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Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841


SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 611-615, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098295


El incremento en las cifras de obesidad se debe esencialmente a factores de carácter ambiental asociados al consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de grasas saturadas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta alta en grasas sobre parámetros alimentarios y tejido adiposo blanco visceral. Se utilizaron ratas macho Sprague Dawley (n=10), divididas en dos grupos experimentales, el grupo control recibió dieta convencional (DC) y el grupo experimental una dieta alta en grasas (HFD), durante 10 semanas. Se determinó peso corporal, ingesta alimentaria, conversión alimenticia y características de tejido adiposo. El análisis de datos se realizó utilizando software IBM SPSS versión 21; tras evaluación de la normalidad de los datos, se aplicaron pruebas paramétricas T para muestras independientes y ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas en uno de los factores, con ajuste Bonferroni. Se observó que el promedio de peso fue mayor en los animales alimentados con HFD, sin diferencia estadística respecto a DC, no obstante, existen diferencias significativas en el peso de las ratas alimentadas con HFD en distintos tiempos del protocolo, específicamente semanas 1, 5 y 10 (p<0,001). La ingesta alimentaria fue mayor en los animales alimentados con DC (p<0,005), sin embargo el consumo de energía fue mayor en aquellos alimentados con HFD (p=0,016), lo que derivó en una mayor conversión alimenticia (p<0,005). El promedio de diámetro teórico calculado de los adipocitos es estadísticamente mayor en grupo HFD (p<0,005), lo que se relaciona a la hipertrofia clásica generada tras un período de alimentación con elevado contenido de grasas. Conclusión: El protocolo permite establecer que efectivamente, dado la mayor densidad energética, HFD induce hipertrofia de los adipocitos, proceso característico de la obesidad.

The continued increase in obesity statistics is the result of environmental factors associated with the consumption of foods high in saturated fat. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of a high fat diet on food parameters and visceral white adipose tissue. in Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10) were used, divided into two experimental groups, the control group received conventional diet (DC) and the experimental group a high fat diet (HFD), for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, food conversion and adipose tissue characteristics were determined. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21 software; after evaluating the normality of the data, parametric T tests were applied for independent samples and two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements in one of the factors, with Bonferroni adjustment. It was observed that the average weight was higher in animals fed with HFD, without statistical difference with respect to DC, however, there were significant differences in the weight of rats fed with HFD at different times of the protocol, specifically weeks 1.5 and 10 (p <0.001). Food intake was higher in animals fed DC (p <0.005), however the energy consumption was higher in those fed with HFD (p=0.016), which resulted in a higher feed conversion (p <0.005). The average theoretical diameter calculated for adipocytes is statistically higher in the HFD group (p <0.005), which is related to the classical hypertrophy generated after a period of feeding with high fat content. In conclusion, the protocol allows us to establish that, given the higher energy density, HFD induces adipocyte hypertrophy, a characteristic in the obesity process.

Animals , Male , Rats , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Obesity , Body Weight/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Eating
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098314


This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.

Animals , Male , Rats , Adipocytes, Beige/drug effects , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Obesity , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Diet , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(4): 681-686, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058779


RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto del consumo de harina de cáscara o harina de pulpa de dos variedades de Solanum tuberosum (papa Yungay y papa Canchán) sobre la acumulación de tejido adiposo, peso de órganos y estrés oxidativo en hígado de ratas realizamos un estudio experimental en 24 ratas Holtzman obesas, divididos en cuatro grupos y, sometidas a dietas que contenían 10% de harina de las dos variedades de papa. Los grupos fueron T1: cáscara Yungay, T2: pulpa Yungay; T3: cáscara Canchán; y T4: pulpa Canchán. Al finalizar, se sacrificaron todos los animales para registrar los pesos de órganos y tejido adiposo, y extraer muestras para determinar la actividad enzimática de superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en el hígado. El grupo de ratas obesas que consumió pulpa de variedad Yungay tuvo menor estrés oxidativo en el hígado; además, independientemente de la parte de tubérculo consumido, esta variedad redujo el peso de los riñones.

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effect of the consumption of peel flour or pulp flour from two varieties of Solanum tuberosum (Yungay potato and Canchán potato) on the accumulation of adipose tissue, organ weight, and oxidative stress in the liver of rats. We carried out an experimental study in 24 obese Holtzman rats, divided into four groups and subjected to diets containing 10% flour from both varieties of potato. The groups were T1: Yungay peel; T2: Yungay pulp; T3: Canchán peel; and T4: Canchán pulp. When the study was completed, all the animals were slaughtered to record the weights of organs and adipose tissue and to extract samples to determine the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. The group of obese rats that consumed the pulp of the Yungay variety had less oxidative stress in the liver. Also, regardless of the tuber part consumed, this variety reduced the weight of the kidneys.

