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1.
Immune Network ; : e38-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890869

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate both T-cell responses and tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are regulatory DCs that suppress immune responses through the induction of T-cell anergy and Tregs. Because lactoferrin (LF) was demonstrated to induce functional Tregs and has a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, we explored the tolerogenic effects of LF on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The expression of CD80/86 and MHC class II was diminished in LF-treated BMDCs (LF-BMDCs). LF facilitated BMDCs to suppress proliferation and elevate Foxp3 +induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation in ovalbumin-specific CD4 + T-cell culture. Foxp3 expression was further increased by blockade of the B7 molecule using CTLA4-Ig but was diminished by additional CD28 stimulation using anti-CD28 Ab. On the other hand, the levels of arginase-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (known as key T-cell suppressive molecules) were increased in LF-BMDCs. Consistently, the suppressive activity of LF-BMDCs was partially restored by inhibitors of these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that LF effectively causes DCs to be tolerogenic by both the suppression of T-cell proliferation and enhancement of iTreg differentiation. This tolerogenic effect of LF is due to the reduction of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of suppressive molecules.

2.
Immune Network ; : e38-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898573

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate both T-cell responses and tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are regulatory DCs that suppress immune responses through the induction of T-cell anergy and Tregs. Because lactoferrin (LF) was demonstrated to induce functional Tregs and has a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, we explored the tolerogenic effects of LF on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The expression of CD80/86 and MHC class II was diminished in LF-treated BMDCs (LF-BMDCs). LF facilitated BMDCs to suppress proliferation and elevate Foxp3 +induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation in ovalbumin-specific CD4 + T-cell culture. Foxp3 expression was further increased by blockade of the B7 molecule using CTLA4-Ig but was diminished by additional CD28 stimulation using anti-CD28 Ab. On the other hand, the levels of arginase-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (known as key T-cell suppressive molecules) were increased in LF-BMDCs. Consistently, the suppressive activity of LF-BMDCs was partially restored by inhibitors of these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that LF effectively causes DCs to be tolerogenic by both the suppression of T-cell proliferation and enhancement of iTreg differentiation. This tolerogenic effect of LF is due to the reduction of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of suppressive molecules.

3.
Immune Network ; : e25-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716242

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells are abundant in the gut mucosa and play an important role in adaptive immunity as well as innate immunity. Although γδ T cells are supposed to be associated with the enhancement of Ab production, the status of γδ T cells, particularly in the synthesis of IgA isotype, remains unclear. We compared Ig expression in T cell receptor delta chain deficient (TCRδ⁻/⁻) mice with wild-type mice. The amount of IgA in fecal pellets was substantially elevated in TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice. This was paralleled by an increase in surface IgA expression and total IgA production by Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Likewise, the TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice produced much higher levels of serum IgA isotype. Here, surface IgA expression and number of IgA secreting cells were also elevated in the culture of spleen and bone marrow (BM) B cells. Germ-line α transcript, an indicator of IgA class switch recombination, higher in PP and MLN B cells from TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice, while it was not seen in inactivated B cells. Nevertheless, the frequency of IgA+ B cells was much higher in the spleen from TCRδ⁻/⁻ mice. These results suggest that γδ T cells control the early phase of B cells, in order to prevent unnecessary IgA isotype switching. Furthermore, this regulatory role of γδ T cells had lasting effects on the long-lived IgA-producing plasma cells in the BM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adaptive Immunity , B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Lymph Nodes , Mucous Membrane , Peyer's Patches , Plasma Cells , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Recombination, Genetic , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Immune Network ; : 37-43, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220544

