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Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000005, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983682


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of PI3k/Akt signal pathway in the protective effects of propofol on intestinal and lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion(I/R). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia by occluding the superior mesenteric artery and to 2h of reperfusion to establish the model of I/R. Twenty four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, intestinal I/R (II/R), propofol (P), wortmannin (W). In groups P, W, propofol was injected intravenously and continuously at the onset of reperfusion via infusion pump. PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) was administered intravenously in group W 25 min before ischemia. Intestinal tissues and lung tissues were obtained for determination of histologic injury, wet/dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Meanwhile, the expressions of caspase-3 and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) in intestines and lungs were detected by western blot. Results: Propofol treatment alleviated intestinal and lung morphological changes which were observed in II/R group,Moreover, wet/dry weight ratio, the MDA level, MPO activity and expression of caspase-3 were significantly decreased whereas the SOD activity and p-Akt expression were significantly increased. Notably, the protections were significantly reversed by pretreatment of wortmannin. Conclusion: PI3K/Akt pathway activation play a critical role in the protective effects of propofol on intestinal and lung injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/physiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Mesenteric Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Mesenteric Ischemia/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 591-596, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977407


Abstract Introduction: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathophysiological process in liver surgery. Whether Propofol can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, together with related mechanisms, still needs further studies. Objective: To investigate if propofol would protect the myocardial cells from apoptosis with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were randomly allocated into three groups: Sham Group (Group S, n = 6), Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Group (Group IR, n = 6) and Propofol Group (Group P, n = 6). Group S was only subjected to laparotomy. Group IR was attained by ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 4 h. Group P was subjected identical insult as in Group IR with the administration of propofol started 10 min before ischemia with 120−1, following by continuous infusion at 20−1.h−1. Cell apoptosis was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) and cysteine-containing aspartic acid cleaved-caspase3 (cleaved-caspase3) were assayed by western blot and Altimeter polymerase chain reaction. Results: Apoptosis rate was increased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 down-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 up-regulated in Group IR compared with Group S (p < 0.01). Apoptosis rate was decreased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 up-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 down-regulated in Group P compared with Group IR (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Propofol can reduce hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial cell apoptosis, meanwhile, can up-regulate mRNA and protein of SERCA2 in rats.

Resumo Introdução: A lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão é um processo fisiopatológico comum em cirurgias hepáticas. Mais estudos ainda são necessários para avaliar se o propofol pode reduzir a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão miocárdica induzida pela lesão de isquemia-reperfusão hepática em ratos, juntamente com os mecanismos que estão relacionados. Objetivo: Investigar se propofol protege as células do miocárdio da apoptose com a lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Métodos: Ratos machos da raça Sprague-Dawley (n = 18) foram alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo Sham (Grupo S, n = 6), Grupo Lesão Hepática por Isquemia-reperfusão (Grupo IR, n = 6) e Grupo Propofol (Grupo P, n = 6). O Grupo S foi submetido apenas à laparotomia. O grupo IR foi submetido à isquemia por 30 min e reperfusão por 4 h. O grupo P foi submetido à mesma isquemia do grupo IR, com a administração de 120 de propofol iniciada 10min antes da isquemia, seguida de infusão contínua a 20 A apoptose celular foi examinada por meio do ensaio de marcação de terminações dUTP pela deoxinucleotidil transferase. Retículo endoplasmático Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) e caspase-3 do ácido aspártico contendo cisteína (caspase-3 clivada) foram avaliados com o ensaio western blot e reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: A taxa de apoptose foi maior com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 regulados para baixo e caspase-3 clivada suprarregulada no Grupo IR, em comparação com o Grupo S (p < 0,01). A taxa de apoptose foi menor com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 suprarregulada e caspase-3 clivada sub-regulada no Grupo P, em comparação com o Grupo IR (p < 0,01). Conclusões: O propofol pode reduzir a apoptose de células miocárdicas induzida por lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Entretanto, pode suprarregular o mRNA e a proteína de SERCA2 em ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Propofol/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/biosynthesis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Liver/blood supply , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 396-406, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837708


Abstract Purpose: To determine the effects of propofol and ketamine anesthesia on liver regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy (PHT). Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned randomly to four groups of 10. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol in groups 1 and 2, and with ketamine in groups 3 and 4. PHT was undertaken in groups 1 and 3. Rats in groups 2 and 4 (control groups) underwent an identical surgical procedure, but without PHT. At postoperative day-5, rats were killed. Regenerated liver was removed, weighed, and evaluated (by immunohistochemical means) for expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), apoptosis protease-activating factor (APAF)-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Also, blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Results: Between groups 2 and 4, there were no differences in tissue levels of iNOS, eNOS, and APAF-1 or plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6. eNOS expression was similar in group 1 and group 3. Expression of iNOS and APAF-1 was mild-to-moderate in group 1, but significantly higher in group 3. Groups 1 and 3 showed an increase in PCNA expression, but expression in both groups was comparable. Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 increased to a lesser degree in group 1 than in group 3. Conclusion: Propofol, as an anesthetic agent, may attenuate cytokine-mediated upregulation of iNOS expression and apoptosis in an animal model of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

Animals , Male , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Random Allocation , Propofol/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Rats, Wistar , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Anesthetics, Intravenous/metabolism , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/metabolism , Hepatectomy , Ketamine/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 203-210, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837689


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of cyclosporine A on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia in rats. Methods: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury and transiently induced hyperglycemia by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, 2.5, Wistar rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane or propofol and received intravenous cyclosporine A, 5, five minutes before reperfusion. Comparison groups were isoflurane and propofol sham groups and isoflurane and propofol ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury. Renal tubular cell viability was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry after cell culture and classified as early apoptosis, necrotic cells, and intact cells. Results: Early apoptosis was significantly higher in isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared to both cyclosporine A treated and sham groups. Necrosis percentage was significantly higher in propofol-anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The percentage of intact cells was lower in both, isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury, cyclosporine A, 5, administered five minutes before renal reperfusion in rats with acute-induced hyperglycemia under either isoflurano or propofol anesthesia, attenuated early apoptosis and preserved viability in renal tubular cells, regardless of the anesthetic used.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Premedication , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Ischemia/prevention & control , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 35-41, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843351


Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on oxidative DNA damage that occurs in low-extremity ischemia and is caused by tourniquet application. Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Group S (n = 7) received sevoflurane (2.5-4 percent) inhalation and Group P (n = 7) received a propofol infusion (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), after which a pneumatic tourniquet was placed on the right lower extremity. Blood samples were collected prior to tourniquet placement (baseline), 120 min after ischemia, 15 min after ischemia and 120 minutes (min) after ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed to determine lipid peroxidation, and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to determine DNA damage. Results: At 15 min after ischemia, the MDA levels in Group P (8.15 ± 2.61 µM) were higher than baseline (6.26 ± 3.19 µM, p = 0.026) and Group S (4.98 ± 0.77 µM, p = 0.01). DNA damage was similar in both groups, although DNA damage was higher than baseline (tail moment 0.63 ± 0.27, tail intensity 3.76 ± 1.26) in Group P at the 15th minute of reperfusion (tail moment 1.05 ± 0.45, p = 0.06; tail intensity 5.33 ± 1.56, p = 0.01). The increase in tail moment and tail intensity returned to normal levels in both groups 2 hours after the termination of ischemia. Conclusion: Given that oxidative stress and genotoxic effect disappear in the late stages of reperfusion, we conclude that neither sevoflurane nor propofol can be considered superior to the other in anesthesia practices for extremity surgeries involving the use of a tourniquet.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Comparar os efeitos da anestesia com sevoflurano e propofol sobre o dano oxidativo ao DNA que ocorre na isquemia de extremidade inferior e é causada pela aplicação de torniquete. Métodos: Foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais 14 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Grupo S (n = 7) recebeu inalação de sevoflurano (2,5-4%) e Grupo P (n = 7) recebeu perfusão de propofol (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), logo após um torniquete pneumático foi colocado na extremidade inferior direita. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da colocação do torniquete (fase basal), após 120 minutos de isquemia, 15 minutos após a isquemia e 120 minutos após a isquemia. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) foram analisados para determinar a peroxidação de lipídios e eletroforese em gel de célula única (EGCU) foi usada para determinar o dano ao DNA. Resultados: Aos 15 minutos após a isquemia, os níveis de MDA no Grupo P (8,15 ± 2,61 µM) foram superiores aos da fase basal (6,26 ± 3,19 µM, p = 0,026) e dp Grupo S (4,98 ± 0,77 µM, p = 0,01). O dano causado ao DNA foi semelhante nos dois grupos, embora tenha sido maior do que na fase basal (momento da cauda 0,63 ± 0,27, intensidade da cauda 3,76 ± 1,26) no Grupo P no 15 minutos de reperfusão (momento da cauda 1,05 ± 0,45, p = 0,06; intensidade da cauda 5,33 ± 1,56, p = 0,01). O aumento no momento da cauda e a intensidade da cauda voltaram aos níveis normais nos dois grupos duas horas após o término da isquemia. Conclusão: Como o estresse oxidativo e o efeito genotóxico desaparecem nos estágios finais da reperfusão, concluímos que não há superioridade tanto de sevoflurano quanto de propofol em práticas de anestesia para procedimentos cirúrgicos de extremidades que envolvem o uso de torniquete.

Animals , DNA Damage/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Rabbits , Tourniquets/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Comet Assay , Sevoflurane , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 225-230, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782893


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The vehicle for propofol in 1 and 2% solutions is soybean oil emulsion 10%, which may cause pain on injection, instability of the solution and bacterial contamination. Formulations have been proposed aiming to change the vehicle and reduce these adverse reactions. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of pain caused by the injection of propofol, with a hypothesis of reduction associated with nanoemulsion and the occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects with both formulations. METHOD: After approval by the CEP, patients undergoing gynecological procedures were included in this prospective study: control (n = 25) and nanoemulsion (n = 25) groups. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored. Demographics and physical condition were analyzed; surgical time and total volume used of propofol; local or systemic adverse effects; changes in variables monitored. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data, surgical times, total volume of propofol used, arm withdrawal, pain during injection and variables monitored. There was a statistically significant difference in pain intensity at the time of induction of anesthesia, with less pain intensity in the nanoemulsion group. CONCLUSIONS: Both lipid and nanoemulsion formulations of propofol elicited pain on intravenous injection; however, the nanoemulsion solution elicited a less intense pain. Lipid and nanoemulsion propofol formulations showed neither hemodynamic changes nor adverse effects of clinical relevance.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O veículo do propofol em soluções a 1 e 2% é a emulsão de óleo de soja a 10%, que pode provocar dor à injeção, instabilidade da solução e contaminação bacteriana. Formulações foram propostas com o objetivo de alterar o veículo e reduzir essas reações adversas. OBJETIVOS: Comparar a incidência de dor à injeção do propofol com a hipótese de redução associada à nanoemulsão e a ocorrência de efeitos adversos locais e sistêmicos com as duas formulações. MÉTODO: Após aprovação pelo Conselho de Ética em Pesquisa, foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo pacientes submetidas a procedimentos cirúrgicos ginecológicos: grupos controle (n = 25) e nanoemulsão (n = 25). Foram monitorados frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial não invasiva e saturação periférica de oxigênio. Foram analisados dados demográficos e estado físico; tempo cirúrgico e volume total usado de propofol; efeitos adversos locais ou sistêmicos; alterações nas variáveis de monitoramento. Considerou-se significativo valor de p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a: dados demográficos, tempos cirúrgicos, volume total usado de propofol, retirada do braço, presença de dor durante a injeção e variáveis de monitoramento. Verificou-se diferença estatística significativa na intensidade da dor no momento da indução da anestesia, com menor intensidade no grupo nanoemulsão. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as formulações de propofol, lipídica e em nanoemulsão, elicitaram dor à injeção venosa, porém a solução de nanoemulsão promoveu dor em menor intensidade. O propofol lipídico e o propofol em nanoemulsão não apresentaram alterações hemodinâmicas e efeitos adversos de relevância clínica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pain/prevention & control , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Stearic Acids/pharmacology , Soybean Oil/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Lecithins/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General , Prospective Studies , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Emulsions , Injections, Intravenous/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 237-241, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782887


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Induction of anesthesia is a critical part of anesthesia practice. Sudden hypotension, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse are threatening complications following injection of induction agent in hemodynamically unstable patients. It is desirable to use a safe agent with fewer adverse effects for this purpose. Present prospective randomized study is designed to compare propofol and etomidate for their effect on hemodynamics and various adverse effects on patients in general anesthesia. METHODS: Hundred ASA I and II patients of age group 18-60 years scheduled for elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each receiving propofol (2 mg/kg) and etomidate (0.3 mg/kg) as an induction agent. Vital parameters at induction, laryngoscopy and thereafter recorded for comparison. Adverse effect viz. pain on injection, apnea and myoclonus were carefully watched. RESULTS: Demographic variables were comparable in both the groups. Patients in etomidate group showed little change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) compared to propofol (p > 0.05) from baseline value. Pain on injection was more in propofol group while myoclonus activity was higher in etomidate group. CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that etomidate is a better agent for induction than propofol in view of hemodynamic stability and less pain on injection.

RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A indução é uma parte crítica da prática de anestesia. Hipotensão súbita, arritmias e colapso cardiovascular são complicações ameaçadoras após a injeção de agente de indução em pacientes hemodinamicamente instáveis. É aconselhável o uso de um agente seguro com menos efeitos adversos para esse propósito. O presente estudo prospectivo, randômico, teve como objetivo comparar propofol e etomidato quanto a seus efeitos sobre a hemodinâmica e aos vários efeitos adversos em pacientes sob anestesia geral. MÉTODOS: Cem pacientes ASA I e II, entre 18-60 anos, programados para procedimento cirúrgico eletivo sob anestesia geral, foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 50 cada para receber propofol (2 mg/kg) e etomidato (0,3 mg/kg) como um agente de indução. Os parâmetros vitais na indução, laringoscopia e posteriormente foram registrados para comparação. Efeitos adversos como dor à injeção, apneia e mioclonia foram cuidadosamente monitorados. RESULTADOS: As variáveis demográficas foram comparáveis em ambos os grupos. Os pacientes do grupo etomidato apresentaram pouca alteração da pressão arterial média (PAM) e da frequência cardíaca (FC) em comparação com o grupo propofol (p < 0,05) a partir do valor basal. Houve mais dor à injeção no grupo propofol, enquanto houve mais atividade mioclônica no grupo etomidato. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo conclui que etomidato é um agente melhor para a indução do que o propofol em relação à estabilidade hemodinâmica e menos dor à injeção.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Etomidate/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Middle Aged
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 286-291, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744366


This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

Animals , Mice , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Propofol/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
Clinics ; 69(10): 655-659, 10/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730461


OBJECTIVES: Video laparoscopic bariatric surgery is the preferred surgical technique for treating morbid obesity. However, pneumoperitoneum can pose risks to the kidneys by causing a decrease in renal blood flow. Furthermore, as in other surgical procedures, laparoscopic bariatric surgery triggers an acute inflammatory response. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early and accurate biomarker of renal injury, as well as of the inflammatory response. Anesthetic drugs could offer some protection for the kidneys and could attenuate the acute inflammatory response from surgical trauma. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of two types of anesthetics, propofol and sevoflurane, on the serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin during the perioperative period in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. METHODS: Sixty-four patients scheduled for laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized into two anesthesia groups and were administered either total intravenous anesthesia (propofol) or inhalation anesthesia (sevoflurane). In the perioperative period, blood samples were collected at three time points (before anesthesia, 6 hours after pneumoperitoneum and 24 hours after pneumoperitoneum) and urine output was measured for 24 hours. Acute kidney injuries were evaluated by examining both the clinical and laboratory parameters during the postoperative period. The differences between the groups were compared using non-parametric tests. ReBEC ( RBR-8wt2fy RESULTS: None of the patients developed an acute kidney injury during the study and no significant differences were found between the serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels of the groups during the perioperative period. CONCLUSION: The choice of anesthetic drug, either propofol or sevoflurane, did not affect the serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin during the perioperative ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Lipocalins/blood , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood , Video-Assisted Surgery/methods , Acute-Phase Proteins , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Perioperative Period , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Video-Assisted Surgery/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79640


We investigated the effect of propofol and fentanyl on microelectrode recording (MER) and its clinical applicability during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We analyzed 8 patients with Parkinson's disease, underwent bilateral STN DBS with MER. Their left sides were done under awake and then their right sides were done with a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl under local anesthesia. The electrode position was evaluated by preoperative MRI and postoperative CT. The clinical outcomes were assessed at six months after surgery. We isolated single unit activities from the left and the right side MERs. There was no significant difference in the mean firing rate between the left side MERs (38.7+/-16.8 spikes/sec, n=78) and the right side MERs (35.5+/-17.2 spikes/sec, n=66). The bursting pattern of spikes was more frequently observed in the right STN than in the left STN. All the electrode positions were within the STNs on both sides and the off-time Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores at six months after surgery decreased by 67% of the preoperative level. In this study, a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl did not significantly interfere with the MER signals from the STN. The results of this study suggest that propofol and fentanyl can be used for STN DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving the overall experience of the patients.

Aged , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Deep Brain Stimulation , Electrodes, Implanted , Female , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Microelectrodes , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/prevention & control , Propofol/pharmacology , Severity of Illness Index , Subthalamic Nucleus/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(6): 507-512, 02/jul. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679207


Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

Animals , Rats , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Heat Stroke/complications , Propofol/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Formazans , Heat Stroke/drug therapy , Heat-Shock Response/drug effects , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/microbiology , Intestines/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Necrosis , Tetrazolium Salts
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(3): 235-244, maio-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-675838


