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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 816-823, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009435

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the protective mechanism of transdifferentiation of glomerular endothelial cells based on the differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 2 (DEC2) via the TGF-β/ROCK1 signaling pathway. Methods The 24 mice were randomly divided into sham group, UUO group, UUO combined with vector group and UUO combined with DEC2 group, with 6 mice in each group. A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model was established in each group, except for the sham group. In the UUO combined with vector group and UUO combined with DEC2 group, 10 μL (108 PFU) of vector or DEC2 was injected into each kidney on day 0 (immediately after UUO) under the guidance of the ultrasound system. The mice were sacrificed 14 days after the operation, and the kidneys were collected for histological examination and Western blot analysis: HE staining was used to observe the histological changes of kidneys, Masson staining to observe the renal fibrosis, and Western blot analysis to detect the protein expression. In vitro, normal human glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) was selected as the research objects. GEnCs stimulated with TGF-β were treated with ROCK1 inhibitor Y-27632 or DEC2 transfection. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of ROCK1, α-SMA, DEC2 and E-cadherin in GEnC exposed to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The localization of ROCK1 and DEC2 in GEnCs cells was detected by immunofluorescence cytochemistry. The relationship between the ROCK1 and DEC2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Results Compared with the sham group, the UUO groups showed significant renal fibrosis and collagen accumulation on the 14th day. In the UUO groups, the expression of DEC2 and E-cadherin in the kidney tissue of the mice was significantly reduced, and the expression of α-SMA significantly increased. Compared with the UUO combined with vector group, the kidney fibrosis and collagen accumulation in the UUO combined with DEC2 group decreased, and the expression of ROCK1 and α-SMA decreased and the expression of DEC2 and E-cadherin increased in the kidney tissue. TGF-β enhanced the expression of ROCK1 and α-SMA in GEnCs cells in a time-dependent manner, and the levels of DEC2 and E-cadherin decreased. Treatment with the ROCK1 inhibitor Y-27632 partially abrogated the TGF-β-induced increase in the expression of ROCK1 and α-SMA and decrease in the expression of DEC2 and E-cadherin. In addition, transfection of GEnCs cells with DEC2 before TGF-β stimulation reduced the expression of ROCK1 and α-SMA, and increased the expression of DEC2 and E-cadherin. Immunofluorescence cytochemical staining showed that DEC2 co-localized with ROCK1 in GEnCs, and the co-immunoprecipitation showed that DEC2 and ROCK1 pulled down each other. Conclusions DEC2 is down-regulated in fibrotic renal tissue, while up-regulated DEC2 inhibits epithelial myofibroblast transdifferentiation and renal fibrosis of GEnC by blocking TGF-β/ROCK1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cell Transdifferentiation , Chondrocytes , Endothelial Cells , Cadherins , Signal Transduction , rho-Associated Kinases
2.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 328-335, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The effect of isoprenylcysteine carboxymethyltransferase (ICMT) silencing on the migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma was investigated by constructing the small interfering RNA (siRNA) of ICMT.@*METHODS@#Through liposomal transfection, siRNA was transfected into human tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells (ICMT-siRNA group) with a negative control group (transfected with NC-siRNA) and a blank control group (transfected with a transfection reagent but not with siRNA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of ICMT and RhoA in each group of cells after transfection and to measure the silencing efficiency. Western blot was applied to examine the expression levels of ICMT, total RhoA, membrane RhoA, ROCK1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 proteins in each group. The migration and invasion abilities were evaluated via wound healing and Transwell motility assays.@*RESULTS@#After CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were transfected with ICMT-siRNA, the expression levels of ICMT genes and proteins decreased significantly in the experimental group compared with those in the negative and blank control groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The migration and invasion abilities of CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were reduced significantly after the transfection of ICMT-siRNA, and the involved mechanism might be related to the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering , Tongue , Tongue Neoplasms , Transfection , rho-Associated Kinases
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 829-839, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#MicroRNAs are closely associated with the progression and outcomes of multiple human diseases, including sepsis. In this study, we examined the role of miR-23a in septic injury.@*METHODS@#Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce sepsis in a rat model and H9C2 and HK-2 cells. miR-23a expression was evaluated in rat myocardial and kidney tissues, as well as H9C2 and HK-2 cells. A miR-23a mimic was introduced into cells to identify the role of miR-23a in cell viability, apoptosis, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the effect of Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1), a miR-23a target, on cell damage was evaluated, and molecules involved in the underlying mechanism were identified.