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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 611-615, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098295

ABSTRACT

El incremento en las cifras de obesidad se debe esencialmente a factores de carácter ambiental asociados al consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de grasas saturadas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta alta en grasas sobre parámetros alimentarios y tejido adiposo blanco visceral. Se utilizaron ratas macho Sprague Dawley (n=10), divididas en dos grupos experimentales, el grupo control recibió dieta convencional (DC) y el grupo experimental una dieta alta en grasas (HFD), durante 10 semanas. Se determinó peso corporal, ingesta alimentaria, conversión alimenticia y características de tejido adiposo. El análisis de datos se realizó utilizando software IBM SPSS versión 21; tras evaluación de la normalidad de los datos, se aplicaron pruebas paramétricas T para muestras independientes y ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas en uno de los factores, con ajuste Bonferroni. Se observó que el promedio de peso fue mayor en los animales alimentados con HFD, sin diferencia estadística respecto a DC, no obstante, existen diferencias significativas en el peso de las ratas alimentadas con HFD en distintos tiempos del protocolo, específicamente semanas 1, 5 y 10 (p<0,001). La ingesta alimentaria fue mayor en los animales alimentados con DC (p<0,005), sin embargo el consumo de energía fue mayor en aquellos alimentados con HFD (p=0,016), lo que derivó en una mayor conversión alimenticia (p<0,005). El promedio de diámetro teórico calculado de los adipocitos es estadísticamente mayor en grupo HFD (p<0,005), lo que se relaciona a la hipertrofia clásica generada tras un período de alimentación con elevado contenido de grasas. Conclusión: El protocolo permite establecer que efectivamente, dado la mayor densidad energética, HFD induce hipertrofia de los adipocitos, proceso característico de la obesidad.


The continued increase in obesity statistics is the result of environmental factors associated with the consumption of foods high in saturated fat. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of a high fat diet on food parameters and visceral white adipose tissue. in Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10) were used, divided into two experimental groups, the control group received conventional diet (DC) and the experimental group a high fat diet (HFD), for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, food conversion and adipose tissue characteristics were determined. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21 software; after evaluating the normality of the data, parametric T tests were applied for independent samples and two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements in one of the factors, with Bonferroni adjustment. It was observed that the average weight was higher in animals fed with HFD, without statistical difference with respect to DC, however, there were significant differences in the weight of rats fed with HFD at different times of the protocol, specifically weeks 1.5 and 10 (p <0.001). Food intake was higher in animals fed DC (p <0.005), however the energy consumption was higher in those fed with HFD (p=0.016), which resulted in a higher feed conversion (p <0.005). The average theoretical diameter calculated for adipocytes is statistically higher in the HFD group (p <0.005), which is related to the classical hypertrophy generated after a period of feeding with high fat content. In conclusion, the protocol allows us to establish that, given the higher energy density, HFD induces adipocyte hypertrophy, a characteristic in the obesity process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Obesity , Body Weight/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Eating
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098314

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adipocytes, Beige/drug effects , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Obesity , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Diet , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396

ABSTRACT

El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.


The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e9169, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055475

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion combined with a 2-wk sprint interval training (SIT) on training-induced reductions in body adiposity. Twenty physically-active men ingested either 5 mg/kg of cellulose as a placebo (PLA, n=10) or 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF, n=10) 60 min before each SIT session (13×30 s sprint/15 s of rest). Body mass and skinfold thickness were measured pre- and post-training. Energy expenditure was measured at rest, during exercise, and 45 min after exercise in the first SIT session. Body fat was similar between PLA and CAF groups at pre-training (P>0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in body fat after training in the CAF group (−5.9±4.2%, P<0.05) but not in PLA (1.5±8.0%, P>0.05). There was no difference in energy expenditure at rest and during exercise between PLA and CAF groups (P>0.05), but the post-exercise energy expenditure was 18.3±21.4% greater in the CAF than in the PLA group (P<0.05). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion before SIT sessions induced a body fat loss that may be associated with higher post-exercise energy expenditure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , High-Intensity Interval Training , Double-Blind Method
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 108 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846637