Animals , Male , Rats , Solanum tuberosum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Obesity/drug therapy , Organ Size/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396


El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.

The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.

Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e9169, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055475


We investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion combined with a 2-wk sprint interval training (SIT) on training-induced reductions in body adiposity. Twenty physically-active men ingested either 5 mg/kg of cellulose as a placebo (PLA, n=10) or 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF, n=10) 60 min before each SIT session (13×30 s sprint/15 s of rest). Body mass and skinfold thickness were measured pre- and post-training. Energy expenditure was measured at rest, during exercise, and 45 min after exercise in the first SIT session. Body fat was similar between PLA and CAF groups at pre-training (P>0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in body fat after training in the CAF group (−5.9±4.2%, P<0.05) but not in PLA (1.5±8.0%, P>0.05). There was no difference in energy expenditure at rest and during exercise between PLA and CAF groups (P>0.05), but the post-exercise energy expenditure was 18.3±21.4% greater in the CAF than in the PLA group (P<0.05). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion before SIT sessions induced a body fat loss that may be associated with higher post-exercise energy expenditure.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , High-Intensity Interval Training , Double-Blind Method
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578


ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(1): 55-57, jan.-fev. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771123


RESUMO O autor descreve o caso de uma paciente que apresenta o olho direito com o sulco palpebral profundo e enoftalmia deste lado, tratado durante uma década com Bimatoprost tópica. Concluem que os achados clínicos são provavelmente efeitos colaterais do medicamento.

ABSTRACT The author describes a case report of a patient with unilateral enophthalmia and deep palpebral sulcus probably induced by the topical use of Bimatoprost on the side of the collateral effects described.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Enophthalmos/etiology , Enophthalmos/chemically induced , Bimatoprost/adverse effects , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Enophthalmos/diagnosis , Glaucoma/etiology , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Phacoemulsification , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Bimatoprost/therapeutic use
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 108 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846637


A diabetes mellitus (DM) é considerada uma das principais epidemias mundiais deste século, sendo responsável direta ou indiretamente pelo óbito de 123 mil diabéticos no Brasil em 2010. Na diabetes mellitus do tipo 1 (DM1), que corresponde a 5-10% dos casos, há ausência ou um relativo déficit de insulina circulante, acarretando aumento na glicemia e em produtos glicosilados, que por sua vez, podem estar relacionados à perda de visão e doenças cardiovasculares. Além disso, a marcante perda de tecido adiposo verificada na DM1 também pode acarretar hipercolesterolemia e esteatose hepática, além de possivelmente contribuir para a inflamação crônica característica da doença. Neste contexto, o objetivo principal do presente estudo foi examinar o efeito do treinamento de força e suplementação da dieta com leucina no tecido adiposo de ratos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Para a realização do estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em quatros grupos: i) Grupo DA (controle) (n=8) - sem treinamento (sedentário) e suplementado com uma mistura de aminoácidos não-essenciais (água ad libitum); ii) Grupo DL (n=8) - sem treinamento (sedentário) e suplementado com leucina (água ad libitum); iii) Grupo DTA (n=8) - com treinamento de força e suplementado com uma mistura de aminoácidos não-essenciais (água ad libitum); iv) Grupo DTL (n = 8) - com treinamento de força e suplementado com leucina (água ad libitum). Após 12 semanas de intervenção, os animais foram eutanasiados. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: lactato, tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina, consumo semanal de ração e água, evolução semanal do peso total dos animais, peso total do tecido adiposo e dos diferentes coxins; no soro: triacilglicerol (TAG), lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL), colesterol total, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, leptina, adiponectina e insulina; no tecido adiposo retroperitoneal: expressão gênica de mTOR, Akt, 4E-BP, eif4E, p70s6k, PPARy, LPL, leptina, adiponectina e CEBP-α; concentração total de TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, e IL-1ß. A tolerância à glicose, o consumo de ração e água, a concentração total do TAB e do TARP, assim como a expressão gênica de mTOR, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ e CEBP-α encontraram-se melhorados nos grupos DL, DTA e DTL em comparação ao grupo DA; e as concentrações de HDL, colesterol total, IL-10 e adiponectina no soro, bem como a expressão gênica de adiponectina e a concentração total de IL-10 no TARP apresentaram-se aumentadas somente nos grupos DTA e DTL quando comparados ao grupo DA. Como conclusão, ambas intervenções foram capazes de atenuar as alterações fisiológicas verificadas na DM1, dentre eles as perdas excessivas do TAB. No entanto, por servir de estímulo para uma maior síntese de citocinas e hormônios antiinflamatórios por parte TAB, o treinamento de força foi o principal responsável pela redução da inflamação sistêmica dos animais