@*RESULTS@#In the rat model, miR-23a was poorly expressed in myocardial (sham vs. sepsis 1.00 ± 0.06 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) and kidney tissues (sham vs. sepsis 0.27 ± 0.03 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). Artificial overexpression of miR-23a resulted in increased proliferative activity (DNA replication rate: Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 34.13 ± 3.12 vs. 12.94 ± 1.21 vs. 13.31 ± 1.43 vs. 22.94 ± 2.26, P < 0.05; HK-2 cells: 15.17 ± 1.43 vs. 34.52 ± 3.46 vs. 35.19 ± 3.12 vs. 19.87 ± 1.52, P < 0.05), decreased cell apoptosis (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 11.39 ± 1.04 vs. 32.57 ± 2.29 vs. 33.08 ± 3.12 vs. 21.63 ± 2.35, P < 0.05; HK-2 cells: 15.17 ± 1.43 vs. 34.52 ± 3.46 vs. 35.19 ± 3.12 vs. 19.87 ± 1.52, P < 0.05), and decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 59.61 ± 5.14 vs. 113.54 ± 12.30 vs. 116.51 ± 10.69 vs. 87.69 ± 2.97 ng/mL; P < 0.05, F = 12.67, HK-2 cells: 68.12 ± 6.44 vs. 139.65 ± 16.62 vs. 143.51 ± 13.64 vs. 100.82 ± 9.74 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 9.83) and tumor necrosis factor-α (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 103.20 ± 10.31 vs. 169.67 ± 18.84 vs. 173.61 ± 15.91 vs. 133.36 ± 12.32 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 12.67, HK-2 cells: 132.51 ± 13.37 vs. 187.47 ± 16.74 vs. 143.51 ± 13.64 vs. 155.79 ± 15.31 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 9.83) in cells. However, ROCK1 was identified as a miR-23a target, and further up-regulation of ROCK1 mitigated the protective function of miR-23a in LPS-treated H9C2 and HK-2 cells. Moreover, ROCK1 suppressed sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression to promote the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, indicating the possible involvement of this signaling pathway in miR-23a-mediated events.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results indicate that miR-23a could suppress LPS-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion by binding to ROCK1, mediated through the potential participation of the SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Inflammation/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides , MicroRNAs/genetics , NF-kappa B , Sirtuin 1 , rho-Associated Kinases/genetics
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1606-1609, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and clinical significance of serum protein ROCK2 in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).@*METHODS@#The patients were divided into cGVHD group and control group (without cGVHD). The expression levels of serum protein ROCK2 were detected by ELISA in patients with or without cGVHD after allo-HSCT.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of ROCK2 in serum of cGVHD patients was significantly higher than those in control group, moreover, the expression level of ROCK2 in severe cGVHD group was significant higher than that in moderate and mild cGVHD group (P<0.001). The expression level of ROCK2 was significantly decreased in the serum of cGVHD patients after treatment(P<0.01); the expression level of ROCK2 was significantly higher in the serum of cGVHD patients with lung as the target organ(P<0.01). The median survival time of patients with severe cGVHD were significantly shorter than that of patients with mild and moderate cGVHD(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ROCK2 shows certain reference value in the evaluation of severity and prognosis of cGVHD, and may be a new target for the treatment of cGVHD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Proteins , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplantation, Homologous , rho-Associated Kinases
5.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 510-517, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the effect of RhoE expression on the migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).@*METHODS@#Forty-eight TSCC cases were selected from the Maxillofacial Surgery Center of Qingdao Municipal Hospital from 2017 to 2019. The expression of RhoE in the specimens (TSCC and adjacent tissues) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and RhoE mRNA and protein were extracted to further detect the expression of RhoE. SCC-4 and CAL-27 cells were selected for @*RESULTS@#The expression level of RhoE in TSCC was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues (@*CONCLUSIONS@#RhoE expression is low in TSCC. Over expression RhoE in TSCC can significantly decrease its migration and invasion abilities. Hence, RhoE may play an important role in regulating the metastasis and invasion of TSCC and provide a new target for gene therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Tongue , Tongue Neoplasms , rho GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rho-Associated Kinases
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2619-2628, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Microribose nucleic acids (miRNAs) are implicated in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. MicroRNA-345-5p (miR-345-5p) is a recently identified anti-oncogene in some human cancers, but its functional role and possible molecular mechanism in lung adenocarcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to identify the biological function and underlying mechanism of miR-345-5p in lung adenocarcinoma cells.@*METHODS@#In this study, lung adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University between April 2016 and February 2017. The expression of miR-345-5p and ras homolog family member A (RhoA) in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, H1650, PC-9, and H441) was detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional assays including colony formation, flow cytometry analysis, wound healing, and transwell assays were performed to assess the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. In addition, RNA pulldown and luciferase reporter assays were conducted to evaluate the relationship between miR-345-5p and RhoA. Difference between the two groups was analyzed with Student's t test, while that among multiple groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance.@*RESULTS@#MiR-345-5p expression displayed lower level in lung adenocarcinoma tissues (0.241 ± 0.095 vs.1.000 ± 0.233, t = 19.247, P < 0.001) and cell lines (F = 56.992, P < 0.001) than control tissues and cells. Functional experiments demonstrated that upregulation of miR-345-5p inhibited the malignant phenotypes of lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppressing cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and facilitating cell apoptosis. Additionally, RhoA was verified to be the downstream target of miR-345-5p. Expression of RhoA was downregulated by overexpression of miR-345-5p in PC-9 (0.321 ± 0.047 vs. 1.000 ± 0.127, t = 8.536, P < 0.001) and H1650 (0.398 ± 0.054 vs. 1.000 ± 0.156, t = 4.429, P = 0.011) cells. Rescue assays revealed that overexpression of RhoA rescued the suppressive effects of miR-345-5p upregulation on proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further, miR-345-5p was found to regulate the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway by downregulation of RhoA in lung adenocarcinoma cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MiR-345-5p plays a tumor suppressor role in lung adenocarcinoma cells by downregulating RhoA to inactivate the Rho/ROCK pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , rho-Associated Kinases/genetics , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/genetics
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8883, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055486