ABSTRACT

A diabetes mellitus (DM) é considerada uma das principais epidemias mundiais deste século, sendo responsável direta ou indiretamente pelo óbito de 123 mil diabéticos no Brasil em 2010. Na diabetes mellitus do tipo 1 (DM1), que corresponde a 5-10% dos casos, há ausência ou um relativo déficit de insulina circulante, acarretando aumento na glicemia e em produtos glicosilados, que por sua vez, podem estar relacionados à perda de visão e doenças cardiovasculares. Além disso, a marcante perda de tecido adiposo verificada na DM1 também pode acarretar hipercolesterolemia e esteatose hepática, além de possivelmente contribuir para a inflamação crônica característica da doença. Neste contexto, o objetivo principal do presente estudo foi examinar o efeito do treinamento de força e suplementação da dieta com leucina no tecido adiposo de ratos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Para a realização do estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em quatros grupos: i) Grupo DA (controle) (n=8) - sem treinamento (sedentário) e suplementado com uma mistura de aminoácidos não-essenciais (água ad libitum); ii) Grupo DL (n=8) - sem treinamento (sedentário) e suplementado com leucina (água ad libitum); iii) Grupo DTA (n=8) - com treinamento de força e suplementado com uma mistura de aminoácidos não-essenciais (água ad libitum); iv) Grupo DTL (n = 8) - com treinamento de força e suplementado com leucina (água ad libitum). Após 12 semanas de intervenção, os animais foram eutanasiados. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: lactato, tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina, consumo semanal de ração e água, evolução semanal do peso total dos animais, peso total do tecido adiposo e dos diferentes coxins; no soro: triacilglicerol (TAG), lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL), colesterol total, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, leptina, adiponectina e insulina; no tecido adiposo retroperitoneal: expressão gênica de mTOR, Akt, 4E-BP, eif4E, p70s6k, PPARy, LPL, leptina, adiponectina e CEBP-α; concentração total de TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, e IL-1ß. A tolerância à glicose, o consumo de ração e água, a concentração total do TAB e do TARP, assim como a expressão gênica de mTOR, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ e CEBP-α encontraram-se melhorados nos grupos DL, DTA e DTL em comparação ao grupo DA; e as concentrações de HDL, colesterol total, IL-10 e adiponectina no soro, bem como a expressão gênica de adiponectina e a concentração total de IL-10 no TARP apresentaram-se aumentadas somente nos grupos DTA e DTL quando comparados ao grupo DA. Como conclusão, ambas intervenções foram capazes de atenuar as alterações fisiológicas verificadas na DM1, dentre eles as perdas excessivas do TAB. No entanto, por servir de estímulo para uma maior síntese de citocinas e hormônios antiinflamatórios por parte TAB, o treinamento de força foi o principal responsável pela redução da inflamação sistêmica dos animais


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered one of the most important world epidemics of this century, being responsible directly or indirectly for the death of 123000 diabetics in Brazil in 2010. In type 1 diabetes (DM1), which corresponds to 5-10% of cases, there is absence or relative deficit of circulating insulin, leading to an increased glycemia and glycosilated products, which might be related to loss of vision and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the marked loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) associated with DM1 might induce liver steatosis and hypercholesterolemia, besides possibly contributing to an increased chronic systemic inflammation. In this context, the main objective of the present study was examine the effect of resistance training and supplementation with leucine in the adipose tissue of type 1 diabetic rats. To conduct this study, Wistar male rats were randomly distributed in 4 groups: i) DA group (control of the experiment) (n=8) - without RT and supplemented with a mixture containing non-essential amino acids (water ad libitum); ii) DL group - without RT and supplemented with leucine (water ad libitum); iii) DTA group (n=8) - with RT and supplemented with a mixture containing non-essential amino acids (water ad libitum); iv) DTL group - with RT and supplemented with leucine (water ad libitum). After 12 weeks of intervention, animals were euthanized. The following parameters were analyzed: blood lactate, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weekly consumption of chow and water, evolution of total weight, WAT total weight and depots; concentration of triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, adiponectin, leptin and insulin in the serum; gene expression of mTOR, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ, CEBP-α, LPL, leptin and adiponectin; in addition to the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL- 1ß in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Glucose tolerance, weekly consumption of chow and water, WAT and RPAT total weight, such as gene expression of mTOR, Akt, 4E-BP1, eif4E, p70S6k, PPARγ and CEBP-α were improved in DL, DTA and DTL groups in comparison with DA group; and the concentrations of HDL, total cholesterol, IL-10 and adiponectin in the serum, as well as gene expression of adiponectin and total concentration of IL-10 in the serum were increased only in DTA and DTL groups when compared to DA group. In conclusion, both interventions were capable of improving some DM1 physiological alterations, including the excessive loss of WAT. However, because resistance training stimulates an increased synthesis of antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones by WAT, this intervention might be the main responsible by the reduction of systemic inflammation of the animals


