
4.
Biol. Res ; 56: 28-28, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle generates force and movements and maintains posture. Under pathological conditions, muscle fibers suffer an imbalance in protein synthesis/degradation. This event causes muscle mass loss and decreased strength and muscle function, a syndrome known as sarcopenia. Recently, our laboratory described secondary sarcopenia in a chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD) mouse model. Interestingly, the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, is an effective therapy for cholestatic hepatic alterations. However, the effect of UDCA on skeletal muscle mass and functionality has never been evaluated, nor the possible involved mechanisms. METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to generate sarcopenia in C57BL6 mice and develop a sarcopenic-like phenotype in C2C12 myotubes and isolated muscle fibers. In mice, we measured muscle strength by a grip strength test, muscle mass by bioimpedance and mass for specific muscles, and physical function by a treadmill test. We also detected the fiber's diameter and content of sarcomeric proteins. In C2C12 myotubes and/or isolated muscle fibers, we determined the diameter and troponin I level to validate the cellular effect. Moreover, to evaluate possible mechanisms, we detected puromycin incorporation, p70S6K, and 4EBP1 to evaluate protein synthesis and ULK1, LC3 I, and II protein levels to determine autophagic flux. The mitophagosome-like structures were detected by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: UDCA induced sarcopenia in healthy mice, evidenced by decreased strength, muscle mass, and physical function, with a decline in the fiber's diameter and the troponin I protein levels. In the C2C12 myotubes, we observed that UDCA caused a reduction in the diameter and content of MHC, troponin I, puromycin incorporation, and phosphorylated forms of p70S6K and 4EBP1. Further, we detected increased levels of phosphorylated ULK1, the LC3II/LC3I ratio, and the number of mitophagosome-like structures. These data suggest that UDCA induces a sarcopenic-like phenotype with decreased protein synthesis and autophagic flux. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that UDCA induces sarcopenia in mice and sarcopenic-like features in C2C12 myotubes and/or isolated muscle fibers concomitantly with decreased protein synthesis and alterations in autophagic flux.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Sarcopenia/chemically induced , Sarcopenia/pathology , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/metabolism , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Troponin I/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508225

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La colangitis biliar primaria es una enfermedad hepática, crónica y progresiva. El tratamiento con ácido ursodesoxicólico ha ampliado la esperanza de vida de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Describir la respuesta terapéutica al ácido ursodesoxicólico en pacientes con colangitis biliar primaria. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y ambispectivo en pacientes atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología entre septiembre de 2003 y enero de 2020. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, de laboratorio, histológicas y terapéuticas. El análisis de los resultados se realizó con el paquete SPSS. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 pacientes. Hubo un predominio del sexo femenino (95,6 %) y una mediana de edad de 54 años. Los niveles bajos de aspartato amino transferasa (p=0,009 HR=0,98) y fosfatasa alcalina (p=0,005, HR=0,99), así como la presencia del síndrome de superposición (p=0,046 HR=3,08) se relacionaron con una buena respuesta al ácido ursodesoxicólico. La mayoría de los que no respondieron al tratamiento tenían cirrosis hepática (68 %). No se observaron diferencias en la supervivencia de los pacientes de acuerdo con su respuesta al tratamiento (p =0,585). Conclusiones: La respuesta terapéutica fue efectiva en menos de la mitad de los tratados con ácido ursodesoxicólico. La cirrosis hepática, el síndrome de superposición y los niveles elevados de aspartato amino transferasa y fosfatasa alcalina se asociaron a la mala respuesta terapéutica.