ABSTRACT

It is well established that TGF-beta1 and retinoic acid (RA) cause IgA isotype switching in mice. We recently found that lactoferrin (LF) also has an activity of IgA isotype switching in spleen B cells. The present study explored the effect of LF on the Ig production by mouse peritoneal B cells. LF, like TGF-beta1, substantially increased IgA production in peritoneal B1 cells but little in peritoneal B2 cells. In contrast, LF increased IgG2b production in peritoneal B2 cells much more strongly than in peritoneal B1 cells. LF in combination with RA further enhanced the IgA production and, interestingly, this enhancement was restricted to IgA isotype and B1 cells. Similarly, the combination of the two molecules also led to expression of gut homing molecules alpha4beta7 and CCR9 on peritoneal B1 cells, but not on peritoneal B2 cells. Thus, these results indicate that LF and RA can contribute to gut IgA response through stimulating IgA isotype switching and expression of gut-homing molecules in peritoneal B1 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Lactoferrin , Spleen , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Tretinoin
5.
Immune Network ; : 331-336, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92646

ABSTRACT

Ginsenosides are the major components of ginseng, which is known to modulate blood pressure, metabolism, and immune function, and has been used to treat various diseases. It has been reported that ginseng and several ginsenosides have immunoregulatory effects on the innate and T cell-mediated immune response. However, their effects on the humoral immune response have not been fully explored. The present study examined the direct effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and ginsenosides on mouse B cell proliferation and on antibody production and the expression of germline transcripts (GLT) by mouse B cells in vitro. RGE slightly reduced B cell proliferation, but increased IgA production by LPS-stimulated B cells. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 selectively induced IgA production and expression of GLTalpha transcripts by LPS-stimulated B cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 can drive the differentiation of B cells into IgA-producing cells through the selective induction of GLTalpha expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , Blood Pressure , Cell Proliferation , Ginsenosides , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A , Metabolism , Panax
6.
Immune Network ; : 321-327, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116963

ABSTRACT

TGF-beta induces IgA class switching by B cells. We previously reported that Smad3 and Smad4, pivotal TGF-beta signal-transducing transcription factors, mediate germline (GL) alpha transcription induced by TGF-beta1, resulting in IgA switching by mouse B cells. Post-translational sumoylation of Smad3 and Smad4 regulates TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activation in certain cell types. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sumoylation on TGF-beta1-induced, Smad3/4-mediated GLalpha transcription and IgA switching by mouse B cell line, CH12F3-2A. Overexpression of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1, SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 did not affect TGF-beta1-induced, Smad3/4-mediated GLalpha promoter activity, expression of endogenous GLalpha transcripts, surface IgA expression, and IgA production. Next, we tested the effect of the E3 ligase PIASy on TGF-beta1-induced, Smad3/4-mediated GLalpha promoter activity. We found that PIASy overexpression suppresses the GLalpha promoter activity in cooperation with histone deacetylase 1. Taken together, these results suggest that SUMO itself does not affect regulation of GLalpha transcription and IgA switching induced by TGF-beta1/Smad3/4, while PIASy acts as a repressor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Line , Histone Deacetylase 1 , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins , SUMO-1 Protein , Sumoylation , Transcription Factors , Transcriptional Activation , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
7.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e52-2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152451

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer overexpressing the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) protein has a poor outcome, although a combination of chemotherapy and the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has been approved for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in gastric cancer is correlated with recurrence and poor prognosis; however, the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab has shown limited efficacy against gastric cancer in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of trastuzumab; VEGF-Trap binding to VEGF-A, VEGF-B and placental growth factor (PlGF); and a combination of trastuzumab and VEGF-Trap in a gastric cancer xenograft model. Although trastuzumab and VEGF-Trap each moderately inhibited tumor growth, the combination of these agents exerted greater inhibition compared with either agent alone. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the reduction in tumor growth was associated with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells and decreased tumor vascular density. The combined treatment resulted in fewer proliferating tumor cells, more apoptotic cells and reduced tumor vascular density compared with treatment with trastuzumab or VEGF-Trap alone, indicating that trastuzumab and VEGF-Trap had additive inhibitory effects on the tumor growth and angiogenesis of the gastric cancer xenografts. These data suggest that trastuzumab in combination with VEGF-Trap may represent an effective approach to treating HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Receptor, ErbB-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/administration & dosage , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
8.
Immune Network ; : 10-15, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13003