ABSTRACT

Opa-interacting protein 5 antisense transcript 1 (OIP5-AS1) is one kind of cytoplasmic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which has been demonstrated to play a critical function in multiple cancers. However, the detailed mechanism of OIP5-AS1 in the regulation of cervical cancer progression is still obscure. Here, we demonstrated that lncRNA OIP5-AS1 was upregulated in cervical cancer and was correlated with poor prognosis by bioinformatics studies. OIP5-AS1 depletion inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we clarified that ROCK1 was the downstream effector of OIP5-AS1 and OIP5-AS1 acted as a molecular sponge of miR-143-3p. Finally, we verified that OIP5-AS1 exerted its function in the regulation of cervical cancer progression via interacting with miR-143-3p to regulate ROCK1 expression. Our study revealed novel mechanisms about how lncRNA OIP5-AS1 executed its function in cervical cancer and thus provided potential therapeutic targets for the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , rho-Associated Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , rho-Associated Kinases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 415-420, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression change of ROCK1 gene in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its prognostic significance.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with ALL were selected in our hospital from April 2017 to April 2018, and 60 healthy persons subjected to physical examination were selected as control. The venous blood was taken from the subjects, and then the mononuclear cells were separated. The ROCK1 gene expression level in the samples was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression level of ROCK1 protein was detected by Western blot. The correlation between ROCK1 gene expression and clinical characteristics of ALL patients was analyzed by using statistical methots.@*RESULTS@#The RT-PCR showed that the relative expression level of ROCK1 gene in ALL patients was 1.37 (1.28-1.46), which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P0.05). The standard risk ratio of B-ALL and T-ALL patients with low ROCK1 expression was significantly higher than that in patients with high ROCK1 expression (P<0.05). The high risk ratio of B-ALL and T-ALL patients with low ROCK1 expression was significantly lower than those with high ROCK1 expression (P<0.05). The ratio of CR in the group with low ROCK1 expression patients was significantly higher than that in patients with high ROCK1 expression (P<0.05). The Relapse rate of the group with low ROCK1 expression was significantly lower than that of the group with high ROCK1 expression (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that OS and DFS in ALL patients with low ROCK1 expression were superior to those in ALL patients with high ROCK1 expression (P<0.05). Multiple factor Cox regression analysis showed that age and ROCK1 gene were independent influencing factors for OS (P<0.05); leukocyte count and ROCK1 gene were independent influencing factors for DFS (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression level of ROCK1 gene in ALL patients is high, which may stimulate the genesis of ALL, and the down-regulation of ROCK1 gene expression may help improve the therapeutic effect for ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Disease , Blood Cell Count , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
9.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 497-504, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766613