Introduction: Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic and progressive liver disease. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid has extended the life expectancy of these patients. Objective: To describe the therapeutic response to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. Methods: Descriptive, longitudinal and ambispective study in patients treated at the Institute of Gastroenterology between September 2003 and January 2020. Clinical, laboratory, histological and therapeutic variables were evaluated. The analysis of the results was performed with the SPSS package. Results: Forty-five patients were included, with a predominance of female gender (95.6%) and a average age of 54 years. Low levels of aspartate amino transferase (p=0.009 HR=0.98) and alkaline phosphatase (p=0.005, HR=0.99), as well as the presence of overlap syndrome (p=0.046 HR=3.08) were associated with a better response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Less than half of the patients responded to conventional treatment with UDCA (47.7 %), most of the non-responders suffer from liver cirrhosis (68 %). No differences were observed in patient survival according to their response to treatment (p =0.585). Conclusions: Therapeutic response was effective in less than half of those treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Liver cirrhosis, overlap syndrome, and elevated aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were associated with poor therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Survivorship , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies
6.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(7): 889-895, jul. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic disease, which can progress to cirrhosis. It mainly affects middle-aged women. Its most frequent form of presentation is asymptomatic with biochemical cholestasis and the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). AIM: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation and treatment for patients with PBC at a clinical hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, observational, retrospective study, carried out between January 2015 and December 2020. Results: 179 patients (158 women) were cared in the study period. At the time of diagnosis, the median age was 54 years (range 24-76), 55% of them were asymptomatic, 45% had fatigue and 28% had pruritus. Positive AMA were present in 65% of patients, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in 51%, and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) in 9%. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was elevated in 30% of the patients and 50% of patients were biopsied. Splenomegaly and esophageal varices were present in 24 and 22% of patients, respectively. PBC was associated with Sjogren's syndrome in 15%, hypothyroidism in 14%, osteoporosis in 13%, and scleroderma in 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological characteristics of our patients agree with those published abroad. Laboratory cholestasis associated with the presence of AMA, currently allows diagnosis without the need for histological study. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first-line treatment for patients with PBC. The use of biochemical response criteria is essential to identify patients who require other UDCA alternatives for isolated or combined treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Cholestasis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/epidemiology , Autoantibodies , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
7.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 155-175, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396088

ABSTRACT

La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad autoinmune caracterizada por daño de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, que hasta ahora tiene mecanismos poco claros de respuesta celular inflamatoria, con la mitocondria como orgánulo blanco. Durante varias décadas han sido el control de los ácidos biliares y el tratamiento de la colestasis lo que ha permitido el manejo médico de los pacientes, logrando un impacto parcial en el curso y la progresión de la enfermedad, mejorando además la sobrevida de los individuos. Con el hallazgo de nuevos mecanismos fisiopatológicos se han iniciado estudios con terapias inmunomoduladoras, que podrían ser prometedoras en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que padecen la enfermedad. Aún los resultados son inciertos, y se hacen necesarios más estudios para aclarar el papel de los nuevos tratamientos en el arsenal terapéutico disponible para la CBP.


Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by damage of intrahepatic bile ducts, so far with unclear mechanisms of inflammatory cellular response with the mitochondria as the target organelle. For several decades it has been the control of bile acids and the treatment of cholestasis what has allowed the management of patients, achieving a partial impact on the course and progression of the disease, also improving the survival of individuals. With the discovery of new pathophysiological mechanisms, studies have been initiated with new immunomodulatory therapies that could be promising in improving the quality of life of patients suffering from the disease. The results are still uncertain and further studies are needed to clarify the role of the new treatments in the therapeutic arsenal available for PBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholestasis , Immunomodulation
8.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 203-217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396104