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered one of the most important world epidemics of this century, being responsible directly or indirectly for the death of 123000 diabetics in Brazil in 2010. In type 1 diabetes (DM1), which corresponds to 5-10% of cases, there is absence or relative deficit of circulating insulin, leading to an increased glycemia and glycosilated products, which might be related to loss of vision and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the marked loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) associated with DM1 might induce liver steatosis and hypercholesterolemia, besides possibly contributing to an increased chronic systemic inflammation. In this context, the main objective of the present study was examine the effect of resistance training and supplementation with leucine in the adipose tissue of type 1 diabetic rats. To conduct this study, Wistar male rats were randomly distributed in 4 groups: i) DA group (control of the experiment) (n=8) - without RT and supplemented with a mixture containing non-essential amino acids (water ad libitum); ii) DL group - without RT and supplemented with leucine (water ad libitum); iii) DTA group (n=8) - with RT and supplemented with a mixture containing non-essential amino acids (water ad libitum); iv) DTL group - with RT and supplemented with leucine (water ad libitum). After 12 weeks of intervention, animals were euthanized. The following parameters were analyzed: blood lactate, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weekly consumption of chow and water, evolution of total weight, WAT total weight and depots; concentration of triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, adiponectin, leptin and insulin in the serum; gene expression of mTOR, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ, CEBP-α, LPL, leptin and adiponectin; in addition to the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL- 1ß in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Glucose tolerance, weekly consumption of chow and water, WAT and RPAT total weight, such as gene expression of mTOR, Akt, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ and CEBP-α were improved in DL, DTA and DTL groups in comparison with DA group; and the concentrations of HDL, total cholesterol, IL-10 and adiponectin in the serum, as well as gene expression of adiponectin and total concentration of IL-10 in the serum were increased only in DTA and DTL groups when compared to DA group. In conclusion, both interventions were capable of improving some DM1 physiological alterations, including the excessive loss of WAT. However, because resistance training stimulates an increased synthesis of antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones by WAT, this intervention might be the main responsible by the reduction of systemic inflammation of the animals

Animals , Male , Rats , /standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Resistance Training/instrumentation , Leucine/analysis , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Diabetes Complications/diet therapy , Inflammation/complications
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 35(1): 28-34, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745958


INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is a disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Medicinal fungi and/or its extracts have been used in the adjuvant therapy of cancer because of their pharmacological, nutritional and immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anthropometric profile of colorectal cancer women after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in a public hospital in the Federal District - Brazil for six months. Sample of 32 patients with colorectal cancer, female, was separated into two groups: supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day) and placebo. We conducted anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index, arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference and fat percentage) during the treatment. The results were analyzed at three different times (before the start of treatment, three months and after six months supplementation) using the Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 19.0, using Student's t-test and F, with significance for p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The Agaricus sylvaticus group showed a significant increase in body mass index, arm circumference, percent body fat and triceps skinfold, and non-significant increase in arm muscle circumference after six months of supplementation. These results were not observed in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus is capable to have benefits in anthropometric parameters of women with colorectal cancer. (AU)

INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer colorretal é uma doença influenciada por fatores genéticos e ambientais. A utilização de fungos medicinais e/ou de seus extratos tem sido utilizada no adjuvante tratamento do câncer devido às suas propriedades farmacológicas, nutricionais e imunomoduladoras. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil antropométrico de mulheres com câncer colorretal após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado realizado em um hospital público do Distrito Federal Brasil por seis meses. Amostra constituída por 32 pacientes com câncer colorretal, sexo feminino, separados em dois grupos: suplementado com Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/dia) e placebo. Realizou-se a antropometria (peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal, circunferência do braço, dobra cutânea tricipital, circunferência muscular do braço e percentual de gordura) ao longo do tratamento. Os resultados foram analisados em três momentos distintos (antes do início do tratamento, com três meses e após seis meses de suplementação), utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2007 e SPSS 19.0, por meio dos testes T-student e F, com significância para p ≤ 0,05. RESULTADOS: O grupo Agaricus sylvaticus apresentou aumento significativo de índice de massa corporal, circunferência do braço, percentual de gordura corporal e dobra cutânea triciptal e, aumento não significativo de circunferência muscular do braço após seis meses de suplementação. Esses resultados não foram observados no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com Agaricus sylvaticus é capaz de exercer benefícios nos parâmetros antropométricos de mulheres com câncer colorretal. (AU)

