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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.244-251, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349504
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 346-352, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347293

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de embolia pulmonar, seu relacionamento com os níveis de dímero D e outros possíveis fatores associados, além dos efeitos adversos da anticoagulação e meios de contraste. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em um hospital público chileno. Foram incluídos os pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos com COVID-19, mecanicamente ventilados na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos entre março e junho de 2020. Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia com heparina, que foi aumentada até uma dose de anticoagulação com níveis de dímero D acima de 3µg/mL. Resultados: Foram acompanhados 127 pacientes, dos quais 73 foram submetidos à angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (média de idade de 54 ± 12 anos; 49 homens). Sessenta e dois dos 73 pacientes (84,9%) receberam anticoagulação total antes da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada. Além disso, 18 dos 73 pacientes tiveram embolia pulmonar (24,7%). Na comparação entre pacientes com e sem embolia pulmonar, não se observaram diferenças significantes em termos de idade, sexo, obesidade, tabagismo, escores de Wells e Genebra revisado, dímero D ou mortalidade. O uso de anticoagulantes foi similar em ambos os grupos. O número de dias desde o início da anticoagulação até a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi significantemente menor no grupo com embolia pulmonar (p = 0,002). Três pacientes tiveram lesão renal aguda após o contraste (4,1%), e um paciente teve sangramento importante. Conclusão: Apesar da anticoagulação, um em cada quatro pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à ventilação mecânica e avaliados com angiografia por tomografia computadorizada apresentou embolia pulmonar. Com uma maior demora para realização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada após início de anticoagulação empírica, identificou-se um número significantemente menor de embolias


Abstract Objective: To assess pulmonary embolism incidence, its relationship with D-dimer levels and other possible associated factors in addition to anticoagulation and contrast medium adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study at a Chilean public hospital was performed. Intensive care unit mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients older than 18 years old between March and June 2020 were included. All patients received heparin thromboprophylaxis, which was increased to the anticoagulation dose with D-dimer greater than 3µg/mL. Results: A total of 127 patients were followed up, of whom 73 underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (mean age, 54 ± 12 years; 49 men). Sixty-two of the 73 patients (84.9%) received full anticoagulation before computed tomography angiography. In addition, 18 of the 73 patients had pulmonary embolism (24.7%). When comparing patients with and without pulmonary embolism, no significant differences were observed in age, sex, obesity, smoking, Wells and revised Geneva scores, D-dimer or mortality. Anticoagulant use was similar in both groups. Days from the start of anticoagulation until computed tomography angiography were significantly lower in the pulmonary embolism group (p = 0.002). Three patients presented post contrast-acute kidney injury (4.1%), and one patient had major bleeding. Conclusion: Despite anticoagulation, one in four COVID-19 patients connected to mechanical ventilation and evaluated with pulmonary computed tomography angiography had pulmonary embolism. With a longer the delay in performing computed tomography angiography once empirical anticoagulation was started, significantly less pulmonary embolism was identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
4.
Clinics ; 76: e2518, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153969

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombosis , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880645

ABSTRACT

Anticoagulation drugs should be used for patients with mechanical heart valve (MHV) in case of potential risk of thrombosis. Pregnant women with MHV have to change therapies due to teratogenic effect of some anti-coagulation drugs. European Society of Cardiology clinical guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy gives specific suggestions for anticoagulation therapy.We have treated 2 patients with mechanical heart valve thrombosis (MVT) during pregnancy: One received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) throughout the pregnancy and developed MVT at the third trimester of pregnancy; one developed MVT at the first trimester when replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKA) with LMWH. These patients raised secondary reflection on the balance between clinical guideline and personalized medicine. During LMWH therapy, we should dynamically monitor patients' anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) level to evaluate coagulation function during pregnancy. When a pregnant woman with MHV develops symptoms of acute heart failure, stuck mechanical valve should be paid attention to and surgery should be promptly performed if necessary.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valves , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 717-718, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131352