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/standards , Leucine/analysis , Resistance Training/instrumentation , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Diabetes Complications/diet therapy , Inflammation/complications
8.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(1): 42-47, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705237

ABSTRACT

Objective : Visfatin is a recently discovered adipocytokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. Until now, its responses to the insulin-sensitizing agent metformin and to exercise are largely unknown. We aim to investigate the impact of metformin treatment and/or swimming exercise on serum visfatin and visfatin levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), peri-renal adipose tissue (PAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of high-fat-induced obesity rats. Materials and methods : Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks to develop obesity model. The high-fat-induced obesity model rats were then randomized to metformin (MET), swimming exercise (SWI), or adjunctive therapy of metformin and swimming exercise (MAS), besides high-fat obesity control group and a normal control group, all with 10 rats per group. Zoometric and glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and serum visfatin levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Visfatin levels in SAT, PAT and SM were determined by Western Blot. Results : Metformin and swimming exercise improved lipid profile, and increased insulin sensitivity and body weight reduction were observed. Both metformin and swimming exercise down-regulated visfatin levels in SAT and PAT, while the adjunctive therapy conferred greater benefits, but no changes of visfatin levels were observed in SM. Conclusion : Our results indicate that visfatin down-regulation in SAT and PAT may be one of the mechanisms by which metformin and swimming exercise inhibit obesity. .


Objetivo : A visfatina é uma adipocina recentemente descoberta que contribui com as condições relacionadas à glicose e à obesidade. Até hoje, pouco se sabe da sua resposta à metformina, um agente sensibilizador de insulina, e ao exercício. Nosso objetivo foi investigar o impacto do tratamento com metformina e/ou da natação sobre a visfatina no soro e no tecido adiposo subcutâneo (TAS), tecido adiposo perirrenal (TAP) e músculo esquelético (ME) em ratos com obesidade induzida por dieta com alto teor de gordura. Materiais e métodos : Ratos Sprague-Dawley foram alimentados com uma dieta normal ou com alto teor de gordura por 16 semanas para o desenvolvimento de um modelo de obesidade. Os ratos do modelo de obesidade foram, então, randomizados para a metformina, natação ou terapia de combinação com metformina e natação, além do grupo controle de obesidade induzida por alto teor de gordura e do grupo controle normal. Cada grupo apresentava 10 ratos. Parâmetros zoométricos e glicêmicos, perfil lipídico e níveis de visfatina sérica foram avaliados no momento inicial e após seis semanas de tratamento. Os níveis de visfatina em TAS, TAP e ME foram determinados por Western Blot. Resultados : A metformina e a natação melhoraram o perfil lipídico e aumentaram a sensibilidade à insulina, com redução do peso corporal. Tanto a metformina quanto a natação levaram à regulação para baixo dos níveis de visfatina no TAS e TAP, enquanto a terapia de combinação apresentou os maiores benefícios, mas não foram observadas alterações nos níveis de visfatina no ME. Conclusão : Nossos resultados indicam que a regulação para baixo da visfatina no TAS e TAP pode ser um dos mecanismos pelos quais a metformina ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adipose Tissue/enzymology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/enzymology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Obesity/enzymology , Swimming/physiology , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/blood , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/therapy , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187632