ABSTRACT

Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different novel pharmacologic agents for its treatment, as well as their mechanisms. Most glaucoma patients require lifelong care and individualized treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is regulated by aqueous humor production, outflow via the trabecular meshwork (parasympathomimetics only) and uveoscleral outflow pathways, is currently the only treatable target for glaucoma treatment. Conventional glaucoma medications are categorized as β blockers, α agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, and prostaglandin analogues. The development of basic research-derived novel classes of pharmacologic agents features novel action mechanisms, which are different from those of conventional medications. New classes of recently approved or clinical trial-tested medications include Rho-kinase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, adenosine agonists, and prostaglandin analogs targeting E-type prostanoid receptors, etc. Their integration and future development will facilitate the expansion and customization of therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine , Aqueous Humor , Axons , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors , Glaucoma , Intraocular Pressure , Nitric Oxide Donors , Ocular Hypertension , Optic Disk , Parasympathomimetics , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , rho-Associated Kinases , Trabecular Meshwork , Visual Fields
10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 854-866, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Although it is well known that metformin induces cellular energy depletion and a concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through inhibition of the respiratory chain, previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the action of metformin on pancreatic β-cells. We therefore examined the effects of metformin on pancreatic β-cells under lipotoxic stress.METHODS: NIT-1 cells and mouse islets were exposed to palmitate and treated with 0.05 and 0.5 mM metformin. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, cellular adenosine triphosphate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and Rho kinase (ROCK) activities were measured. The phosphorylation of AMPK was evaluated by Western blot analysis and mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and NADPH oxidase (NOX) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.RESULTS: We found that metformin has protective effects on palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction. Metformin at a concentration of 0.05 mM inhibits NOX and suppresses the palmitate-induced elevation of ER stress markers and ROS levels in a AMPK-independent manner, whereas 0.5 mM metformin inhibits ROCK activity and activates AMPK.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the action of metformin on β-cell lipotoxicity was implemented by different molecular pathways depending on its concentration. Metformin at a usual therapeutic dose is supposed to alleviate lipotoxic β-cell dysfunction through inhibition of oxidative stress and ER stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Electron Transport , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Metformin , NADPH Oxidases , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reactive Oxygen Species , rho-Associated Kinases , RNA, Messenger
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 372-378, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009590