ABSTRACT

Resumo Baixas doses de edoxabana e enoxaparina sódica foram objeto de uma comparação retrospectiva implementada com a técnica do escore de propensão a fim de mitigar os efeitos das diferenças nas características clínicas basais de duas coortes e minimizar o risco de viés. Posteriormente, usando um modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox, avaliou-se a associação de cada tipo de terapia com o risco do composto de morte por todas as causas, acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, hospitalizações e ocorrência de sangramentos maiores. Para essa análise, um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. A terapia com enoxaparina e cirrose hepática como causadora de trombocitopenia estiveram associadas ao aumento do risco do endpoint composto (enoxaparina: hazard ratio (HR): 3,31; IC 95%: 1,54 a 7,13; p = 0,0023; cirrose hepática, HR: 1,04; 95% CI: 1,002 a 1,089; p = 0,0410). Por outro lado, a terapia com edoxabana mostrou-se significativamente associada à diminuição do risco do endpoint composto (HR: 0,071; 95% CI: 0,013 a 0,373; p = 0,0019). Com base nessa análise retrospectiva, o edoxaban em doses baixas seria uma ferramenta farmacológica segura e eficaz para a profilaxia de eventos cardioembólicos em pacientes com FA e trombocitopenia.


Abstract Low-dose edoxaban and enoxaparin sodium have been the subject of a retrospective comparison implemented with the propensity score technique in order to mitigate the effects of the differences in the basal clinical features of two cohorts and minimize the risk of bias. Subsequently, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the association of each type of therapy with the risk of the composite of all-cause death, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hospitalizations and major bleeding events was assessed. For this analysis, a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Therapy with enoxaparin and liver cirrhosis as causing thrombocytopenia were associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint (enoxaparin: hazard ratio (HR): 3.31; 95% CI: 1.54 to 7.13; p = 0.0023; liver cirrhosis, HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.089; p = 0.0410). Conversely, edoxaban therapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.071; 95% CI: 0.013 to 0.373; p = 0.0019). Based on this retrospective analysis, edoxaban at low doses would appear as an effective and safe pharmacological tool for the prophylaxis of cardioembolic events in patients with AF and thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 364-387, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137197

ABSTRACT

Abstract The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guideline, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have presented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narrative review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrombotic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade.


Resumo Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioperatório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprovados pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações conflitantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa e feitas declarações de consenso. Elas foram projetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decorrentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Brazil , Risk Factors , Perioperative Care/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(4): 218-227, Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137824

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To identify current strategies and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis associated with the pregnancy-puerperal cycle, a condition of high morbidity and mortality among women. Methods The literature search was performed between May and October 2019, using the PubMed database, including papers published in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The terms thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) were used as descriptors, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and guidelines published from 2009 to 2019, presenting strategies for prevention of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum. Results Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Many studies evaluated were excluded because they did not address prevention strategies. We compiled the recommendations from the American Society of Hematologists, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, the American College of Chest Physicians and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusion: There are some gaps in the research, and clinical studies with appropriate methodology are needed to support decisions made regarding the risk of thromboembolism in the perigestational period. Thus, the attention of the professionals involved in the care of pregnant and postpartum women is crucial, as it is a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality.


Resumo Objetivo Identificar as estratégias e recomendações atuais para profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso associado ao ciclo gravídico-puerperal, condição de alta morbimortalidade entre mulheres. Métodos A busca na literatura ocorreu entre maio e outubro de 2019, com pesquisa na base de dados do PubMed, contemplando trabalhos publicados nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Os termos thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) foram utilizados como descritores, incluindo ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises, revisões sistemáticas e diretrizes publicadas entre 2009 a 20019, apresentando estratégias de prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso durante a gravidez e o pós-parto. Resultados Oito artigos abordando estratégias de tromboprofilaxia primária e secundária durante a gestação, parto e puerpério foram selecionados para a presente revisão sistemática. Muitos estudos avaliados foram excluídos por não abordarem estratégias de prevenção. Foram compiladas as recomendações das seguintes sociedades: American Society of Hematologists, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, American College of Chest Physicians e Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusão Até o presente momento, há algumas lacunas e estudos clínicos com metodologia adequada se fazem necessários para respaldar a tomada de decisão frente ao risco de tromboembolismo venoso no período perigestacional. Torna-se fundamental a atenção dos profissionais envolvidos no atendimento às gestantes e puérperas, pois trata-se de uma condição associada a alta morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/drug therapy , Postpartum Period , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(6): 507-511, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058310