ABSTRACT

Lysimachia foenum-graecum has been used as an oriental medicine with anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-obesity effect of L. foenum-graecum extract (LFE) was first discovered in our screening of natural product extract library against adipogenesis. To characterize its anti-obesity effects and to evaluate its potential as an anti-obesity drug, we performed various obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. In adipogenesis assay, LFE blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.5 microg/ml. In addition, LFE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, while increasing the expression of lipolytic genes in vitro at 10 microg/ml and in vivo at 100 mg/kg/day. The anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effect of LFE seems to be mediated by the inhibition of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression as shown in in vitro and in vivo, and the suppression of PPARgamma activity in vitro. Moreover, LFE stimulated fatty acid oxidation in an AMPK-dependent manner. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice (n = 8/group), oral administration of LFE at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day decreased total body weight gain significantly in all doses tested. No difference in food intake was observed between vehicle- and LFE-treated HFD mice. The weight of white adipose tissues including abdominal subcutaneous, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue was reduced markedly in LFE-treated HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of LFE also greatly improved serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers such as glucose, triglycerides, and adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. All together, these results showed anti-obesity effects of LFE on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo and raised a possibility of developing LFE as anti-obesity therapeutics.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight/drug effects , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/genetics , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipids , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/prevention & control , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Primulaceae/chemistry
10.
Clinics ; 66(5): 849-853, 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prolonged steroid treatment administered to any patient can cause visceral obesity, which is associated with metabolic disease and Cushing's syndrome. Glucocorticoids have a profound negative effect on adipose tissue mass, giving rise to obesity, which in turn is regulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme. Adrenalectomized rats treated with dexamethasone exhibited an increase in visceral fat deposition but not in body weight. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the histomorphometric characteristics of perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomized, dexamethasone-treated rats (ADR+Dexa) and the association of dexamethasone treatment with the expression and activity of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1). METHODS: A total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: a baseline control group (n = 6), a sham-operated group (n = 7) and an adrenalectomized group (n=7). The adrenalectomized group was given intramuscular dexamethasone (ADR+Dexa) 2 weeks post adrenalectomy, and the rats from the sham-operated group were administered intramuscular vehicle (olive oil). RESULTS: Treatment with 120 μg/kg intramuscular dexamethasone for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in the diameter of the perirenal adipocytes (p<0.05) and a significant increase in the number of perirenal adipocytes (p<0.05). There was minimal weight gain but pronounced fat deposition in the dexamethasone-treated rats. These changes in the perirenal adipocytes were associated with high expression and dehydrogenase activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dexamethasone increased the deposition of perirenal fat by hyperplasia, which causes increases in the expression and dehydrogenase activity of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adrenalectomized rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , /metabolism , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/enzymology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Adrenalectomy , /drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2011; 32 (10): 1017-1021
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144010

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of telmisartan on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and obesity. In this prospective, randomized study, outpatients from the Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China were treated with telmisartan [n=23], or losartan [n=22] for 16 weeks between December 2009 to January 2011. Parameters such as waist and hip circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, serum adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha] were measured before and after treatment. The abdominal visceral fat area [VFA] and subcutaneous fat area [SFA] were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]. Compared with baseline, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. However, the levels of HOMA-IR, serum adiponectin, and TNF-alpha only improved in the telmisartan group. Similarly, the VFA was reduced in the telmisartan group, while the SFA did not change in either group. Telmisartan improves both hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities found in hypertensive patients with obesity. The additional benefits may be partly due to visceral fat remodeling


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Hypertension , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Obesity , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects
12.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(5): 582-594, jul. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-525420

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. Indivíduos obesos são mais suscetíveis a desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares e diabetes melito tipo 2. A obesidade resulta do aumento no tamanho e no número de adipócitos. O balanço entre adipogênese e adiposidade determina o grau de obesidade do indivíduo. Adipócitos maduros secretam adipocinas, tais como TNFα, IL-6, leptina e adiponectina, e lipocina, o ácido palmitoleico ω-7. A produção de adipocinas é maior na obesidade, o que contribui para o estabelecimento de resistência periférica à insulina. O conhecimento dos eventos moleculares que regulam a diferenciação dos pré-adipócitos e de células-tronco mesenquimais em adipócitos (adipogênese) é importante para o entendimento da gênese da obesidade. A ativação do fator de transcrição PPARγ é essencial na adipogênese. Certos ácidos graxos são ligantes de PPARγ e podem, assim, controlar a adipogênese. Além disso, alguns ácidos graxos atuam como moléculas sinalizadoras em adipócitos, regulando sua diferenciação ou morte. Dessa forma, a composição lipídica da dieta e os agonistas de PPARγ podem regular o balanço entre adipogênese e morte de adipócitos e, portanto, a obesidade.


Obesity is one of the major Public Health problems. Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity results from the increase in size and number of the adipocytes. The balance between adipogenesis and adiposity determines the degree of obesity. Mature adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as TNFα, IL-6, leptine and adiponectin, and lipokine, the palmitoleic acid ω-7. The production of adipokines is increased in obesity, contributing to the onset of peripheral insulin resistance. The knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes (adipogenesis) is important for the comprehension of the genesis of obesity. Activation of transcription factor PPARγ plays an essential role in the adipogenesis. Certain fatty acids are PPARγ ligands and can control adipogenesis. Moreover, some fatty acids act as signaling molecules regulating their differentiation into adipocytes or death. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the diet and PPARγ agonists can regulate the balance between adipogenesis and death of adipocytes and, therefore, the obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adipogenesis/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/metabolism
13.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 46(2): 25-34, abr.-jun. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641954