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito de esmolol, lidocaína e fentanil na dispersão da onda P (DP), durações dos intervalos QT e QT corrigido (QTc) e as respostas hemodinâmicas à intubação endotraqueal durante a indução com propofol. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 80 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I ou II, idade entre 18 e 60 anos, neste estudo prospectivo, randômico e duplo-cego. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame eletrocardiográfico (ECG) antes da indução da anestesia. Os pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em quatro grupos iguais. O grupo controle (Grupo C) recebeu 5 mL de solução salina; o grupo esmolol (Grupo E) recebeu 0,5 de esmolol; o grupo fentanil (Grupo F) recebeu 2 µ de fentanil e o grupo lidocaína (Grupo L) recebeu 1,5 de lidocaína antes da indução anestésica. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol. ECG foi feito em todos os pacientes durante o primeiro e o terceiro minutos de indução, 3 minutos após a administração de relaxante muscular e 5 e 10 minutos após intubação. A DP e intervalos QT foram medidos em todos os ECGs. Os intervalos QTc foram determinados com o uso da fórmula de Bazett. Frequência cardíaca (FC) e pressão arterial média (PAM) foram registradas antes e depois da indução anestésica, imediatamente após a intubação e em 1, 3, 5, 7 e 10 minutos após a intubação. RESULTADOS: Após a intubação, a FC aumentou significativamente nos Grupos C, L e F em comparação com o grupo controle. Porém, não houve diferença significativa nos valores da FC após a intubação entre os grupos E e controle. Nos Grupos C e L, a PAM aumentou significativamente após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. No entanto, nos Grupos L, F e E não houve diferença significativa entre os valores da PAM após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. A DP foi significativamente mais longa no Grupo C após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. Porém, nos grupos L, F e E não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de DP após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. A duração do intervalo QTc foi significativamente maior nos grupos C e L após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. Porém, não houve diferença significativa na duração do QTc nos grupos F e E após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a administração de esmolol antes da intubação previne a taquicardia, o aumento da PAM e as durações da onda P e intervalo QTc causados pela laringoscopia e intubação traqueal.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In our study we aimed to investigate the effect of esmolol, lidocaine and fentanyl on P-wave dispersion (Pwd), QT and corrected QT (QTc) durations and hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation during propofol induction. METHODS: A total of eighty adult patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status I or II aged 18 to 60 years were included in this prospective, randomised, double-blind study. All patients had control electrocardiograms (ECGs) done before anesthesia induction. The patients were randomised into four equal groups. The control group (Group C) received saline 5 mL, the esmolol group (Group E) received esmolol 0.5, the fentanyl group (Group F) received fentanyl 2 µ and the lidocaine group (Group L) received lidocaine 1.5 before anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous propofol. ECGs for all patients were performed during the 1st and 3rd minutes of induction, 3 minutes after administration of muscle relaxant, and at 5 minutes and 10 minutes after intubation. Pwd and QT intervals were measured on all ECGs. QTc intervals were determined using the Bazett formula. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before and after induction of anesthesia, immediately after intubation, and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 minutes after intubation. RESULTS: Compared with control, HR significantly increased in Group C, Group L and Group F after intubation. However, in Group E, there was no significant difference in HR values between control and after intubation. Compared with control, MAP significantly increased in Group C and Group L after the intubation. However, in Group E and Group F, there was no significant difference in MAP values between control and after the intubation. Compared with control, Pwd significantly increased in Group C after intubation. In Group L, Group F and Group E, there was no significant difference in Pwd values between control and after the intubation. Compared with control, QTc duration significantly increased in Group C and L after the intubation. In Group F and Group E, there was no significant difference in QTc durations between control and after the intubation. CONCLUSION: We concluded that administration of esmolol before intubation prevents tachycardia and an increase in MAP, Pwd and QTc duration caused by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Investigar el efecto del esmolol, lidocaína y fentanilo en la dispersión de la onda P (DOP), duraciones de los intervalos QT y QT corregido (QTc) y las respuestas hemodinámicas a la intubación endotraqueal durante la inducción con propofol. MÉTODOS: En este estudio prospectivo, aleatorio y doble ciego, fueron incluidos 80 pacientes adultos, con estado físico ASA I o II, y edad entre 18 y 60 años. Todos los pacientes se sometieron al examen electrocardiográfico (ECG) antes de la inducción de la anestesia. Los pacientes fueron aleatoriamente divididos en cuatro grupos iguales. El grupo control (Grupo C) recibió 5 mL de solución salina; el grupo esmolol (Grupo E) recibió 0,5 de esmolol; el grupo fentanilo (Grupo F) recibió 2 µ de fentanilo y el grupo lidocaína (Grupo L) recibió 1,5 de lidocaína antes de la inducción anestésica. La anestesia fue inducida con propofol. El ECG se hizo en todos los pacientes durante el primero y el tercer minuto de inducción, 3 minutos después de la administración del relajante muscular y 5 y 10 minutos después de la intubación. La DOP y los intervalos QT se midieron en todos los ECGs. Los intervalos QTc fueron determinados con el uso de la fórmula de Bazett. La frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y la presión arterial promedio (PAP) fueron registradas antes y después de la inducción anestésica, inmediatamente después de la intubación y en 1, 3, 5, 7 y 10 minutos después de la intubación. RESULTADOS: Después de la intubación, la FC aumentó significativamente en los Grupos C, L y F en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencia significativa en los valores de la FC después de la intubación entre los grupos E y control. En los Grupos C y L, la PAP aumentó significativamente después de la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, en los Grupos L, F y E no hubo diferencia significativa entre los valores de la PAP posteriormente a la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. La DOP fue significativamente más larga en el Grupo C después de la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. No obstante, en los grupos L, F y E no hubo diferencia significativa entre los valores de DOP después de la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. La duración del intervalo QTc fue significativamente mayor en los grupos C y L después de la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencia significativa en la duración del QTc en los grupos F y E después de la intubación en comparación con el grupo control. CONCLUSIONES: Llegamos entonces a la conclusión, de que la administración del esmolol antes de la intubación previene la taquicardia, el aumento de la PAP y las duraciones de la onda P e intervalo QTc causados por la laringoscopia y por la intubación traqueal.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 62(4): 492-501, jul.-ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-643843