ABSTRACT

Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines. Nevertheless, it is virtually unknown whether alum acts on B cells. In the present study, we explored the direct effect of alum on Ig expression by murine B cells in vitro. LPS-activated mouse spleen B cells were cultured with alum, and the level of isotype-specific Ig secretion, IgG1 secreting cell numbers, and Ig germ-line transcripts (GLT) were measured using ELISA, ELISPOT, and RT-PCR, respectively. Alum consistently enhanced total IgG1 production, numbers of IgG1 secreting cells, and GLTgamma1 expression. These results demonstrate that alum can directly cause IgG1 isotype switching leading to IgG1 production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Alum Compounds , Aluminum Hydroxide , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Count , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Hydroxides , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Spleen , Vaccines
9.
Immune Network ; : 84-88, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216359

ABSTRACT

B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is primarily expressed by macrophages and stimulates B cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and Ig production. In this study, we explored the effect of lactoferrin (LF) on BAFF expression by murine macrophages. We determined the level of BAFF expression at the transcriptional and protein levels using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. LF markedly enhanced BAFF expression in mouse macrophages at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Overexpression of Smad3/4 further increased LF-induced BAFF transcription while DN-Smad3 abolished the LF-induced BAFF expression. These results demonstrate that LF can enhance BAFF expression through Smad3/4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lactoferrin , Macrophages , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
10.
Immune Network ; : 27-32, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been extensively studied in recent years. However, functions of these molecules in murine B cell biology are largely unknown. A TLR4 stimulant, LPS is well known as a powerful polyclonal activator for murine B cells. METHODS: In this study, we explored the effect of a murine TLR9 stimulant, M6-395 (a synthetic CpG ODNs) on B cell proliferation and Ig production. RESULTS: First, M6-395 was much more potent than LPS in augmenting B cell proliferation. As for Ig expression, M6-395 facilitated the expression of both TGF-beta1-induced germ line transcript alpha (GLTalpha) and IL-4-induced GLTgamma1 as levels as those by LPS and Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 agonist) : a certain Ig GLT expression is regarded as an indicative of the corresponding isotype switching recombination. However, IgA and IgG1 secretion patterns were quite different--these Ig isotype secretions by M6-395 were much less than those by LPS and Pam3CSK4. Moreover, the increase of IgA and IgG1 production by LPS and Pam3CSK4 was virtually abrogated by M6-395. The same was true for the secretion of IgG3. We found that this unexpected phenomena provoked by M6-395 is attributed, at least in part, to its excessive mitogenic nature. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that M6-395 can act as a murine polyclonal activator but its strong mitogenic activity is unfavorable to Ig isotype switching.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cell Proliferation , Germ Cells , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Recombination, Genetic , Toll-Like Receptors
11.
Immune Network ; : 196-202, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is primarily expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells, and stimulates B cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and Ig production. In the present study, we explored the effect of activin A on BAFF expression by APCs. METHODS: To investigate the effect of activin A on BAFF expression by mouse APCs, we measured the level of BAFF expression at the transcriptional and protein levels using RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: Activin A markedly enhanced BAFF expression in mouse macrophages and dendritic cells at both the transcriptional and protein levels. SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) inhibitor, completely abrogated activin A-induced BAFF transcription. Furthermore, overexpression of DN-Smad3 abolished activin-induced BAFF expression at the transcriptional and protein levels. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that activin A can enhance BAFF expression through ALK4-Smad3 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Activin Receptors , Activins , Benzamides , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells , Dioxoles , Macrophages
12.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 606-613, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162256