ABSTRACT

Context: Hyporituitarism in adults is known to be associated with deleterious effects on body composition, lipid profile and quality of life (QoL). This was attributed to GH deficiency. The potential role of glucocorticoid overreplacement had never been investigated. Objective: To investigate whether reduction in glucocorticoid replacement dose to more physiological one could ameliorate the "AO-GHD"-attributed symptomatology in patients with hypopituitarism. Design: Eleven patients with panhypopituitarism taking 20-30 mg/day of hydrocortisone, but on no GH replacement were switched to 10 to 15 mg of hydrocortisone daily. Both basally and 6-12 months later, their body mass index, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid profile, and the score of quality of life, QOL-AGHDA were measured. Results: Within 6-12 months of lower hydrocortisone dose, subjects lost an average of 7.1 kg of total body fat and 4.1 kg of abdominal fat. No changes were seen in lean body mass, bone mineral content and HOMA-IR Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (<0.05) and the QoL improved (p=0.018). Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that decreasing the glucocorticoid replacement dose to ~ 15 mg/ day is beneficial in terms of patients' body composition, lipid profile and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypopituitarism/therapy , Quality of Life , Body Composition/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151427

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All test solutions significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride, glucose and free fatty acids in the serum compared with control (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol were also significantly reduced in DG and DG-CLA groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CLA significantly decreased weights of renal and epididymal fats compared with the control (p < 0.05). DG and DG-CLA also significantly decreased the epididymal fat weights compared with the control (p < 0.05). A remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets and fat globules was observed in the livers of mice treated with DG, CLA, and DG-CLA compared to control. Treatments of DG and CLA actually increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These results suggest that DG-CLA containing 22% CLA have a respectable anti-obesity effect by controlling serum lipids and fat metabolism.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Diglycerides/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/pharmacology , Lipids/blood , Liver/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148959

ABSTRACT

Fenofibrate is a drug that has been suggested to inhibit weight gain by increasing the catabolism of fatty acid in the hepatic mitochondria. We hypothesized that fenofibrate induces an increase in energy expenditure in the hepatic mitochondria, which results in the reduction of adipose tissue. In this study we measured hepatic uncoupling protein (UCP)-2, -3, core temperatures and abdominal fat composition with MRI in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. The fenofibrate group (n=7) was fed fenofibrate (320 mg/kg) mixed chow. The control group (n=7) was fed chow only. The body weight (531.6+/-7.6 g) of the fenofibrate group was significantly lower than that (744.3+/-14.9 g) of the control group (p<0.005). The areas of visceral and subcutaneous fat in the fenofibrate group (11.0+/-0.9 cm2, 4.2+/-0.3 cm2) were significantly less than those in the control group (21.0+/-0.7 cm2, 7.4+/-0.4 cm2) (p=0.046, respectively). The esophageal and rectal temperatures of the fenofibrate group (37.7+/-0.1 degrees C, 33.1+/-0.2 degrees C) were significantly higher than those of the control group (37.3+/-0.1 degrees C, 32.2+/-0.1 degrees C) (p=0.025, p=0.005). There was de novo expression of UCP-3 in the liver of the fenofibrate group. These data suggest that increased energy dissipation, via hepatic UCP-3 by fenofibrate, contribute to decreased weight gain in obese rats.


Subject(s)
Rats, Inbred OLETF , Rats , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Obesity/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Body Temperature/drug effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Animals , Adipose Tissue/drug effects
17.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(1): 214-221, 2007. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-456767

ABSTRACT

Cultures of adipose tissue explants are a valuable tool for studying the intracellular mechanisms involving hormones and nutrients. However, testing how fatty acids affect cells requires a carrier molecule; bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for this purpose. However, contaminants can alter the cellular response. Our objectives were to: 1) test BSA as a fatty acid carrier and 2) evaluate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a replacement for BSA. Adipose tissue explants from nine pigs were cultured in medium 199 for 4, 12, 24, and 48 h, with the following treatments: control, PVA (100 mM PVA added) and PVA + pGH (100 mM PVA plus 0.1 mg/mL porcine growth hormone). After each culture period, explants were collected and assayed for lipogenesis. After 48 h in culture, explants were assayed for lipolysis. A preliminary study with different commercial sources and high concentrations showed that BSA affected lipogenic rates. On the other hand, there were no effects of PVA on lipid synthesis, while pGH (positive control) reduced glucose incorporation into lipids (P < 0.01) when compared to both control and PVA (P < 0.05). There was no difference between control and PVA for lipolysis rates. However, pGH increased lipolysis when compared to control (P < 0.01) and PVA (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that BSA can alter lipogenesis, which precludes its use as a carrier molecule. On the other hand, addition of PVA had no effect on lipolysis or lipogenesis. We suggest the use of PVA instead of BSA for adding bioactive fatty acids to cultures of adipose tissue