ABSTRACT

We evaluated whether LIM-kinase 2 inhibitor (LIMK2i) could improve erectile function by suppressing corporal fibrosis through the normalization of the Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/LIMK2/Cofilin pathway in a rat model of cavernous nerve crush injury (CNCI). Sixty 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into five groups: sham surgery (S), CNCI (I), and CNCI treated with low-dose (L), medium-dose (M), and high-dose (H) LIMK2i. The L, M, and H groups were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of LIMK2i (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively) for 1 week after surgery. The erectile response was assessed using electrostimulation at 1 week, postoperatively. Penile tissues were processed for Masson's trichrome staining, double immunofluorescence, and Western blot assay. Erectile responses in the H group improved compared with the I group, while the M group showed only partial improvement. A significantly decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio and an increased content of fibroblasts positive for phospho-LIMK2 were noted in the I group. The M and H groups revealed significant improvements in histological alterations and the dysregulated LIMK2/Cofilin pathway, except for LIMK2 phosphorylation in the M group. The inhibition of LIMK2 did not affect the ROCK1 protein expression. The content of fibroblasts positive for phospho-LIMK2 in the H group returned to the level found in the S group, whereas it did not in the M group. However, the L group did not exhibit such improvements. Our data suggest that the inhibition of LIMK2, particularly with administration of 10.0 mg kg-1 body weight LIMK2i, can improve corporal fibrosis and erectile function by normalizing the LIMK2/Cofilin pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cofilin 1/metabolism , Electric Stimulation , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Lim Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Penile Diseases/drug therapy , Penis/innervation , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/pathology , Phosphorylation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction/drug effects , rho-Associated Kinases/genetics
12.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 374-379, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715617

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of pelargonidin, an anthocyanidin found in many fruits and vegetables, on endothelium-independent vascular contractility to determine the underlying mechanism of relaxation. Isometric contractions of denuded aortic muscles from male rats were recorded, and the data were combined with those obtained in western blot analysis. Pelargonidin significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A2-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions, regardless of the presence or absence of endothelium, suggesting a direct effect of the compound on vascular smooth muscles via a different pathway. Pelargonidin significantly inhibited the fluoride-dependent increase in the level of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation at Thr-855 and the phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-dependent increase in the level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation at Thr202/Tyr204, suggesting the inhibition of Rho-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activities and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the relaxation effect of pelargonidin on agonist-dependent vascular contractions includes inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activities, independent of the endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Anthocyanins , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Endothelium , Fluorides , Fruit , Isometric Contraction , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Muscles , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Relaxation , rho-Associated Kinases , Vasoconstriction , Vegetables
13.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 139-145, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713582

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A2-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. Hypothermia significantly inhibited the fluoride-induced increase in pMYPT1 level and phorbol ester-induced increase in pERK1/2 level, suggesting inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activity and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the relaxing effect of moderate hypothermia on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function involves inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Fluorides , Hypothermia , Isometric Contraction , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Relaxation , rho-Associated Kinases
14.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 209-220, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899588

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar algunos mecanismos moleculares por los cuales la activación de ROCK cardíaca post infarto del miocardio (IAM) participa en el remodelado y en deterioro de la función sistólica. Métodos: Determinación simultánea de niveles de proteínas blanco de ROCK cardíaca, de función sistólica in vivo del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y de fibrosis e hipertrofia cardíaca en ratas con IAM en condiciones de inhibición de ROCK con fasudil. Resultados : Siete días post IAM la masa ventricular relativa aumentó significativamente en un 30% en el grupo MI y se redujo con fasudil. La disfunción sistólica VI mejoró significativamente con fasudil mientras que la activación de ROCK cardíaca se redujo a niveles del grupo control. El inhibidor de ROCK también redujo significativamente los niveles cardíacos elevados de las isoformas ROCK1 y ROCK2, de MHC-β y del colágeno miocárdico. En el grupo con IAM aumentaron significativamente los niveles de fosforilación de ERK 42 y ERK 44 (en 2 veces y en 63%, respectivamente), mientras que en el grupo IAM tratado con fasudil estos niveles fueron similares a los del grupo control. El IAM aumentó significativamente los niveles fosforilados del factor de transcripción GATA-4, que se normalizaron con el inhibidor de ROCK. Conclusiones: La disfunción sistólica post IAM se asoció fuertemente con la activación del ROCK cardíaca y con la fosforilación de proteínas río abajo de ROCK que promueven remodelado cardíaco como β-MHC y la vía ERK / GATA-4.