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad hepática crónica de origen autoinmune, caracterizada por inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las células epiteliales de los conductos biliares intralobulillares, que causa de manera secundaria colestasis, fibrosis, cirrosis e insuficiencia hepática. La historia natural de la enfermedad ha cambiado en los últimos años debido a la mejoría en los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo, en el cual se efectuó la revisión y análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de CBP, atendidos en la Unidad de Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre los años 2013 a 2021, con el fin de obtener información sobre las características de esta patología a nivel local. Resultados. Se evaluó un total de 239 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 61,6±12,31 años, el 97,07% fue del sexo femenino, con criterios serológicos como anticuerpos antimitocondriales (AMA) positivos en un 76,89%, el 66,95% de los pacientes presentaban alguna enfermedad autoinmune concomitante y el 31,60% tuvieron sobreposición con hepatitis autoinmune. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el prurito en un 61,92% de los pacientes, seguido por la astenia en un 51,88%. La presencia de hipertensión portal al diagnóstico fue del 29,29%. La colangitis no supurativa y la ductopenia en la biopsia de hígado se documentó en un 43,79% de los casos. El ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) fue la terapia de primera línea en el 100% de los pacientes, se identificó refractariedad del 16,36% según criterios de París II y del 31,79% con los criterios de Toronto. La no respuesta al UDCA, se asoció de manera significativa con mayor mortalidad (p=0,039) y presencia de hepatocarcinoma (p=0,042). Conclusión. Se caracterizó la CBP en nuestra población. El diagnóstico serológico por AMA fue bajo, con altos requerimientos de biopsia hepática en el contexto de síndromes de sobreposición. Los signos de hipertensión portal al momento del diagnóstico fueron prevalentes. La refractariedad bioquímica a la terapiafue descrita en relación con mayor progresión de fibrosis, aumento de mortalidad y presencia de hepatocarcinoma.


ntroduction. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study, where the medical records of patients older than 16 years with a diagnosis of PBC, treated at the Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, between the years 2013 to 2021, were reviewed and analyzed in order to obtain information on the characteristics of this pathology at a local level. Results. A total of 239 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 61.6±12.31 years, 97.07% were females, with serological criteria such as positive antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 76.89%. Of all included patients, 66.95% had some concomitant autoimmune disease and 31.60% had an overlap with autoimmune hepatitis. The most frequent clinical manifestation was pruritus in 61.92% of the patients, followed by asthenia in 51.88%. The presence of portal hypertension at diagnosis was 29.29%. Non-suppurative cholangitis and ductopenia on liver biopsy were documented in 43.79% of the cases. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was the first line therapy in 100% of patients, 16.36% were refractory to treatment according to the Paris II criteria and 31.79% according to the Toronto criteria. Non-response to UDCA was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.039) and presence of hepatocarcinoma (p=0.042). Conclusion. PBC was characterized in our population. Serological diagnosis by AMA was low, with high requirements for liver biopsy in the context of overlap syndromes. Signs of portal hypertension at diagnosis were prevalent. Biochemical refractoriness to therapy was described in relation to greater progression of fibrosis, increased mortality, and the presence of hepatocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Cholestasis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune
9.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 225-232, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396107

ABSTRACT

La colangitis esclerosante secundaria es una enfermedad poco prevalente, de etiología multifactorial y con una fisiopatología progresiva, caracterizada por obstrucción biliar y fibrosis. Entre las múltiples causas se destacan las siguientes: inmunomediada por IgG4, isquémica, infecciosa y relacionada a medicamentos. En el contexto de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, se han reportado algunas series de casos que determinan una asociación entre estas dos entidades. Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la octava década de la vida con infección por SARS-CoV-2 grave, que cursó con ictericia progresiva, perfil hepático con patrón colestásico, y hallazgos imagenológicos de colangitis esclerosante con vía biliar desestructurada de manera difusa, microcálculos y barro biliar. Se diagnosticó colangitis esclerosante secundaria a SARS-CoV-2 y se dio manejo con ácido ursodesoxicólico.


Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare disease of multifactorial etiology with a progressive pathophysiology, characterized by biliary obstruction and fibrosis. Multiple causes include: IgG4-immunemediated, ischemic, infectious and drug-induced. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, some case series have been reported that determine an association between these two entities. We present the case of a woman in her eighth decade with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection that presented with progressive jaundice, liver profile with cholestatic pattern, and imaging findings of sclerosing cholangitis with obliterated bile ducts, microlithiasis and biliary sludge. Sclerosing cholangitis secondary to SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed and the patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Liver Transplantation , Critical Illness
10.
Hepatología ; 3(1): 106-117, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396357