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis is a multi-step process that involves the activation, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells. We have recently shown that TGF-beta1 can induce mouse macrophages to produce VEGF, a potent angiogenic factor. In the present study, we explored whether TGF-beta1 has a similar effect on mouse dendritic cells. First, we show that under hypoxic conditions, TGF-beta1 induced the expression of VEGF transcripts in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Overexpression of Smad3/4 further augmented TGF-beta1-induced VEGF transcription, while overexpression of DN-Smad3 decreased VEGF transcription in DC2.4 cells, a mouse dendritic cell line. We also show that TGF-beta1 and Smads are involved in the induction of VEGF protein secretion. Interestingly, under the same conditions, the expression of VEGF receptor 1 (Flt-1) was also elevated at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Additionally, we found that the TGF-beta1-induced VEGF secretion in activated DC2.4 cells has wound-healing properties. Finally, Smad7 and Smurf1 negatively regulated the TGF-beta1-induced and Smad3/4-mediated VEGF expression. Taken together, these results indicate that TGF-beta1 can enhance the expression of VEGF and Flt-1 through the typical Smad pathway in mouse dendritic cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/metabolism , Cell Line , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein/metabolism , Smad3 Protein/metabolism , Smad4 Protein/metabolism , Smad7 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/metabolism
13.
Immune Network ; : 133-137, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99214

ABSTRACT

We have recently shown that activin A, a member of TGF-beta superfamily, stimulates mouse B cells to express IgA isotype but other isotypes. In the present study, we further characterized effects of activin A on B cell growth and IgA expression. We found that activin A did not have effect on LPS-stimulated cell viability. In parallel, CFSE staining analysis revealed that activin A did not alter cell division. An increase of IgA secretion by activin A was completely abrogated by anti-activin A Ab but not by anti-TGFbeta1 Ab. In the same conditions, no other isotypes are significantly affected by each antibody treatment. Finally, activin A, as similar to TGF-beta1, increased IgA secretion by mesenteric lymph node cells. These results suggest that activin A can specifically stimulate IgA response, independent of TGF-beta in the gut.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Activins , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Division , Cell Survival , Fluoresceins , Immunoglobulin A , Lymph Nodes , Succinimides , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
14.
Immune Network ; : 248-254, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60580