Abstracts: Objective: to determine some molecular mechanisms by which cardiac ROCK activation after myocardial infarction (MI) intervene in cardiac systolic function decline and remodeling. Methods: simultaneous measurement of different cardiac ROCK target proteins levels, in vivo left ventricular (LV) systolic function, myocardial fibrosis, and hypertrophy in rats with MI under ROCK inhibition with fasudil were performed. Results: seven days after MI the relative ventricular mass increased significantly by 30% in the MI groupand was reduced with fasudil. LV systolic dysfunction improved significantly with fasudil whereas at the same time cardiac ROCK activation was reduced to sham levels. The ROCK inhibitor also reduced increased cardiac levels of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms, β-MHC levels and myocardial collagen volume fraction decline. MI significantly increased phosphorylation levels of ERK 42 and ERK 44 by 2-fold and 63% respectively whereas in the fasudil-treated MI group these levels were similar to those in the sham group. MI significantly increased phosphorylated levels of the transcription factor GATA-4 which were normalyzed by the ROCK inhibitor. Conclusion: LV systolic dysfunction after MI was strongly associated to cardiac ROCK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of ROCK target proteins that promote ventricular remodeling, such as β-MHC and the ERK/GATA-4 pathway. ROCK inhibition with fasudil significantly improved systolic function, diminished myocardial fibrosis, and normalized β-MHC and ERK/GATA-4 phosphorylation levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/analogs & derivatives , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , rho-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Organ Size/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Blotting, Western , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/drug therapy , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/enzymology
15.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 110-119, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812801

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To screen lentiviral vectors carrying siRNA which can specifically down-regulate the gene expression of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) cells of rats with spontaneous hypertension (SHT) and investigate the influence of the vectors on the signaling pathways of ROCK1, ROCK2 and eNOS in the CCSM cells of SHT rats.@*METHODS@#Using the S1PR3 mRNA sequence of the rat as an interfering target, we designed and synthesized three pairs of siRNA sequences (siRNA1, 2 and 3) targeting S1PR3 and one pair of negative control, and then constructed and packaged them into lentiviral vectors. We cultured the CCSM cells of SHT and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats in vitro and randomly divided them into groups A (SHT untransfected control), B (SHT transfected and carrying negative control virus), C (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA1 targeting S1PR3), D (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA2 targeting S1PR3), E (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA3 targeting S1PR3), and F (WKY untransfected control). With the multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 60, we transfected the CCSM cells of the SHT rats with the lentiviral vector and then determined the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as well as the mRNA and protein expressions of S1PR3, ROCK1, ROCK2 and eNOS in the CCSM cells of the SHT and WKY rats by RT-PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Gene sequencing proved the successful construction of the lentiviral vector. The transfection efficiency of the CCSM cells of the rats was >80% in groups B, C, D and E. Compared with group A, the mRNA and protein expressions of S1PR3, ROCK1 and ROCK2 exhibited no significant difference in group B but were remarkably decreased in groups C, D, E and F (P0.05) but remarkably lower than those in group F (P0.05) but markedly increased in groups A, B, C and D (P< 0.05), while those of eNOS remarkably decreased in groups A, B, C, D and E (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The three constructed lentiviral vectors carrying siRNA targeting different loci of the S1PR3 gene could significantly inhibit the expression of S1P3 as well as RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathways in the CCSM cells of SHT rats, and the vector carrying siRNA3 exhibited the highest inhibitory effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Metabolism , Lentivirus , Genetics , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Penis , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred WKY , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors , Transfection , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
16.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 452-459, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80651