ABSTRACT

La talidomida fue desarrollada e introducida al mercado por los laboratorios Grünenthal en 1953, siendo usada principalmente como sedante y también para el tratamiento de las náuseas durante el embarazo. Los informes dan cuenta de aproximadamente 10.000 niños que nacieron con focomelia, dando lugar a la denominada "tragedia de la talidomida", que obligó a su retiro del mercado en 1962. Luego de casi 60 años, es nuevamente utilizada en otros campos de la medicina, entre ellos, para el tratamiento de la lepra y del mieloma múltiple, debido a sus propiedades antinflamatorias, inmunomoduladoras y antiangiogénicas, con expresas advertencias sobre su utilización durante el embarazo; no obstante, con su nuevo uso han sido reportados múltiples efectos adversos, entre los que se encuentra la hepatitis aguda o crónica inducida por este fármaco. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 34 años con lepra, que estaba en tratamiento con talidomida desde hacía 4 años para combatir las lesiones de piel asociadas a esta enfermedad. Presentó malestar general, vómito, pérdida de peso, artralgias, ictericia, edemas de miembros inferiores, ascitis, coluria y acolia. Se sospechó toxicidad por talidomida, por lo que se suspendió su uso, y se trató con ácido ursodesoxicólico y N-acetilcisteína con mejoría sintomática y de laboratorio, desde la primera semana hasta los 41 días de seguimiento. Las entidades clínicas para las cuales se aprobó talidomida en 1998, pueden traer nuevos problemas y desafíos clínicos. Este caso muestra hepatotoxicidad crónica por talidomida, situación que hasta el momento no se había reportado en la literatura.


Thalidomide was developed and introduced to the market by Grünenthal laboratories in 1953, being used mainly as a sedative and also for the treatment of nausea during pregnancy. Reports give account of approximately 10,000 children who were born with phocomelia, giving rise to the so-called "thalidomide tragedy", which forced its withdrawal from the market in 1962. After almost 60 years, it is usedagain in other fields of medicine, including the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma, due to its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties, with clear warnings about its use during pregnancy; however, multiple adverse effects have been reported in patients with leprosy and multiple myeloma, including acute or chronic hepatitis. We present the case of a 34-year-old patient with leprosy, who had been on thalidomide therapy for 4 years to treat skin lesions associated with this disease. She presented general malaise, vomiting, weight loss, arthralgia, jaundice, lower limb edema, ascites, choluria and acholia. Thalidomide toxicity was suspected, so its use was suspended, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid and N-acetylcysteine was initiated, with symptomatic and laboratory improvement from the first week up until 41 days of follow-up. The new range of medical conditions for which thalidomide was approved for in 1998 may bring clinical challenges. This case shows chronic hepatotoxicity due to thalidomide, a situation that had not been reported previously in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thalidomide , Toxicity , Acetylcysteine , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Hepatitis , Jaundice
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1358322

ABSTRACT

Se describe los casos de tres pacientes a quien se les realiza diagnóstico de colestasis intrahepática del embarazo (CIE) de aparición temprana. En dos de ellos el diagnóstico se relacionó con infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). Reconocer que esta enfermedad puede presentarse de manera temprana en el embarazo y su relación con la infección por el VHC es fundamental para hacer un diagnóstico oportuno de ambas enfermedades y tomar las conductas terapéuticas adecuadas, mejorando así el pronóstico materno y fetal.


It is of great importance to acknowledge that this disease can occur early in pregnancy and that its relationship with HCV infection is a key point for a prompt diagnosis, allowing taking timely appropriate therapeutic decisions, aimed at improving the fetal prognosis.


Descrevemos os casos de três pacientes com diagnóstico de colestase intra-hepática da gravidez de início precoce. Em dois deles o diagnóstico estava relacionado à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC). Reconhecer que esta doença pode se manifestar precocemente na gravidez e sua relação com a infecção pelo VHC é fundamental para fazer um diagnóstico oportuno de ambas as doenças e assumir condutas terapêuticas adequadas, melhorando assim o prognóstico materno e fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pruritus , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Chlorpheniramine/therapeutic use , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis
12.
Hepatología ; 2(2): 325-340, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396503