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Diversas patologías requieren de tratamiento anticoagulante oral (TACO). Algunos de estos pacientes requieren resolución quirúrgica. El manejo perioperatorio de estos pacientes es variable dependiendo del centro. Objetivos: Evaluar la morbilidad y mortalidad del protocolo de manejo de patología herniaria en TACO, atendidos en nuestro hospital. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo de 37 pacientes sometidos a cirugía herniaria en TACO entre 2008-2016. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la base de datos computacional del Equipo de Hernias, con un seguimiento mínimo de 1 mes. Se evaluaron las características clínicas, quirúrgicas y la morbimortalidad postoperatoria. El traslape consistió en hospitalizar al paciente tres días previos a la cirugía, suspendiéndose el TACO e iniciando heparina de bajo peso molecular (HBPM) en dosis terapéuticas, que se suspende 24 h previas a la cirugía. Se reinicia la HPBM a las 12 a 24 h postoperatorias, y se inicia el traslape a TACO a las 24-48 h. Los datos fueron analizados con Stata v14. Resultados: De los 37 pacientes estudiados, veintiséis pacientes fueron hombres (70,2%), la media de edad fue de 67,3 años. El 48,7% tenían fibrilación auricular. El 100% consumía acenocumarol como TACO. La media en el inicio del traslape a la anticoagulación oral fue de 1,4 días. El promedio de INR al momento del alta fue de 2,04. Dos pacientes fueron dados de alta con dalteparina. Un paciente (2,7%), presentó dolor en el postoperatorio inmediato y uno (2,7%), equimosis del sitio quirúrgico. Conclusiones: El protocolo de trabajo utilizado, demostró ser seguro, con una mínima morbilidad postoperatoria.


Introduction: Various pathologies require oral anticoagulant treatment (TACO). Some of these patients present pathologies of surgical resolution. The perioperative management of these patients is variable depending on the center. Aim: To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of patients attended with hernia pathology and TACO, assisted in our hospital. Materials and Method: Prospective, descriptive study of 37 patients submmited to hernia surgery in TACO between 2008-2016. The data was obtained from the computer database of the Hernia Team, with a minimum follow-up of 1 month. Clinical, surgical characteristics and postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated. The treatment overlap from TACO to Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) in therapeutic doses, was initiated three days before surgery. LMWH was suspended 24 hours prior to surgery, and reinitiated 12 to 24 hours post operation. 48 to 72 hours TACO was resumed. The data was analyzed with Stata v14. Results: Twenty-six patients were men, the mean age was 67.3 years. 48.7% had atrial fibrillation. 100% consumed acenocoumarol as TACO. The mean time for resuming TACO after surgery was 1.4 days. The average INR at the time of discharge was 2.04. Two patients were discharged with dalteparin. One patient (2.7%) presented pain in the immediate postoperative period and one showed ecchymosis of the surgical site (2.7%). Conclusions: The work protocol used, proved to be safe, with minimal postoperative morbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Herniorrhaphy/adverse effects , Herniorrhaphy/mortality , Hernia/complications , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 382-392, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149097