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the barrier function in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells monolayer and the production of nitric oxide (NO) between trabecular outflow drugs, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors, adenosine, and statin. METHODS: Primary cultured TM cells were exposed to 10 or 25 µM Y-27632, 0.1 or 1 µM N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), or 15 or 30 µM simvastatin for 24 hours. NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA were measured by Griess assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Barrier functions of the TM cell monolayer were measured by carboxyfluorescein and trans-endothelial electrical resistance. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In TM cells, treatment with each drug increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression. Treatment with 25 µM Y-27632 and 1.0 µM CHA increased NO production significantly (p = 0.035 and p = 0.043, respectively). Treatment with each drug increased the permeability (all p = 0.001) and decreased the trans-endothelial electron resistance of the TM cell monolayer. Treatment with 0.1 µM and 1.0 µM CHA significantly increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA expression, but simvastatin inhibited its expression. CONCLUSIONS: Since treatment with ROCK inhibitor more greatly increased NO production and permeability than did adenosine or statin, ROCK inhibitor seems to be more effective for lowering intraocular pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine , Electric Impedance , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Intraocular Pressure , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide , Permeability , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , rho-Associated Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Simvastatin , Trabecular Meshwork
17.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 31-36, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250311

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that microglia activation plays an important role in spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by trauma. Studies have found that inhibiting the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway can reduce inflammatory cytokine production by microglia. In this study, Western blotting was conducted to detect ROCK2 expression after the SCI; the ROCK Activity Assay kit was used for assay of ROCK pathway activity; microglia morphology was examined using the CD11b antibody; electron microscopy was used to detect microglia phagocytosis; TUNEL was used to detect tissue cell apoptosis; myelin staining was performed using an antibody against myelin basic protein (MBP); behavioral outcomes were evaluated according to the methods of Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB). We observed an increase in ROCK activity and microglial activation after SCI. The microglia became larger and rounder and contained myelin-like substances. Furthermore, treatment with fasudil inhibited neuronal cells apoptosis, alleviated demyelination and the formation of cavities, and improved motor recovery. The experimental evidence reveals that the ROCK inhibitor fasudil can regulate microglial activation, promote cell phagocytosis, and improve the SCI microenvironment to promote SCI repair. Thus, fasudil may be useful for the treatment of SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Apoptosis , Microglia , Metabolism , Myelin Basic Protein , Metabolism , Myelin Sheath , Metabolism , Phagocytosis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries , Drug Therapy , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 393-400, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262340

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expressions of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 1-3 (S1P1- 3) in the corpus cavernosum of castrated male rats and its relationship with the NOS/NO/cGMP and RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathways.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We equally randomized 18 eight-week-old healthy male SD rats into a sham-operation control, a castration, and a testosterone replacement (TR) group and harvested the bilateral testes and epididymides from the rats in the latter two groups, followed by 4 weeks of subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate at 3 mg per kilogram of the body weight per day for those in the TR group and that of plant oil for those in the control and castration groups. At the age of 12 weeks, we measured the serum testosterone (T) level and maximum intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICPmax/MAP) of the animals and determined the expressions of SlP1-3, eNOS, P-eNOS, ROCK1, and ROCK2 in the corpus cavernosum by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum T level was significantly decreased in the rats of the castration group as compared with those of the control and TR groups ([0.41 ± 0.04] vs [16.01 ± 1.02] and [15.84 ± 1.32] nmol/L, P < 0.01), with no statistically significant difference between the latter two groups. The ICPmax/MAP at 0 V, 3 V, and 5 V electric stimulation was remarkably lower in the rats of the castration group (0.088 ± 0.014, 0.323 ± 0.014, and 0.432 ± 0.012) than in those of the control group (0.155 ± 0.011, 0.711 ± 0. 010, and 0.819 ± 0.024) and TR group (0.153 ± 0.012, 0.696 ± 0.017, and 0.763 ± 0.027) (P < 0.01), with no significant difference between the latter two groups. With GAPDH as internal control, the animals of the castration group showed markedly reduced expressions of S1P1 ([49.99 ± 3.39]%), eNOS ([46.82 ± 3.81]%) , and P-eNOS ([45.42 ± 4.35]%) in comparison with those in the control group ([72.57 ± 3.06], [89.76 ± 3.98], and [82.53 ± 8.92] and TR group ([71.77 ± 4.43], [87.19 ± 4.23], and [79.82 ± 7.38]%) (P < 0.01) , while the expressions of S1P2, S1P3, ROCK1, and ROCK2 were significantly upregulated in the castration group ([82.35 ± 4.13], [61.03 ± 5.14], [74.50 ± 4.02], and [69.83 ± 5.75]%) as compared with those in the control group ([41.67 ± 1.68], [31.66 ± 2.67], [35.69 ± 5.56], and [39.85 ± 7.17]%) and TR group ([42.80 ± 3.87], [32.25 ± 4.22], 38.06 ± 5.21], and [42.36 ± 4.44]%) (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Androgen deficiency induces significant reduction of ICPmax/ MAP in male rats, which is possibly associated with the decline of S1P1 in the corpus cavernosum, inhibition of the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway, increased expressions of S1P2 and S1P3, and activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Orchiectomy , Penis , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Metabolism , Testosterone , Blood , Pharmacology , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
19.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 483-490, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304714