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Estudos recentes correlacionam mortalidade pós-operatória e anestésica, especialmente a profundidade anestésica e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da profundidade da anestesia venosa total (AVT) realizada com remifentanil e propofol com monitoração da entropia de resposta (RE) sobre as concentrações sanguíneas dos marcadores do estresse oxidativo: TBARS e glutationa, durante operações pelo acesso vídeolaparoscópico. MÉTODO: Vinte pacientes adultas, ASA I, IMC 20-26 kg.m-2, idades entre 20 e 40 anos, foram aleatoriamente distribuidas em dois grupos iguais: Grupo I - submetidas a procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico com RE mantida entre 45 e 59 e Grupo II - submetidas a procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico com RE entre 30 e 44. Em ambos os grupos, a infusão de remifentanil e propofol foi controlada pelo sitio efetor (Se), ajustados para manter RE nos valores desejados (Grupos I e II) e avaliando-se sempre a taxa de supressão (TS). As pacientes foram avaliadas em seis momentos: M1(imediatamente antes da indução anestésica), M2 (antes da intubação traqueal [IT]), M3 (5 minutos após IT), M4 (imediatamente antes do pneumoperitônio-PPT), M5 (1 minuto após o PPT) e M6 (uma hora após a operação). Em todos os momentos foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: PAS, PAD, FC, RE, TS, TBARS e glutationa. RESULTADOS: Observaram-se aumentos no TBARS e glutationa em M5, tanto no Grupo I como no Grupo II (p < 0,05), com maiores valores no Grupo II. TS em três pacientes no Grupo II, imediatamente após PPT. CONCLUSÕES: A elevação dos marcadores no Grupo I (em M5) sugere aumento do metabolismo anaeróbico (MA) na circulação esplâncnica enquanto os valores mais elevados observados no Grupo II (GII > GI em M5 - p < 0,05%) sugerem interferência de mais um fator (anestesia profunda), como responsável pelo aumento no MA, provavelmente como resultados de maior depressão do sistema nervoso autônomo e menor autorregulação esplâncnica.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have correlated postoperative mortality with anesthetic mortality, especially with the depth of anesthesia and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the depth of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) using remifentanil and propofol, performed with monitoring of response entropy (RE) on blood concentrations of oxidative stress markers (TBARS and glutathione) during laparoscopic operations. METHOD: Twenty adult patients, ASA I, BMI 20-26 kg.m-2, aged 20 to 40 years, were randomly distributed into two groups: Group I underwent anesthetic-surgical procedure with RE maintained between 45 and 59, and Group II underwent anesthetic-surgical procedure with RE between 30 and 44. In both groups, the remifentanil and propofol infusion was controlled by the effector site (Es), adjusted to maintain RE desired values (Groups I and II) and always assessing the suppression rate (SR). Patients were evaluated in six periods: M1 (immediately before anesthesia), M2 (before tracheal intubation [TI]), M3 (5-minutes after TI), M4 (immediately before pneumoperitoneum [PPT]), M5 (1-minute after PPT), and M6 (1-hour after the operation). The following parameters were assessed at all times: SBP, DBP, HR, RE, SR, TBARS, and glutathione. RESULTS: We found increases in TBARS and glutathione in M5, both in Group I and Group II (p < 0.05), with higher values in Group II, and SR in three patients in Group II, immediately after PPT. CONCLUSIONS: Increased markers in Group I (M5) suggests an increase in anaerobic metabolism (AM) in the splanchnic circulation while the highest values seen in Group II (GII > GI in M5, p < 0.05%) suggest interference of another factor (deep anesthesia) responsible for the increase in AM, probably as a result of increased autonomic nervous system depression and minor splanchnic self-regulation.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Estudios recientes correlacionan la mortalidad postoperatoria y anestésica, especialmente con la profundidad anestésica y con la presión arterial sistólica (PAS). El objetivo de este estudio, fue evaluar los efectos de la profundidad de la anestesia venosa total (AVT) realizada con el remifentanil y el propofol, con la monitorización de la entropía de respuesta (RE) sobre las concentraciones sanguíneas de los marcadores del estrés oxidativo: TBARS y glutationa, durante operaciones por el acceso videolaparoscópico. MÉTODO: Veinte pacientes adultas, ASA I, IMC 20 y 26 kg.m-2, con edades entre 20 y 40 años, fueron aleatoriamente distribuidas en dos grupos iguales: Grupo I - sometidas a un procedimiento anestésico-quirúrgico con RE mantenida entre 45 y 59, y el Grupo II - sometidas a un procedimiento anestésico-quirúrgico con RE entre 30 y 44. En los dos grupos, la infusión de remifentanil y propofol fue controlada por el sitio efector (Se), ajustados para mantener RE dentro de los valores deseados (Grupos I y II) y evaluando siempre la tasa de supresión (TS). Las pacientes fueron evaluadas en seis momentos: M1 (inmediatamente antes de la inducción anestésica), M2 (antes de la intubación traqueal [IT]), M3 (5 minutos después de la IT), M4 (inmediatamente antes del pneumoperitoneo - PPT), M5 (1 minuto después del PPT) y M6 (una hora después de la operación). En todos los momentos fueron evaluados los siguientes parámetros: PAS, PAD, FC, RE, TS, TBARS y glutationa. RESULTADOS: Fueron observados aumentos en el TBARS y glutationa en M5, tanto en el Grupo I como en el Grupo II (p < 0,05), con mayores valores en el Grupo II. Y la TS en tres pacientes en el Grupo II, inmediatamente después del PPT. CONCLUSIONES: La elevación de los marcadores en el Grupo I (en M5) nos sugiere un aumento del metabolismo anaeróbico (MA) en la circulación espláncnica, mientras que los valores más elevados observados en el Grupo II (GII > GI en M5 - p < 0,05%) sugieren una interferencia de otro factor (anestesia profunda), como siendo la responsable del aumento en el MA, tal vez como resultado de una mayor depresión del sistema nervioso autónomo y una menor autorregulación espláncnica.

Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Laparoscopy , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Entropy , Prospective Studies
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 62(2): 147-153, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618201


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Comparar os efeitos de dexmedetomidina e fentanil sobre as alterações hemodinâmicas em fumantes crônicos do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo prospectivo, randômico e cego. Sessenta pacientes do sexo masculino, tabagistas crônicos, com idades entre 16 e 60 anos foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo D (n = 30) recebeu 1 µ de dexmedetomidina e Grupo F (n = 30) recebeu 3 µ de fentanil em 150 mL de solução salina normal, com início 10 minutos antes da indução da anestesia. Antes da intubação, a frequência cardíaca e a pressão arterial dos pacientes foram medidas. Após a indução da anestesia para intubação endotraqueal, a frequência cardíaca e os valores da pressão arterial foram novamente medidos 1, 3 e 5 minutos após a intubação. RESULTADOS: A frequência cardíaca estava baixa no Grupo D antes da indução da anestesia, intubação e no primeiro e terceiro minutos pósintubação. A pressão arterial sistólica estava baixa no Grupo F antes da intubação. Embora a pressão arterial diastólica estivesse menor antes da indução da anestesia e aos 5 minutos após a intubação em ambos os grupos, ela já estava baixa no Grupo F antes mesmo da intubação. Enquanto a pressão arterial média estava baixa no Grupo D antes da indução anestésica, ela estava baixa no Grupo F antes da intubação. Os valores para o duplo produto (frequência cardíaca vezes pressão arterial sistólica) estavam baixos no Grupo D antes da indução e no 1º e 3º minutos após a intubação. CONCLUSÕES: A dexmedetomidina, aplicada em fumantes crônicos do sexo masculino via infusão a uma dose de 1 µ 10 minutos antes de indução anestésica, controla melhor as elevações da frequência cardíaca e do duplo produto a 1 e 3 minutos após a intubação, comparado ao grupo que recebeu 3 µ de fentanil.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl on hemodynamic changes in chronic male smokers. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Were selected 60 chronic male smokers (aged 16 to 60 years). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group D (n = 30) received 1 µ dexmedetomidine and Group F (n = 30) received 3 µ fentanyl in 150 mL of normal saline, beginning 10 minutes before anesthesia induction. Before intubation, the heart rate and blood pressure of patients were measured. After anesthesia induction for endotracheal intubation, heart rate and blood pressure values were measured at 1, 3, and 5 minutes after intubation. RESULTS: Heart rate was low in Group D before anesthesia induction, intubation, and at the 1st and 3rd minutes after intubation. Systolic arterial pressure was low in Group F before intubation. Although diastolic arterial pressure was lower before anesthesia induction and at 5 minutes after intubation in both groups, it was already low in Group F before intubation. Whereas the mean arterial pressure was low in Group D before anesthesia induction, it was low in Group F before intubation. The values for rate-pressure product were low in Group D before induction and at 1 and 3 minutes after intubation. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine, which was applied via infusion at a loading dose of 1 µ 10 minutes before anesthesia induction in chronic male smokers, better suppressed increases in heart rate and rate-pressure product at 1 and 3 minutes after intubation compared to the group receiving 3 µ fentanyl.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Comparar los efectos de la dexmedetomidina y del fentanil sobre las alteraciones hemodinámicas en fumadores crónicos del sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio prospectivo, randómico y ciego. Sesenta pacientes del sexo masculino, fumadores crónicos, con edades entre los 16 y los 60 años, fueron seleccionados. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: Grupo D (n = 30) recibió 1 µ de dexmedetomidina o 3 µ de fentanil, y el Grupo F (n = 30) que recibió 150 mL de solución salina normal, con inicio 10 minutos antes de la inducción de la anestesia. Antes de la intubación, se mensuraron la frecuencia cardíaca y la presión arterial de los pacientes. Después de la inducción de la anestesia para la intubación endotraqueal, la frecuencia cardíaca y los valores de la presión arterial fueron medidos uno, tres y cinco minutos después de la intubación. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia cardíaca estaba baja en el Grupo D antes de la inducción de la anestesia, de la intubación y en el primero y tercer minutos posintubación. La presión arterial sistólica estaba baja en el Grupo F antes de la intubación. Aunque la presión arterial diastólica fuese menor antes de la inducción de la anestesia y a los cinco minutos después de la intubación en ambos grupos, ella ya estaba baja en el Grupo F antes incluso de la intubación. Mientras la presión arterial promedio estaba baja en el Grupo D antes de la inducción anestésica, estaba baja también en el Grupo F antes de la intubación. Los valores para el doble producto (frecuencia cardíaca por la presión arterial sistólica), eran bajos en el Grupo D antes de la inducción y en el 1º y 3º minutos después de la intubación. CONCLUSIONES: Descubrimos pues, que la dexmedetomidina, que fue aplicada en fumadores crónicos del sexo masculino vía infusión a una dosis de 1 µ 10 minutos antes de la inducción anestésica, controla mejor las elevaciones de la frecuencia cardíaca y del doble producto a uno y tres minutos después de la intubación, comparado al grupo que recibió 3 µ de fentanil.

Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Intubation, Intratracheal , Smoking , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
Acta cir. bras ; 27(2): 172-178, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614538


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of propofol as an inhibitor of tissue injury in testicular ischemia-reperfusion in rats. METHODS: 30 Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups of 10 animals: G1, testicular exposure alone; G2 and G3: testicular ischemia caused by left spermatic cord torsion of 720º. In G3, propofol was administered intraperitoneally at 20 mg/kg/h 45 minutes after spermatic cord torsion. In G2 and G3, spermatic cords were detorsioned after 60 min. In all three groups, testes were subsequently repositioned in the scrotum. After 90 days, bilateral orchiectomy was performed for histological examination. RESULTS: No abnormalities in seminiferous tubules were found in G1. In G2, 86.6 percent of left testes exhibited abnormalities, in contrast with 67.8 percent for right testes. In G3, these proportions were 57.3 percent and 45.6 percent, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between G2 and G3. CONCLUSION: Propofol reduced the tissue damage in rat testes subjected to ischemia-reperfusion caused by spermatic cord torsion.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do propofol como inibidor da lesão tecidual na isquemia-reperfusão testicular em ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em três grupos de 10 animais. G1: apenas exposição testicular. G2 e G3: isquemia testicular por torção do cordão espermático esquerdo a 720º. G3, 45 minutos após a torção do cordão espermático foi administrado propofol 20mg/Kg/hora via intraperitoneal. Após 60 minutos, nos grupos 2 e 3 foram desfeitas as torções dos cordões espermáticos e em seguida os testículos dos animais dos três grupos foram reposicionados no escroto. Após 90 dias foi realizada a orquiectomia bilateral para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Nos túbulos seminíferos do grupo 1 não se encontrou anormalidades. Nos túbulos seminíferos do Grupo 2, as anormalidades foram 86,6 por cento nos testículos esquerdos e 67,8 por cento nos testículos direitos. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando se compararam os testículos dos grupos 2 e 3. CONCLUSÃO: O propofol minimiza a lesão tecidual em testículos de ratos submetidos à isquemia-reperfusão na torção do cordão espermático.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Testis/drug effects , Orchiectomy , Rats, Wistar , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Time Factors , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2011 Jan; 14(1): 6-12
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139555


Remifentanil has a unique pharmacokinetic profile, with a rapid onset and offset of action and a plasmatic metabolism. Its use can be recommended even in patients with renal impairment, hepatic dysfunction or poor cardiovascular function. A potential protective cardiac preconditioning effect has been suggested. Drug-related adverse effects seem to be comparable with other opioids. In cardiac surgery, many randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the potential benefits of the use of remifentanil not only include a profound protection against intraoperative stressful stimuli, but also rapid postoperative recovery, early weaning from mechanical ventilation, and extubation. Remifentanil shows ideal properties of sedative agents being often employed for minimally invasive cardiologic techniques, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation and radio frequency treatment of atrial flutter, or diagnostic procedures such as transesophageal echocardiography. In intensive care units remifentanil is associated with a reduction in the time to tracheal extubation after cessation of the continuous infusion; other advantages could be more evident in patients with organ dysfunction. Effective and safe analgesia can be provided in case of short and painful procedures (i.e. chest drain removal). In conclusion, thanks to its peculiar properties, remifentanil will probably play a major role in critically ill cardiac patients.

Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Anesthesia/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Critical Illness , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Piperidines/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.1): 66-71, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600661