ABSTRACT

La colangitis esclerosante primaria (CEP) se define por la inflamación, fibrosis y estenosis de los conductos biliares intra o extrahepáticos que no pueden ser explicadas por otras causas. La prevalencia de CEP está estimada entre 0 a 16,2 por 100.000 habitantes, mientras que la incidencia está entre 0 y 1,3 casos por cada 100.000 personas por año. Las causas siguen siendo difíciles de dilucidar y en muchos casos se establece como de origen idiopático. Sin embargo, se han propuesto factores genéticos, ambientales e isquémicos asociados, además de un componente autoinmune. Existe además una fuerte asociación entre la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y la CEP. Los síntomas suelen ser inespecíficos, 50% de los pacientes son asintomáticos, presentando únicamente alteración en el perfil hepático de patrón colestásico, con predominio de elevación de la fosfatasa alcalina. La ictericia es un signo de mal pronóstico que con frecuencia se asocia a colangiocarcinoma. La confirmación diagnóstica se hace por colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) e imágenes por resonancia magnética. Aún no existe un tratamiento establecido, y en la mayoría de los casos coexiste con otras patologías. El tratamiento es multimodal con fármacos, terapia endoscópica y trasplante hepático.


Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is defined by inflammation, fibrosis, and stenosis of the intra or extrahepatic bile ducts that cannot be explained by other causes. The prevalence of PSC is estimated between 0 to 16.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, while the incidence is between 0 and 1.3 cases per 100,000 persons-year. The causes remain elusive and, in many cases, it is established as idiopathic in origin. However, genetic, environmental and ischemic factors have been proposed in addition to an autoimmune component. There is also a strong association between inflammatory bowel disease and PSC. Symptoms are usually nonspecific, 50% of the patients are asymptomatic, presenting only an alteration in the liver profile with a cholestatic pattern, and predominance of elevated alkaline phosphatase. Jaundice is a poor prognostic sign and is frequently associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Diagnostic confirmation is made by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance imaging. There is still no established treatment, and in most cases, the disease coexists with other pathologies. Treatment is multimodal with drugs, endoscopic therapy and liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangiocarcinoma , Jaundice
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 176-180, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391950

ABSTRACT

A busca pelo corpo perfeito pode gerar graves consequências para a população que faz uso indiscriminado de substâncias visando a resultados rápidos. O caso relatado se refere a um pa- ciente de 21 anos, do sexo masculino, na cidade de São Paulo (SP), que apresentou quadro de síndrome colestática 15 dias após uso do anabolizante estanazolol para fins estéticos na ativi- dade física, evoluindo com hepatite medicamentosa grave, com aumento de transaminases, hiperrubilinemia às custas de bilirrubina direta e fatores de coagulação, sem resposta satis- fatória ao tratamento de suporte convencional, com melhora significativa após introdução de corticoterapia.


Searching for the perfect body image can cause severe conse- quences to the population using substances indiscriminately to reach results fast. The case reported refers to a male patient, 21 years old, from the city of São Paulo (SP), who developed choles- tatic syndrome 15 days after the use of the steroid Stanazol for aesthetic purposes during physical activity, progressing with se- vere drug-induced hepatitis, transaminases, bilirubin, and coagu- lation factors increase with no satisfactory response to the con- ventional support treatment, and significant improvement after the introduction of corticotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Stanozolol/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Anabolic Agents/toxicity , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Bilirubin/blood , Biopsy , Cholagogues and Choleretics/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/pathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Catastrophic Illness , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Transaminases/blood , Hydroxyzine/administration & dosage , Liver/pathology , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipruritics/therapeutic use
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4898-4906, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921626

ABSTRACT

Bile of animal(mainly chicken, pig, snake, cow, and bear) has long been used as medicine. As the major active components of bile, bile acids mainly include cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. They interact with intestinal microorganisms in enterohepatic circulation, thereby playing an important part in nutrient absorption and allocation, metabolism regulation, and dynamic balance. Bile acids have pharmacological effects such as protecting liver, kidney, heart, brain, and nerves, promoting bile secretion, dissolving gallstones, anti-cancer, relieving cough and dyspnea, dispelling phlegm, treating eye diseases, and regulating intestinal function and blood glucose, which are widely used in clinical practice. This study summarized and analyzed the research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of bile acids from medicinal animals, in a bid to provide scientific basis and reference for the further development and utilization of bile acids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Bile Acids and Salts , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Cholic Acids , Deoxycholic Acid , Swine , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
15.
Brasília; s.n; 11 ago. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1117979