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To investigate the potential role of the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway in the formation of prostate cancer and the effects of the Rock inhibitor fasudil on the invasion, migration and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 were treated with fasudil at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 μmol/L, respectively, and those as negative controls cultured in the Ham's-F12 medium, all for 24 hours. Then, MTT assay was used to measure the cell inhibition rate and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of fasudil, with 1/4 of IC50 as the medication dose for further investigation. The expressions of RhoA, RockⅠ, and RockⅡ proteins in the PC3 and DU145 cells were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the invasion, migration and apoptosis of the cells were determined using the Transwell chamber, scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fasudil inhibited the proliferation of the PC3 cells from (9.29±1.23)% at 5 μmol/L to (81.37±3.97)% at 160 μmol/L and that of DU145 from (7.59±1.54)% to (76.53±2.67)%, both in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 ). Significantly fewer PC3 and DU145 cells migrated into the lower compartment in the experimental group (39.2±8.4 and 34.2±6.7) than in the negative control (116.8±9.3 and 112.5±10.8) (P<0.05 ). The wound healing rates of the PC3 and DU145 cells were remarkably lower in the former ([37.26±1.17]% and [32.38±2.73]%) than in the latter ([78.12±4.16]% and [69.47±6.71]%) (P<0.05 ). Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining showed markedly increased apoptosis rates of PC3 and DU145 cells treated with fasudil ([31.88±2.49]% and [28.65±2.99]%) as compared with the negative controls ([7.51±2.28]% and [7.13±1.61]%) (P<0.05 ). The expressions of RockⅠ and RockⅡ were significantly reduced in the fasudil-treated cells in comparison with those of the control group (P<0.05 ) while that of RhoA showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05 ).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The RhoA/Rock signaling pathway may play an important role in the formation of prostate cancer. Fasudil can significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion and promote the apoptosis of human prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells by reducing RhoA/Rho kinase activity.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Prostatic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Signal Transduction , rho-Associated Kinases
20.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 724-731, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-647620

ABSTRACT

Freezing and thawing is one of the most widely used tissue engineering techniques for the preservation of ovaries. Many cells and tissues demonstrate changes in functional gene expression after thawing. Several studies have reported the important roles of angiotensin (AT) system during the ovarian follicular growth. AT system consists of ATII, and ATII receptors type I (ATII-RI) and type II (ATII-RII). However, little is known whether frozen-thawed ovaries show any alteration of AT system member gene expression when treated with survival-enhancing factors. We aimed to investigate whether mass freezing and thawing with or without the use of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors up- or down-regulate the expression of ATII, ATII-RI, and ATII-RII genes on frozen-thawed ovarian tissues. Significant changes in the expression of ATII, ATII-RI, and ATII-RII genes were observed on thawed ovaries when compared to fresh control. The treatment with ROCK inhibitors did not significantly alter their expression. In conclusion, freezing and thawing of ovarian tissue may affect the mRNA expression levels of intra-ovarian AT system genes, and modulation of ROCK inhibitor activity may not regulate AT system on the frozenthawed ovarian tissue.


Subject(s)
Female , Angiotensins , Freezing , Gene Expression , Ovary , rho-Associated Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Tissue Engineering
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