PURPOSE: To evaluate the metabolic and oxidative effects of sevoflurane and propofol in children undergoing surgery for correction of congenital heart disease. METHODS: Twenty children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, age range 1 day to 14 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Group GP, programmed to receive total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and group GS scheduled to use balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane. Exclusion criteria were cyanotic heart disease or complex, association with other malformations, severe systemic diseases, infection or children undergoing treatment and palliative or emergency surgery. Blood samples were collected at three different time-points: T0, after radial artery cannulation, T1, 30 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) launch and T2, at the end of procedure. Parameters analyzed included thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GLN), lactate and pyruvate plasmatic concentrations. RESULTS: TBARS, GSH, lactate and pyruvate concentrations did not change significantly by Friedman´s test. Lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P) was >10 in both groups. There was a moderate Pearson correlation for TBARS, in T1 (r=0.50; p=0.13) e T2 (r=0.51;p=0.12). Pearson correlation was high between groups during CPB (T1) for lactate (r=0.68; p=0.02), pyruvate (r=0.75; p=0.01) and L/P ratio (r=0.83; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Anesthetic techniques investigated in this study showed a similar pattern, with no increase in metabolic substrates and oxidative stress during surgical correction of congenital heart defects in non-cyanotic children.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos metabólicos e oxidativos da anestesia com sevoflurano ou propofol em crianças portadoras de cardiopatia congênita, submetidas à cirurgia eletiva. MÉTODOS: Vinte crianças com cardiopatia congênita acianótica, agendadas para a cirurgia cardíaca eletiva com circulação extracorpórea (CEC), idades 1 dia-14 anos, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo GP (anestesia venosa total com propofol) e grupo GS (anestesia balanceada com sevoflurano). Critérios de exclusão foram: doença cardíaca cianótica ou complexa, associação com outras malformações, doença sistêmica grave, infecção ou crianças submetidas a tratamento e cuidados paliativos ou cirurgia de emergência. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em três horários diferentes: T0, após a canulação da artéria radial, T1, 30 minutos após o início da CEC e T2, no final do procedimento. Parâmetros analisados: substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), glutationa (GLN), lactato e piruvato. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de TBARS, GSH, lactato e piruvato não foram diferentes (teste de Friedman). A razão Lactato/piruvato (L/P) foi >10 em ambos os grupos. Houve uma correlação de Pearson moderada no TBARS, em T1 (r = 0,50, p = 0,13) e T2 (r = 0,51, p = 0,12). A correlação de Pearson foi alta entre os grupos durante a CEC (T1) para lactato (r=0,68, p=0,02), piruvato (r=0,75, p=0,01) e relação L/P (r =0,83, p=0,003). CONCLUSÃO: As técnicas anestésicas investigadas mostraram um padrão semelhante, sem aumento de substratos metabólicos ou do estresse oxidativo durante a correção cirúrgica de cardiopatias congênitas em crianças acianóticas.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Glutathione/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Pyruvic Acid/blood , Time Factors , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 60(5): 475-483, set.-out. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560677


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Uso clínico de formulação lipídica de propofol causa dor durante injeção, reação alérgica e crescimento microbiano. Propofol tem sido reformulado em diferentes apresentações não lipídicas para reduzir os efeitos adversos, mas essas mudanças podem modificar sua farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica. Neste trabalho, investigamos a farmacologia e a toxicologia do propofol lipídico (CLP) e da nanoemulsão não lipídica (NLP). MÉTODO: CLP and NLP foram infundidos na veia jugular de ratos sob medida da pressão arterial (PA), frequência cardíaca (FC) e frequência respiratória (FR). Ambas as formulações (1 por cento) foram infundidas (40 µL.min-1) durante 1 hora. Doses hipnóticas e anestésicas, assim como recuperações, foram determinadas. A dor induzida pelo veículo do CLP e NLP foi comparada por meio da contagem do número de contorções abdominais ("writhing test") após injeção intraperitonial (i.p.) em camundongos. Ácido acético (0,6 por cento) foi usado como controle positivo. RESULTADOS: As doses hipnóticas e anestésicas com 1 por cento CLP (6,0 ± 1,3 e 17,8 ± 2,6, respectivamente) e 1 por cento NLP (5,4 ± 1,0 e 16,0 ± 1,4, respectivamente) não foram significativamente diferentes. A recuperação da hipnose e da anestesia foi mais rápida com NLP do que com CLP. As alterações de FC, PA e FR causadas pelo NLP não foram significativamente diferentes das do CLP. Ácido acético e veículo do CLP provocaram 46,0 ± 2,0 e 12,5 ± 0,6 contorções em 20 min após injeção i.p., respectivamente. Observou-se ausência de contorções abdominais com veículo de NLP. Nenhuma resposta inflamatória abdominal foi notada com a injeção i.p. de ambos os veículos de propofol. CONCLUSÕES: O NLP pode representar melhor alternativa do que o CLP para anestesia venosa com menores efeitos adversos.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical use of a lipid propofol formulation causes pain during injection, allergic reactions, and bacterial growth. Propofol has been reformulated in different non-lipid presentations to reduce the incidence of adverse effects, but those changes can modify its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In the present study, we investigate the pharmacology and toxicology of lipid propofol (CLP) and the non-lipid nanoemulsion (NLP). METHODS: Conventional lipid formulation of propofol and NLP were infused in the jugular veins of rats and blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were measured. Both formulations (1 percent) were infused (40 µL.min-1) over 1 hour. Hypnotic and anesthetic doses as well as recoveries were determined. The pain induced by the CLP and NLP vehicles was compared by counting the number of abdominal contortions ("writhing test") after the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in mice. Acetic acid (0.6 percent) was used as positive control. RESULTS: Hypnotic and anesthetic doses of 1 percent CLP (6.0 ± 1.3 and 17.8 ± 2.6, respectively) and 1 percent NLP (5.4 ± 1.0 and 16.0 ± 1.4, respectively) were not significantly different. Recovery from hypnosis and anesthesia was faster with NLP than with CLP. Changes in HR, BP, and RR caused by NLP were not significantly different from those caused by CLP. Acetic acid and the vehicle of CLP caused 46.0 ± 2.0 and 12.5 ± 0.6 abdominal contortions 20 min after i.p. injection, respectively. The absence of abdominal contractions was observed with the vehicle of NLP. Abdominal inflammatory response was not observed after the i.p. injection of both propofol vehicles. CONCLUSIONS: Non-lipid formulation of propofol can be a better alternative to CPL for intravenous anesthesia with fewer adverse effects.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El uso clínico de la formulación lipídica del propofol, causa dolor durante la inyección, reacción alérgica y crecimiento microbiano. El propofol ha sido reformulado en diferentes presentaciones no lipídicas para reducir los efectos adversos, pero esos cambios pueden modificar su farmacocinética y farmacodinámica. En este trabajo, investigamos la farmacología y la toxicología del propofol lipídico (CLP) y de la nanoemulsión no lipídica (NLP). MÉTODO: El CLP y el NLP fueron infundidos en la vena yugular de ratones midiendo la presión arterial (PA), frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y frecuencia respiratoria (FR). Las dos formulaciones (1 por ciento) fueron infundidas (40 µL.min-1) durante 1 hora. Dosis hipnóticas y anestésicas y recuperaciones, fueron determinadas. El dolor inducido por el vehículo del CLP y NLP se comparó por medio del conteo del número de contorciones abdominales ("writhing test") después de la inyección intraperitoneal en ratones. El ácido acético (0,6 por ciento) fue usado como control positivo. RESULTADOS: Las dosis hipnóticas y anestésicas con 1 por ciento CLP (6,0 ± 1,3 y 17,8 ± 2,6, respectivamente) y 1 por ciento NLP (5,4 ± 1,0 y 16,0 ± 1,4, respectivamente), no fueron significativamente diferentes. La recuperación de la hipnosis y de la anestesia fue más rápida con NLP que con CLP. Las alteraciones de FC, PA y FR causadas por el NLP no fueron significativamente diferentes de las del CLP. El ácido acético y el vehículo del CLP provocaron 46,0 ± 2,0 y 12,5 ± 0,6 contorciones en 20 minutos después de la inyección i.p., respectivamente. No se observaron contorciones abdominales con vehículo de NLP. Ninguna respuesta inflamatoria abdominal fue notada con la inyección i.p. de los dos vehículos de propofol. CONCLUSIONES: El NLP puede representar una mejor alternativa que el CLP para la anestesia venosa, con menores efectos adversos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/toxicity , Emulsions , Nanostructures , Propofol/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 60(4): 438-444, jul.-ago. 2010.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-554332