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La llegada de los anticoagulantes directos (ACD) ha supuesto un cambio en el tratamiento de la fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV) en los últimos años. Los objetivos de este estudio son determinar el grado de control de la anticoagulación con antivitamina K (AVK) y su posible implicación en efectos cardiovasculares adversos mayores (ECAM) y evaluar las diferencias entre el grupo en tratamiento con AVK respecto del grupo con ACD. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que incluyó a pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados con FANV valorados en el Servicio de Cardiología con un seguimiento de 18 meses. Se analizaron diferencias demográficas, clínicas y analíticas entre grupos, incluido el grado de control de la anticoagulación del grupo AVK y su posible relación con ECAM. Resultados: Se incluyó a 273 pacientes: 46.5% tratados con AVK, 42.5% con ACD y 11% sin tratamiento anticoagulante. El control de la anticoagulación con AVK fue del 62.1%, sin diferencias en ECAM en función de control. El grupo ACD presentó menos ECAM que el grupo de AVK (13.4 vs. 4.3%; HR, 0.90; 0.83-0.98; p = 0.01), con una menor mortalidad cardiovascular (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) y total (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p menor que 0,01), aunque sin diferencias significativas en eventos hemorrágicos (0.9 vs. 4.7%; p = 0.07) ni isquémicos (2.6 vs. 0.8%; p = 0.27). Discusión: Los pacientes con AVK poseen un perfil clínico diferente en comparación con los que reciben ACD. El control de anticoagulación del grupo de AVK fue inadecuado en casi la mitad de los casos. El grupo de AVK presentó más ECAM que el grupo de ACD.


Abstract Introduction: The arrival of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to a change in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in recent years. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and its possible involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and to evaluate differences between the group on VKA with respect to the group on DOACs. Patients and methods: Prospective cohort study that included consecutive patients diagnosed with NVAF in Cardiology Consultations with a clinical follow-up of 18 months. Demographic, clinical and analytical differences between groups were analyzed, including the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation on the VKA group and its association with MACE. Results: Overall, 273 patients were included: 46.5% on VKA, 42.5% on DOACs, 11% without antithrombotic treatment. Patients on VKA spent 62.1% of their time within therapeutic range (TTR by the Rosendaal formule). There were no differences in MACE depending on anticoagulation control. The DOACs group presented lesser MACE rate than the VKA group (13.4 vs. 4.3%; 0.90; HR 0.90; 0.83-0.98 p = 0.01) with lower cardiovascular mortality (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) and total mortality (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p less 0.01) although without significant differences in hemorrhagic (0.9 vs. 4.7 %; p = 0.07), or ischemic events (2.6 vs. 0.8%, p = 0.27). Conclusions: Patients on VKA have a different clinical profile than those who receive DOACs. Patients on VKA have an inadequate control of the anticoagulation in quite the half of the cases. The VKA group presented more MACE than the DOACs group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Administration, Oral , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 712-721, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an alternative therapy for atrial fibrillation patients who have high embolic risk and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of percutaneous LAA occlusion, including device-related thrombosis. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous LAA occlusion with AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ device from September 2015 to March 2018 were enrolled. Patients were followed for 21 ± 15 months (median - 20 months, interquartile range - 9 to 27 months). The postprocedural assessment was done at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th) month. Patients were clinically evaluated, and transesophageal echocardiography was performed at each visit. We evaluated the condition of normality of variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. P-values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The most common indication for the procedure was major bleeding with anticoagulants (n: 53, 88.3%). The procedure was completed successfully in 59 (98.3%) patients. Periprocedural mortality was observed in one patient. Postprocedural antiplatelet treatment was planned as dual or single antiplatelet therapy or low-dose anticoagulant therapy in 52 (88.1%), 2 (3.4%), and 5 (8.5%) patients, respectively. We found no clinically significant cerebrovascular events, device-related thrombus, or embolization in any patient during the follow-up. Two (3.4 %) patients presented significant peri-device leak (>3 mm) at the 1st month evaluation, which disappeared at the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that LAA occlusion using the Amulet™ LAA occluder can be performed with high procedural success and acceptable outcomes.


Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) é uma terapia alternativa para pacientes com fibrilação atrial que tenham alto risco embólico e contraindicações à terapia anticoagulante. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade, segurança e resultados de médio prazo da oclusão percutânea do AAE, incluindo a trombose relacionada à prótese. Métodos: Sessenta pacientes consecutivos que foram submetidos à oclusão percutânea do AAE com a prótese AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ de setembro de 2015 a março de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 15 meses (mediana - 20 meses, intervalo interquartílico - 9 a 27 meses). A avaliação pós-procedimento foi feita no 1º, 6º e 12º mês. Os pacientes foram examinados clinicamente e um ecocardiograma transesofágico foi realizado a cada visita. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A indicação mais comum para o procedimento foi sangramento significativo com anticoagulantes (n: 53, 88,3%). O procedimento foi concluído com sucesso em 59 (98,3%) pacientes. Mortalidade peri-procedimento ocorreu em um paciente. A tratamento antiplaquetário pós-procedimento foi planejado como terapia antiplaquetária única ou dupla ou terapia anticoagulante de dose baixa em 52 (88,1%), 2 (3,4%) e 5 (8,5%) pacientes, respectivamente. Não foram encontrados eventos cerebrovasculares clinicamente significativos, trombo relacionado à prótese ou embolização nos pacientes durante o seguimento. Dois (3,4%) pacientes apresentaram vazamento peri-prótese significativo (>3 mm) na avaliação do 1º mês, que desapareceu no 12º mês de seguimento. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a oclusão do AAE com o oclusor de AAE Amulet™ pode ser realizada com grande sucesso e resultados aceitáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Risk Assessment , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
16.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1312-1318, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, BDENF, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1022225

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study's purpose has been to relate the drug interactions of oral anticoagulants with other medications used by elderly people hospitalized in a cardiology hospital. Methods: It is a prospective exploratory study with 16 elderly people taking oral anticoagulant, who were hospitalized at a governmental cardiology institution in São Paulo State over the period from November to December 2017. Results: Among 73 medicines prescribed and analyzed in the Micromedex 2.0, 24 (33.3%) interacted with Warfarin, the only prescribed oral anticoagulant. There were found Omeprazole (70; 97.2%); Dipyrone (68; 94.4%); Simvastatin (43; 59.72%); Enoxaparin (42; 58.33%); Amiodarone (29; 40.27%); Sertraline (28; 38.88%); Spironolactone (21; 29.16%); and Atenolol (11; 15.27%), whose interactions could either potentialize or inhibit the anticoagulant action. Considering the interactions, 14 (58.33%) were of moderate severity, 10 (41.66%) of high severity and 14 (58.33%) of fast effect. Conclusion: Polypharmacy and the use of oral anticoagulants in elderly patients bearing heart diseases are common events. Moreover, a better understanding about drug interactions is also required, bearing in mind that they can either potentialize or decrease the anticoagulant effect, with high or moderate severity


Objetivo: Relacionar as interações medicamentosas dos anticoagulantes orais com os medicamentos utilizados por idosos internados em hospital cardiológico. Método: Estudo exploratório, prospectivo, com 16 idosos em uso de anticoagulantes orais, internados numa instituição cardiológica governamental de São Paulo entre novembro e dezembro de 2017. Resultados: Dentre 73 medicamentos prescritos e analisados no Micromedex 2.0, 24 (33,3%) interagiam com a Varfarina, único anticoagulante oral prescrito. Encontrou-se Omeprazol (70;97,2%); Dipirona (68;94,4%); Sinvastatina (43;59,72%); Enoxaparina (42;58,33%); Amiodarona (29;40,27%); Sertralina (28;38,88%); Espironolactona (21;29,16%); e Atenolol (11;15,27%), cujas interações poderiam potencializar ou inibir a ação anticoagulante. Das interações, 14 (58,33%) eram de gravidade moderada, 10 (41,66%) maior e 14 (58,33%) de efeito rápido. Conclusão: A polifarmácia e o uso de anticoagulante oral em idosos cardiopatas é comum e, conhecer as interações medicamentosas, é imperativa, considerando que potencializam ou diminuem a ação anticoagulante, com gravidade maior ou moderada


Objetivo: Relacionar las interacciones medicamentosas de los anticoagulantes orales con los medicamentos utilizados por ancianos internados em um hospital cardiológico. Método:Estudio exploratorio, prospectivo, con 16 ancianos en uso de anticoagulantes orales, internados en una institución cardiológica gubernamental de São Paulo entre noviembre y diciembre de 2017. Resultados:Entre 73 medicamentos prescritos y analizados en el Micromedex 2.0, 24 (33,3%) interactuaban con la Varfarina, único anticoagulante oral prescrito. Se encontró Omeprazol (70, 97,2%); Dipirona (68, 94,4%); Sinvastatina (43, 59,72%); Enoxaparina (42, 58,33%); Amiodarona (29, 40,27%); Sertralina (28, 38,88%); Espironolactona (21, 29,16%); y Atenolol (11, 15,27%), cuyas interacciones podrían potenciar o inhibir la acción anticoagulante. De las interacciones, 14 (58,33%) eran de gravedad moderada, 10 (41,66%) mayor y 14 (58,33%) de efecto rápido. Conclusión: La polifarmacia y el uso de anticoagulante oral en ancianos cardiopatas es común y, conocer las interacciones medicamentosas, es imperativa, considerando que potencian o disminuyen la acción anticoagulante, con gravedad mayor o moderada