Humans , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Agaricus , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Dietary Supplements
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 73(6): 341-347, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741912


Objective: To evaluate in experimental animals the changes of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03%. Methods: Two main groups of Wistar rats were analyzed, one after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and another, a control group, after orbital injection of saline solution. The calculation of the palpebral fissure was done on images by means of computer processing, using the program Image J. After taking photographs, the animals were submitted to bilateral orbital exenteration and the volume was calculated in all the animals by the water displacement method (Archimedes’ Principle). Results: While comparing the measurements of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given an injection with bimatoprost 0.03% and the control group it was found that there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: In this study there were no statistically significant differences in the measurement of the vertical palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given the orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and the animals of the control group. .

Objetivo: Avaliar em modelos experimentais as alterações da fenda palpebral e do volume orbitário após aplicação orbitária de bimatoprost 0,03%. Métodos: Dois principais grupos compostos por ratos Wistar foram analisados, sendo comparados os animais submetidos à injeção orbitária de bimatoprost 0.03% com os submetidos à injeção orbitária de solução salina. O cálculo da fenda palpebral vertical foi obtido através de imagem computadorizada utilizando-se o programa Image J. Após serem fotografados os animais foram submetidos à exenteração bilateral e o volume orbitário foi calculado pelo método de deslocamento da coluna de água (Princípio de Archimedes). Resultados: Quando foram comparadas as medidas da fenda palpebral vertical e do volume orbitário entre os animais submetidos a injeção de bimatoprost 0.03% e o grupo controle não foi obsevada diferença estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: Neste estudo não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas medidas da fenda palpebral vertical e no volume orbitário entre os animais submetidos à injeção orbitária de bimatoprost 0.03% e o grupo controle. .

Animals , Male , Orbit/drug effects , Atrophy/chemically induced , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Eyelids/drug effects , Bimatoprost/adverse effects , Bimatoprost/pharmacology , Orbital Diseases/chemically induced , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/adverse effects , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Adipocytes/drug effects , Eyelid Diseases/chemically induced , Injections, Intraocular
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(1): 42-47, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705237


Objective : Visfatin is a recently discovered adipocytokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. Until now, its responses to the insulin-sensitizing agent metformin and to exercise are largely unknown. We aim to investigate the impact of metformin treatment and/or swimming exercise on serum visfatin and visfatin levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), peri-renal adipose tissue (PAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of high-fat-induced obesity rats. Materials and methods : Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks to develop obesity model. The high-fat-induced obesity model rats were then randomized to metformin (MET), swimming exercise (SWI), or adjunctive therapy of metformin and swimming exercise (MAS), besides high-fat obesity control group and a normal control group, all with 10 rats per group. Zoometric and glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and serum visfatin levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Visfatin levels in SAT, PAT and SM were determined by Western Blot. Results : Metformin and swimming exercise improved lipid profile, and increased insulin sensitivity and body weight reduction were observed. Both metformin and swimming exercise down-regulated visfatin levels in SAT and PAT, while the adjunctive therapy conferred greater benefits, but no changes of visfatin levels were observed in SM. Conclusion : Our results indicate that visfatin down-regulation in SAT and PAT may be one of the mechanisms by which metformin and swimming exercise inhibit obesity. .