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que o uso do propofol é, algumas vezes, associado a bradiarritmias ou reversão de arritmias para ritmo sinusal. Essa propriedade do propofol sugere interferência no Sistema de Condução Cardíaco (SCC). CONTEÚDO: Realizou-se revisão com base nos principais artigos contemporâneos que englobam o uso do propofol na presença de arritmias cardía cas. Os autores discorrem sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos das taquiarritmias supraventriculares (TSV) e as eventuais interferências causadas pelo propofol sobre o SCC. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos realizados até então parecem indicar que, provavelmente, o propofol interfere nas TSV automáticas (pelo menos em crianças), mas não nas taquiarritmias em que o mecanismo seja de reentrada.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some studies have demonstrated that the use of propofol is occasionally associated with bradyarrhythmias or reversion of arrhythmias to sinus rhythm. This property of propofol suggests interference with the Cardiac Conduction System (CCS). CONTENTS: A review of the main contemporary articles on the use of propofol in the presence of cardiac arrhythmias was undertaken. The authors describe pathophysiological mechanisms of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) and occasional interferences caused by propofol on the CCS. CONCLUSIONS: The studies undertaken so far seem to indicate that propofol probably interferes in automatic SVT (at least in children), but not in reentrant tachyarrhythmias.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Algunos estudios han demostrado que el uso del propofol es algunas veces, asociado a bradiarritmias o a reversión de arritmias para ritmo sinusal. Esa propiedad del propofol nos sugiere una interferencia en el Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco (SCC). CONTENIDO: Se realizó una revisión en base a los principales artículos contemporáneos que engloban el uso del propofol cuando ocurren arritmias cardíacas. Los autores nos hablan sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de las taquiarritmias supraventriculares y las eventuales interferencias causadas por el propofol sobre el SCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Los estudios realizados hasta ahora parecen indicar que probablemente, el propofol interfiere en las TSV automáticas (por lo menos en niños), pero no en las taquiarritmias en que el mecanismo sea de reentrada.

Animals , Humans , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology
Ciênc. rural ; 39(5): 1438-1444, ago. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521193


Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório e analgésico da infusão contínua com propofol e propofol/cetamina em cadelas pré-medicadas com atropina e xilazina, submetidas a ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Em seis cadelas (GP) a indução anestésica foi realizada com propofol (5mg kg-1 iv), seguido da manutenção anestésica com o mesmo fármaco em infusão contínua intravenosa na taxa inicial de 0,4mg kg-1.min-1. Outras seis cadelas (GPC) receberam a associação de propofol (3,5mg kg-1 iv) e cetamina (1mg kg-1 iv) como indução anestésica. Depois, foi feita manutenção anestésica em infusão contínua intravenosa inicial com 0,28mg kg-1.min-1 e 0,06mg kg-1.min-1 de propofol e cetamina, respectivamente. Os seguintes parâmetros foram mensurados durante a anestesia a cada 10 minutos: freqüências cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (f), pressão arterial sistólica, média e diastólica (PA), concentração final expirada de CO2 (EtCO2), volume minuto (VM), pressão parcial de gás carbônico (PaCO2), pressão parcial de oxigênio (PaO2), saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SatO2), pH, bicarbonato, glicemia e temperatura retal (T). Observou-se redução da pressão arterial média entre 20 e 40 minutos de anestesia no GP. Ocorreu redução da temperatura, hipercapnia e acidose respiratória em ambos os grupos durante a anestesia. A PaO2, o bicarbonato e a glicose aumentaram de forma significativa apenas no GPC durante a anestesia. Houve necessidade de aumentar em 50 e 20 por cento a taxa de infusão de propofol no GP e GPC respectivamente para anestesia cirúrgica satisfatória. Dessa forma, ambos os protocolos mostraram-se seguros e suficientes do ponto de vista de anestesia cirúrgica para realização da OSH em cadelas, desde que a ventilação assistida ou controlada seja instituída quando necessária e a velocidade de infusão do propofol seja 0,6 e 0,34mg kg-1.min-1 nos grupos GP e GPC, respectivamente.

This study aimed to investigate the cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of propofol and propofol/ketamine infusion in bitches premedicated with atropine and xylazine and submitted to ovariohisterectomy. In six bitches, anesthesia was induced by 5mg kg-1of propofol and maintained initially with 0.4mg kg-1.min-1 of propofol (GP). In the other six bitches, anesthesia was induced with a combination of 3.5mg kg-1 propofol and 1mg kg-1 of ketamine and maintained initially with 0.28mg kg-1.min-1 propofol and 0.06mg kg-1.min-1 of ketamine (GPK). Heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, end tidal CO2, pulse hemoglobin O2 saturation, blood gas analysis, plasma glucose concentration and temperature were measured before and every 10 minutes during anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure reduced from 20 to 40 minutes of propofol anesthesia. Temperature reduction and hypercapnia with respiratory acidosis occurred in both groups during anesthesia. PaO2, bicarbonate and glucose increased only during propofol/ketamine anesthesia. Propofol infusion rate was increased by 50 and 20 percent during anesthesia in GP and GPK respectively to allow satisfactory surgical anesthesia. Both anesthetic protocols were safe and adequate for ovariohysterectomy in bitches, considering that controlled ventilation is performed when necessary and propofol infusion rate is adjusted to 0,.6 and 0.34mg kg-1.min-1 in GP and GPK according to the surgical stimulus.

Animals , Female , Dogs , Anesthesia, General/veterinary , Anesthesia, Intravenous/veterinary , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Propofol/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System , Respiratory System