ABSTRACT

TGF-beta1 is well known to induce Ig germ-line alpha (GLalpha) transcription and subsequent IgA isotype class switching recombination (CSR). Homeodomain protein TG-interacting factor (TGIF) and E3-ubiquitin ligases TGIF interacting ubiquitin ligase 1 (Tiul1) are implicated in the negative regulation of TGF-beta signaling. In the present study, we investigated the roles of Tiul1 and TGIF in TGFbeta1-induced IgA CSR. We found that over-expression of Tiul1 decreased TGFbeta1-induced GLalpha promoter activity and strengthened the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on the promoter activity. Likewise, overexpression of TGIF also diminished GLalpha promoter activity and further strengthened the inhibitory effect of Tiul1, suggesting that Tiul1 and TGIF can down-regulate TGFbeta1-induced GLalpha expression. In parallel, overexpression of Tiul1 decreased the expression of endogenous IgA CSR-predicitive transcripts (GLT(alpha), PST(alpha), and CT(alpha)) and TGFbeta1-induced IgA secretion, but not GLT(gamma3) and IgG3 secretion. Here, over-expressed TGIF further strengthened the inhibitory effect of Tiul1. These results suggest that Tiul1 and TGIF act as negatively regulators in TGFbeta1-induced IgA isotype expression.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Ligases , Recombination, Genetic , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Ubiquitin
15.
Immune Network ; : 203-208, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis mediated by VEGF constitutes a new target for anti-cancer therapy which has explored through different ways of intervention aiming at the blocking of the tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we developed the assays by which efficacies of anti-VEGF inhibitor candidates are evaluated at the various levels. METHODS & RESULTS: First, we developed two sandwich ELISAs using coated anti-VEGF Ab and soluble Flt-1 receptor fusion protein (sFlt-1/Fc). As low as 200 pg/ml of hVEGF diluted in human sera was detectable by these assays. In addition, we found that VEGF inhibitors (2 microngram/ml of either anti-VEGF Ab or sFlt-1/Fc) completely block 5 ng/ml VEGF in these ELISAs. Subsequently, two bioassays, wound healing and HUVEC tube formation assays, revealed that anti-VEGF Ab (1 microngram/ml) & sFlt-1/Fc Ab (1 microngram/ml), or SU5416 (VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 1 micronM) prevents the activity of VEGF (1~10 ng/ml). Finally, secretion of MMP-9 by VEGF-stimulated macrophages was abolished by treatment of anti-VEGF Ab (1 microngram/ml) in gelatin zymography. CONCLUSION: ELISAs together with bioassays developed in this study are appropriate for evaluation of the efficacy of inhibitors of VEGF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gelatin , Macrophages , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wound Healing
16.
Immune Network ; : 215-220, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) directs class switch recombination (CSR) to IgA isotype, which is a predominant antibody in mucosal surfaces. Although IgA is preferentially committed in mucosal lymphoid tissues, it is not definitely established whether hallmarks of IgA CSR such as IgA germ-line transcripts (GLTalpha), post-switch transcripts (PSTalpha) and circle transcripts (CTalpha) are readily expressed in such tissues. Therefore, we compared the expression of these transcripts among mouse Peyer's patches (PP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and spleen. METHODS: Levels of GLTs, PSTs and CTs were measured by RT-PCR in isolated PPs, MLNs and spleen cells. RESULTS: GLTalpha and PSTalpha were well expressed in PP and MLN cells but in spleen cells. Similar patterns were observed in the expression of GLgamma2b and PSTgamma2b. On the other hand, these transcripts were only inducible in spleen cells upon stimulated with LPS and TGF-beta1. In addition, CTalpha and CTgamma2b were detected in PP cells. CONCLUSION: PP B cells readily express IgA GLT, PST, and CT. Overall expression patterns of these transcripts were similar in MLN cells. Thus, these results suggest that microenvironment of PP and MLN influences spontaneous IgA CSR, which lacks in systemic lymphoid tissues such as spleen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Hand , Immunoglobulin A , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoid Tissue , Peyer's Patches , Recombination, Genetic , Spleen , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
17.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 575-587, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191493

ABSTRACT

Rac1 and Rac2 are essential for the control of oxidative burst catalyzed by NADPH oxidase. It was also documented that Rho is associated with the superoxide burst reaction during phagocytosis of serum- (SOZ) and IgG-opsonized zymosan particles (IOZ). In this study, we attempted to reveal the signal pathway components in the superoxide formation regulated by Rho GTPase. Tat-C3 blocked superoxide production, suggesting that RhoA is essentially involved in superoxide formation during phagocytosis of SOZ. Conversely SOZ activated both RhoA and Rac1/2. Inhibition of RhoA-activated kinase (ROCK), an important downstream effector of RhoA, by Y27632 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) by ML-7 abrogated superoxide production by SOZ. Extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were activated during phagocytosis of SOZ, and Tat-C3 and SB203580 reduced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, suggesting that RhoA and p38 MAPK may be upstream regulators of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase did not block translocation of RhoA to membranes, suggesting that RhoA is upstream to these kinases. Inhibition of RhoA by Tat-C3 blocked phosphorylation of p47 PHOX. Taken together, RhoA, ROCK, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and p47 PHOX may be subsequently activated, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase to produce superoxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Line , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Macrophage-1 Antigen/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Opsonin Proteins/blood , Phagocytosis , Protein Transport , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxides/metabolism , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology , Zymosan/blood , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Immune Network ; : 216-223, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well known that IgA isotype switching is induced by TGF-beta1. LPS-activated mouse normal B cells well differentiate into IgA secreting plasma cells under the influence of TGF-beta1. Nevertheless, there are lots of difficulties in studying normal B cells in detail because it is not simple to obtain highly purified B cells, showing low reproducibility and transfection efficacy, moreover impossible to keep continuous culture. To overcome these obstacles, it is desperately needed to develop B cell line which acts like normal B cells. In the present study, we investigated whether CH12F3-2A lymphoma cells are appropriate for studying IgA isotype switching event. METHODS: CH12F3-2A B cell line was treated with LPS and TGF-beta1, then levels of germ-line (GL) transcripts were measured by RT-PCR, and GLalpha promoter activity was measured by luciferase assay. In addition, membrane IgA (mIgA) expression and IgA secretion were determined by FACS and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: TGF-beta1, regardless of the presence of LPS, increased level of GLalpha transcripts but not GLgamma2b transcripts. However, IgA secretion was increased dramatically by co-stimulation of LPS and TGF-beta1. Both mIgA and IgA secretion in the presence of TGF-beta1 were further increased by over-expression of Smad3/4. Finally, GLalpha promoter activity was increased by TGF-beta1. CONCLUSION: CH12F3-2A cell line acts quite similarly to the normal B cells which have been previously reported regarding IgA expression. Thus, CH12F3-2A lymphoma cell line appears to be adequate for the investigation of the mechanism(s) of IgA isotype switching at the cellular and molecular levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Line , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Luciferases , Lymphoma , Membranes , Plasma Cells , Transfection , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
19.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 534-544, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13638