Objetivo : A visfatina é uma adipocina recentemente descoberta que contribui com as condições relacionadas à glicose e à obesidade. Até hoje, pouco se sabe da sua resposta à metformina, um agente sensibilizador de insulina, e ao exercício. Nosso objetivo foi investigar o impacto do tratamento com metformina e/ou da natação sobre a visfatina no soro e no tecido adiposo subcutâneo (TAS), tecido adiposo perirrenal (TAP) e músculo esquelético (ME) em ratos com obesidade induzida por dieta com alto teor de gordura. Materiais e métodos : Ratos Sprague-Dawley foram alimentados com uma dieta normal ou com alto teor de gordura por 16 semanas para o desenvolvimento de um modelo de obesidade. Os ratos do modelo de obesidade foram, então, randomizados para a metformina, natação ou terapia de combinação com metformina e natação, além do grupo controle de obesidade induzida por alto teor de gordura e do grupo controle normal. Cada grupo apresentava 10 ratos. Parâmetros zoométricos e glicêmicos, perfil lipídico e níveis de visfatina sérica foram avaliados no momento inicial e após seis semanas de tratamento. Os níveis de visfatina em TAS, TAP e ME foram determinados por Western Blot. Resultados : A metformina e a natação melhoraram o perfil lipídico e aumentaram a sensibilidade à insulina, com redução do peso corporal. Tanto a metformina quanto a natação levaram à regulação para baixo dos níveis de visfatina no TAS e TAP, enquanto a terapia de combinação apresentou os maiores benefícios, mas não foram observadas alterações nos níveis de visfatina no ME. Conclusão : Nossos resultados indicam que a regulação para baixo da visfatina no TAS e TAP pode ser um dos mecanismos pelos quais a metformina ...

Animals , Male , Adipose Tissue/enzymology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/enzymology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Obesity/enzymology , Swimming/physiology , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/blood , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/therapy , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/blood
Saudi Medical Journal. 2011; 32 (10): 1017-1021
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144010


To investigate the effects of telmisartan on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and obesity. In this prospective, randomized study, outpatients from the Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China were treated with telmisartan [n=23], or losartan [n=22] for 16 weeks between December 2009 to January 2011. Parameters such as waist and hip circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, serum adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha] were measured before and after treatment. The abdominal visceral fat area [VFA] and subcutaneous fat area [SFA] were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]. Compared with baseline, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. However, the levels of HOMA-IR, serum adiponectin, and TNF-alpha only improved in the telmisartan group. Similarly, the VFA was reduced in the telmisartan group, while the SFA did not change in either group. Telmisartan improves both hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities found in hypertensive patients with obesity. The additional benefits may be partly due to visceral fat remodeling

Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Hypertension , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Obesity , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 205-215, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187632


Lysimachia foenum-graecum has been used as an oriental medicine with anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-obesity effect of L. foenum-graecum extract (LFE) was first discovered in our screening of natural product extract library against adipogenesis. To characterize its anti-obesity effects and to evaluate its potential as an anti-obesity drug, we performed various obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. In adipogenesis assay, LFE blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.5 microg/ml. In addition, LFE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, while increasing the expression of lipolytic genes in vitro at 10 microg/ml and in vivo at 100 mg/kg/day. The anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effect of LFE seems to be mediated by the inhibition of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression as shown in in vitro and in vivo, and the suppression of PPARgamma activity in vitro. Moreover, LFE stimulated fatty acid oxidation in an AMPK-dependent manner. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice (n = 8/group), oral administration of LFE at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day decreased total body weight gain significantly in all doses tested. No difference in food intake was observed between vehicle- and LFE-treated HFD mice. The weight of white adipose tissues including abdominal subcutaneous, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue was reduced markedly in LFE-treated HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of LFE also greatly improved serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers such as glucose, triglycerides, and adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. All together, these results showed anti-obesity effects of LFE on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo and raised a possibility of developing LFE as anti-obesity therapeutics.

Animals , Mice , 3T3-L1 Cells , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue, White , Anti-Obesity Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight/drug effects , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/genetics , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipids , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/prevention & control , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Primulaceae/chemistry
Clinics ; 66(5): 849-853, 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593851


INTRODUCTION: Prolonged steroid treatment administered to any patient can cause visceral obesity, which is associated with metabolic disease and Cushing's syndrome. Glucocorticoids have a profound negative effect on adipose tissue mass, giving rise to obesity, which in turn is regulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme. Adrenalectomized rats treated with dexamethasone exhibited an increase in visceral fat deposition but not in body weight. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the histomorphometric characteristics of perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomized, dexamethasone-treated rats (ADR+Dexa) and the association of dexamethasone treatment with the expression and activity of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1). METHODS: A total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: a baseline control group (n = 6), a sham-operated group (n = 7) and an adrenalectomized group (n=7). The adrenalectomized group was given intramuscular dexamethasone (ADR+Dexa) 2 weeks post adrenalectomy, and the rats from the sham-operated group were administered intramuscular vehicle (olive oil). RESULTS: Treatment with 120 μg/kg intramuscular dexamethasone for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in the diameter of the perirenal adipocytes (p<0.05) and a significant increase in the number of perirenal adipocytes (p<0.05). There was minimal weight gain but pronounced fat deposition in the dexamethasone-treated rats. These changes in the perirenal adipocytes were associated with high expression and dehydrogenase activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dexamethasone increased the deposition of perirenal fat by hyperplasia, which causes increases in the expression and dehydrogenase activity of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adrenalectomized rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , /metabolism , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/enzymology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Adrenalectomy , /drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(5): 582-594, jul. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-525420