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Lipolysis/drug effects , Polyvinyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques/veterinary , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Swine , Time Factors , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods
18.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(2): 271-280, abr. 2006. ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-435154

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus (DM) é considerado um problema de saúde pública em países devido às suas complicações crônicas macro e microvasculares, com grande impacto na morbimortalidade dos pacientes. A doença é o estágio final de uma síndrome crônica e progressiva, cujas anormalidades fisiopatológicas iniciam-se anos antes do diagnóstico clínico da doença. A síndrome metabólica (SM) é conseqüente ao aumento mundial da prevalência de obesidade. O DM é freqüentemente associado com condições clínicas e laboratoriais que fazem parte da SM, como a obesidade, hipertensão arterial, dislipidemia e microalbuminúria, também fatores de risco cardiovascular. Estudos populacionais demonstram aumento na prevalência de todos os fatores que compõem esta síndrome do pré-diabetes ao DM manifesto, resultando em elevada prevalência de doença cardiovascular e morbimortalidade. Estima-se que >80 por cento dos pacientes com DM apresentem SM. As glitazonas são agonistas PPAR-gama que melhoram a sensibilidade insulínica. Estas drogas induzem à transcrição de genes relacionados ao metabolismo glicídico e lipídico e à expressão de proteínas inflamatórias e endoteliais associadas com o processo aterosclerótico, resultando em melhora da função endotelial. Entretanto, algumas questões relacionadas às glitazonas merecem mais estudos, como a causa de seus efeitos colaterais (ganho de peso, edema e desenvolvimento de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva).


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries due to its chronic complications, at the macro or microcirculation, with great impact on mortality and morbidity in all patients. The disease is considered the end of a pathophysiologic process involving peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion that have been started years before the clinical diagnosis. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. DM is frequently associated with clinical and laboratory features of MS, like abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and microalbuminuria that are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Populational studies have demonstrated increasing prevalence of all the features of MS from pre-diabetes to clinical DM resulting in a great risk of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of MS in DM type 2 is estimated to be >80 percent. Glitazones are PPAR-gamma agonists that improve insulin sensitivity. These drugs induce the transcription of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and expression of inflammatory and endothelial proteins associated with atherosclerosis process resulting in an improvement in endothelial function. However several questions need to be clarified regarding the glitazones, in special those associated with their adverse effects such as weight gain, edema and heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , /physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Thiazolidinediones , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/physiology , Thiazolidinediones/chemistry , Thiazolidinediones/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
19.
P. R. health sci. j ; 23(2): 121-124, Jun. 2004.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-390791

ABSTRACT

A combination dietary supplement containing vitamins, minerals, herbs, fibers and amino acids was studied to determine its safety and efficacy on weight/ fat loss, cholesterol and triglycerides in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Total body weight, body fat %, waist and hip measurements, total cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated before and after 6 weeks treatment with combination supplement or placebo. The study population consisted in 27 mildly to moderately obese, otherwise healthy, volunteers. After 6 weeks of treatment, the combination supplement had a statistically significant (p<0.001, mu=0.05) positive weight reducing effect (-8.59Lb vs. +2.14 Lb). This weight reduction was associated with a corresponding statistically significant (p<0.001, mu=0.05) decrease in body fat % in the treatment group (-2.88%) vs. the placebo (+0.86%). In addition, significant decreases in total cholesterol (-22.94 mg/dL) and triglycerides (-39.29 mg/dL) were obtained plus reductions in waist and hip measurements. These positive results lead us to conclude, that the combination supplement studied herein is a safe and effective way to assist in weight/fat reduction and decreases in total cholesterol and triglycerides in relatively short time (6 weeks)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Anti-Obesity Agents , Cholesterol/blood , Dietary Supplements , Obesity/diet therapy , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Anthropometry , Double-Blind Method , Obesity/blood , Weight Loss/physiology
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