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 5 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285510

ABSTRACT

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), has been used as a drug to treat various liver diseases. UDCA is synthesised from cholic or chenodeoxycholic acid (CA/CDCA), two primary BAs frequently used as the starting materials. Nowadays, swine, cattle, and poultry bile are the main sources of those BAs. However, other commercial animals could be promising sources as well. We identified two livestock, two poultries, and eight fishes that are commercially cultivated in Indonesia. Four free BAs including CA, CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and lithocholic acid (LA) were identified for their occurrences using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. CA was detected in cow, duck, red tilapia, gourami, the common carp, and grouper, whereas CDCA was only detected in two poultries and the common carp. The occurrence of DCA was common and abundant in most tested animals. In contrast, the presence of LA was found to be very low in all samples. The biliary bile of tilapia has been found to contain a high abundance of free CA (43% of the total bile). A simple extraction was able to purify CA from biliary bile of tilapia. This is a new promising and competitive source of CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bile/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Indonesia/ethnology , Animals , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Bile Acids and Salts/therapeutic use , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Tilapia/classification , Cholic Acid/agonists , Deoxycholic Acid , Lithocholic Acid
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 184-190, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019457

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nowadays, pharmacological treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still limited and it is based on the treatment of conditions associated comorbities. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in combination with metformin (MTF) and/or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Open-label multicenter randomized trial was conducted for 48 weeks. It included patients with biopsy-proven NASH. The patients were randomized into three groups: NAC (1.2 g) + UDCA (15 mg/kg) + MTF (850-1500 mg/day) (n=26); UDCA (20 mg/kg) + MTF (850-1500 mg/day) (n=13); NAC (1.2g) + MTF (850-1500 mg/day) (n=14) for 48 weeks. Clinical, laboratory and the second liver biopsies were performed after 48 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were evaluated; 17 (32.1%) were males; median age ±54 (IQR=15, 21-71) years. In the baseline, no difference was seen between groups according clinical and histological parameters. The groups differed only in cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides. No significant differences in biochemical and histologic parameters were found between these the three groups after 48 weeks of treatment. In the intragroup analysis (intention-to-treat) comparing histological and biochemical features, there were significant improvements in the steatosis degree (P=0.014), ballooning (0.027) and, consequently, in the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (P=0.005), and in the ALT levels at the end of the treatment only in the NAC + MTF group. No significant evidence of modification in the liver fibrosis could be observed in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: This multicenter study suggests that the association of NAC + MTF could reduce the liver disease activity in patients with NASH. These data stimulate further controlled studies with this therapy for these patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Atualmente, o tratamento farmacológico da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) ainda é limitado e baseia-se no tratamento de condições associadas às comorbidades. O estresse oxidativo e a resistência à insulina são os mecanismos que parecem estar mais envolvidos em sua patogênese. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) em associação à metformina (MTF) e/ou ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) no tratamento da EHNA. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado, multicêntrico e aberto, conduzido por 48 semanas. Incluiu pacientes com esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) comprovada por biópsia. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: NAC (1,2 g) + UDCA (15 mg/kg) + MTF (850-1500 mg/dia) (n=26); UDCA (20 mg/kg) + MTF (850-1500 mg/dia) (n=13); NAC (1,2 g) + MTF (850-1500 mg/dia) (n=14) durante 48 semanas. Os dados clínicos, laboratoriais e as segundas biópsias hepáticas foram realizados após 48 semanas. RESULTADOS - Um total de 53 pacientes foram avaliados; 17 (32,1%) eram do sexo masculino; idade mediana de ±54 (IQR=15, 21-71) anos. No baseline, nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os grupos de acordo com parâmetros clínicos e histológicos. Os grupos diferiram apenas em colesterol, LDL e triglicerídeos. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros bioquímicos e histológicos entre os três grupos após 48 semanas de tratamento. Contudo, na análise intragrupos (intenção de tratar) comparando características histológicas e bioquímicas, houve melhora significativa no grau de esteatose (P=0,014), balonização (P=0,027) e, consequentemente, no NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (P=0,005), e nos níveis de ALT no final do tratamento apenas no grupo NAC+MTF. Nenhuma evidência significativa de modificaçãona fibrose hepática pôde ser observada em nenhum dos grupos. CONCLUSÃO: - Este estudo multicêntrico sugere que a associação de NAC+MTF poderia reduzir a atividade da doença hepática em pacientes com EHNA. Esses dados estimulam estudos adicionais controlados com essa terapia para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Metformin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Middle Aged
18.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(1): 34-40, mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1026338