A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. Indivíduos obesos são mais suscetíveis a desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares e diabetes melito tipo 2. A obesidade resulta do aumento no tamanho e no número de adipócitos. O balanço entre adipogênese e adiposidade determina o grau de obesidade do indivíduo. Adipócitos maduros secretam adipocinas, tais como TNFα, IL-6, leptina e adiponectina, e lipocina, o ácido palmitoleico ω-7. A produção de adipocinas é maior na obesidade, o que contribui para o estabelecimento de resistência periférica à insulina. O conhecimento dos eventos moleculares que regulam a diferenciação dos pré-adipócitos e de células-tronco mesenquimais em adipócitos (adipogênese) é importante para o entendimento da gênese da obesidade. A ativação do fator de transcrição PPARγ é essencial na adipogênese. Certos ácidos graxos são ligantes de PPARγ e podem, assim, controlar a adipogênese. Além disso, alguns ácidos graxos atuam como moléculas sinalizadoras em adipócitos, regulando sua diferenciação ou morte. Dessa forma, a composição lipídica da dieta e os agonistas de PPARγ podem regular o balanço entre adipogênese e morte de adipócitos e, portanto, a obesidade.

Obesity is one of the major Public Health problems. Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity results from the increase in size and number of the adipocytes. The balance between adipogenesis and adiposity determines the degree of obesity. Mature adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as TNFα, IL-6, leptine and adiponectin, and lipokine, the palmitoleic acid ω-7. The production of adipokines is increased in obesity, contributing to the onset of peripheral insulin resistance. The knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes (adipogenesis) is important for the comprehension of the genesis of obesity. Activation of transcription factor PPARγ plays an essential role in the adipogenesis. Certain fatty acids are PPARγ ligands and can control adipogenesis. Moreover, some fatty acids act as signaling molecules regulating their differentiation into adipocytes or death. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the diet and PPARγ agonists can regulate the balance between adipogenesis and death of adipocytes and, therefore, the obesity.

Animals , Humans , Adipogenesis/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/metabolism
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 46(2): 25-34, abr.-jun. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641954


Context: Hyporituitarism in adults is known to be associated with deleterious effects on body composition, lipid profile and quality of life (QoL). This was attributed to GH deficiency. The potential role of glucocorticoid overreplacement had never been investigated. Objective: To investigate whether reduction in glucocorticoid replacement dose to more physiological one could ameliorate the "AO-GHD"-attributed symptomatology in patients with hypopituitarism. Design: Eleven patients with panhypopituitarism taking 20-30 mg/day of hydrocortisone, but on no GH replacement were switched to 10 to 15 mg of hydrocortisone daily. Both basally and 6-12 months later, their body mass index, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid profile, and the score of quality of life, QOL-AGHDA were measured. Results: Within 6-12 months of lower hydrocortisone dose, subjects lost an average of 7.1 kg of total body fat and 4.1 kg of abdominal fat. No changes were seen in lean body mass, bone mineral content and HOMA-IR Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (<0.05) and the QoL improved (p=0.018). Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that decreasing the glucocorticoid replacement dose to ~ 15 mg/ day is beneficial in terms of patients' body composition, lipid profile and quality of life.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypopituitarism/therapy , Quality of Life , Body Composition/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 189-195, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151427


This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All test solutions significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride, glucose and free fatty acids in the serum compared with control (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol were also significantly reduced in DG and DG-CLA groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CLA significantly decreased weights of renal and epididymal fats compared with the control (p < 0.05). DG and DG-CLA also significantly decreased the epididymal fat weights compared with the control (p < 0.05). A remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets and fat globules was observed in the livers of mice treated with DG, CLA, and DG-CLA compared to control. Treatments of DG and CLA actually increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These results suggest that DG-CLA containing 22% CLA have a respectable anti-obesity effect by controlling serum lipids and fat metabolism.

Animals , Male , Mice , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Diglycerides/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/pharmacology , Lipids/blood , Liver/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Time Factors