ABSTRACT

During chronic inflammatory response, mono- cytes/macrophages produce 92-kDa matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which may contribute to their extravasation, migration and tissue remodeling. Activation of peroxisome proliferator- activated factor receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity. To evaluate whether ox-LDL, a PPAR-gamma activator, inhibits PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and activity, and if so, whether CD36 and PPAR-gamma are involved in this process, we investigated the effect of ox-LDL on MMP-9 expression and activity in PMA-activated human monocytic cell line U937. PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and activity were suppressed by the treatment with ox-LDL (50 micrigram/ml) or PPAR-gamma activators such as troglitazone (5 micrometer), ciglitazone (5 micrometer), and 15d- PGJ2 (1 micrometer) for 24 h. This ox-LDL or PPAR-gamma activator-mediated inhibition of micrometer P-9 activity was diminished by the pre-treatment of cells with a blocking antibody to CD36, or PGF2a (0.3 micrometer), which is a PPAR-gamma inhibitor, as well as overexpression of a dominant-negative form of CD36. Taken together, these results suggest that ox-LDL suppresses PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and activity through CD36-mediated activation of PPAR-gamma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Blocking/pharmacology , CD36 Antigens/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chromans/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Prostaglandin D2/analogs & derivatives , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
20.
Korean Journal of Immunology ; : 101-108, 1998.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170214

ABSTRACT

Transforming growth factor-B1 (TGF-B1) is well known to be one of the most potent Immunosuppressive cytokines. To determine whether TGF-B1 secreted in the latent form can be immunoregulatory, TGF-B1 cDNA driven by the human -actin promotor was transfected into a murine thymoma cell line, EL4 cells. The transfectants (ELJ4) secreted a latent torm of TGF-B1 at a concentration of 5 ng/ml under the influence of TPA. Transfected TGF-b1 transcripts was readily detected by RT-PCR in ELJ4 cells regardless of the presence of TPA, but not in EL4 cells. In addition, we found the degree of Thy-B1 expression, IL-2 secretion and the proliferation rate are not altered by the transfection. Finally, EL4 and ELJ4 cells were injected into C57BU6 mice (syngenic strain), subcutaneously. Tumor cell masses derived from both cell populations survived longer than 1 wk, and the size of tumor derived from ELJ4 was three times larger (2.5 cm of diameter) than that from EL4. Virtually, there was no histopathological difference between two tumors. Taken together, the results from the present study indicates that EL4 thymomas transfected with TGF-1 secretes a latent form of TGF-B1 which may suppress host immune defence system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals
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