ABSTRACT

Being the main treatment for cholelithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not always solve the problem. It often entails postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS). Oral medication to dissolve gallstones with bile acids is alternative therapy for some patients. However, lack of efficacy and limited medical indications make it necessary to apply combination treatment tactics. This study was conducted to investigate the dissolution of gallstones during the combined effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and rosuvastatin as well as to assess the results of eradication therapy in the presence of H. pylory as a measure to prevent cholelithiasis in the course of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Cholelithiasis/prevention & control , Cholelithiasis/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Helicobacter pylori , Drug Therapy, Combination/trends , Disease Eradication , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 64-70, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774126

ABSTRACT

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from biallelic mutations of ABCC2 gene, with long-term or intermittent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia being the main clinical manifestation. This paper aims to report the clinical features and ABCC2 genotypes of an infant with DJS. A 9.5-month-old male infant was referred to the hospital due to abnormal liver function discovered over 9 months. The major clinical presentation was prolonged jaundice since neonatal period. A series of biochemistry analysis revealed markedly elevated total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and total bile acids. The patient had been managed in different hospitals, but the therapeutic effects were unsatisfactory due to undetermined etiology. Physical examination revealed jaundiced skin and sclera, and a palpable liver 3 cm below the right subcostal margin with medium texture. The spleen was not enlarged. Genetic analysis revealed a splice-site variant c.3988-2A>T and a nonsense variant c.3825C>G (p.Y1275X) in the ABCC2 gene of the infant, which were inherited from his mother and father respectively. The former had not been previously reported. Then ursodeoxycholic acid and phenobarbital were given orally. Half a month later, as a result, his jaundice disappeared and the biochemistry indices improved. However, the long-term outcome needs to be observed. Literature review revealed that neonates/infants with DJS presented with cholestatic jaundice soon after birth as the major clinical feature, and the ABCC2 variants exhibited marked heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Bile Acids and Salts , Bilirubin , Jaundice , Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic , Genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Genetics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000009, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the contribution of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the first 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the prevention of gallstone formation. Methods: A community-based clinical trial was conducted. A total of 137 patients were included in the study; 69 were treated with UDCA, starting 30 days after the surgery, at a dose of 150 mg twice daily (300 mg/day) over a period of 5 consecutive months (GROUP A), and 68 were control patients (GROUP B). The patients were followed-up, and ultrasonography was performed to determine the presence of gallstones at various times during follow-up. Demographic, anthropometric and comorbid indicators were obtained. The data were subjected to normality tests and evaluated using appropriate tests. Results: Patients did not differ in their baseline characteristics. Of the 69 patients who used UDCA, only one patient developed cholelithiasis (1%), whereas 18 controls (26%) formed gallstones (OR = 24.4, p <0.001). Also, other factors were found not to influence the formation of calculi, such as pre-operative or postoperative hepatic steatosis or diabetes (p = 0.759, 0.468, 0.956). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that patients who did not use UDCA showed a 24.4-fold greater probability of developing cholelithiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Cholagogues and Choleretics/therapeutic use , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Gallstones/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Stomach/surgery , Gallstones/etiology , Gallstones/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Anthropometry , Prospective Studies
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