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Warfarin/adverse effects , Health of the Elderly , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 55-59, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247432

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are different protocols for the management of anticoagulated patients that can be used when performing oral surgical procedures. Objective: To report the previous eva-luation and management of a hemorrhagic complication in the maxillofacial region in a patient undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the recommendations described in the literature for these patients. Clinical Case: Sixty-eight year old male patient, hospitalized in the cardiology unit due to heart failure, pending surgery for valve replacement. Treating physician requests evaluation for dental infection foci by a maxillofacial surgeon. Prior to medical examination and corresponding blood tests, four carious teeth are extracted, controlling hemostasis with local measures. During the night of the same day, the patient is referred again to the dental unit be-cause of an alveolorrhagia, being treated and controlled with new local measures; new standard blood tests are performed. Forty-eight hours later the patient presents an increase of volume in the right mandibular region compatible with hematoma and ecchymosis. It is decided to perform treatment, removing sutures, collagen and draining through the alveolus. Subsequently, new local measures are performed and the anticoagulant is suspended for 24 hrs. Conclusion: There are different care protocols for patients undergoing anticoagulant treatment in the literature, so each patient should be studied in advance to define what is the best therapeutic procedure to prevent complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Oral Hemorrhage/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(2): 209-211, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014641

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: There are no reports on cases of subconjunctival hemorrhage due to use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In this report, we present the case of a patient with bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage after receiving abciximab. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old male patient underwent coronary angiography after acute anterior myocardial infarction and a coronary stent was placed. Abciximab was added to the therapy because of stent thrombosis. Bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage was observed after the administration of the abciximab treatment. We treated our patient by stopping abciximab and administering artificial tears. CONCLUSİON: For the first time in the literature, we presented the case of a patient with bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage after receiving abciximab, which was managed conservatively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Eye Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Abciximab/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Coronary Thrombosis/prevention & control , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 110-117, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987748

ABSTRACT

Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant involved in important interactions with foods and other drugs. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of adverse events reported by warfarin users and their relationship with drug interactions. Methods: This was an open cohort, prospective study conducted in an 18-month period with warfarin users attending public health clinics of the city of Ijuí, Brazil. Data were collected by means of interviews administered at patients' home every month. Patients' responses were confirmed by review of medical records when patients sought medical care. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Potential drug interactions were evaluated in a database and vitamin K consumption was quantified using a validated method. Results: A total of 68 patients were followed-up; 63 completed the study and 5 died in the study period. Mean number of medications taken by the patients was 9.6 ± 4.5, and mean number of interactions involving warfarin was 2.91 ± 1.52. Most potential interactions increased the risk of bleeding, 61 of them severe interactions and 116 moderate interactions. Eighty-seven episodes of bleeding and 4 episodes of thrombosis were reported by a total of 37 and 4 patients, respectively. At the occurrence of these events, 56.5% of warfarin users were also taking omeprazole, 35.9% were taking simvastatin and 25.0% paracetamol. Most patients had a low vitamin K intake. Conclusions: A high frequency of potential interactions between warfarin and other drugs was detected, but a low intake of foods that could possibly affect the effects of warfarin was observed. Based on our results, it seems prudent to follow patients on warfarin therapy for drug-drug interactions, aiming to control adverse effects and to promote a safe and effective therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Warfarin/adverse effects , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Drug Interactions , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Vitamin K , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Statistics as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Monitoring , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Drug Incompatibility , Pharmacovigilance , Acetaminophen
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