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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 222-228, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522070


Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is highly prevalent in elderly patients. It confers a higher risk for ischemic stroke, heart failure and death. The diagnosis and treatment of AF has been extensively studied and remain under constant revision. This article reviews the recent European guidelines and the advances observed with the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in the last ten years. This new family of drugs has clear benefits in terms of efficacy and safety compared with traditional vitamin K antagonists. Treatment of most common comorbidities in patients with AF such as advanced age, heart failure, diabetes, renal failure, and others are also analyzed. New therapies for AF will be shortly available.

Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 518-526, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982572


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Chinese Children's Cancer Group-ALL-2015 protocol was carried out in China, and epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors associated with VTE were analyzed. We collected data on VTE in a multi-institutional clinical study of 7640 patients with ALL diagnosed in 20 hospitals from January 2015 to December 2019. First, VTE occurred in 159 (2.08%) patients, including 90 (56.6%) during induction therapy and 108 (67.92%) in the upper extremities. T-ALL had a 1.74-fold increased risk of VTE (95% CI 1.08-2.8, P = 0.022). Septicemia, as an adverse event of ALL treatment, can significantly promote the occurrence of VTE (P < 0.001). Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) accounted for 75.47% (n = 120); and, symptomatic VTE, 58.49% (n = 93), which was more common in patients aged 12-18 years (P = 0.023), non-CRT patients (P < 0.001), or patients with cerebral thrombosis (P < 0.001). Of the patients with VTE treated with anticoagulation therapy (n = 147), 4.08% (n = 6) had bleeding. The VTE recurrence rate was 5.03% (n = 8). Patients with VTE treated by non-ultrasound-guided venous cannulation (P = 0.02), with residual thrombus (P = 0.006), or with short anticoagulation period (P = 0.026) had high recurrence rates. Thus, preventing repeated venous puncture and appropriately prolonged anticoagulation time can reduce the risk of VTE recurrence.

Humans , Child , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , East Asian People , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/chemically induced , China/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Recurrence
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 963-967, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010892


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate and summarize the relevant evidence of anticoagulation and bleeding risk management in patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and provide the evidence-based basis for the management of anticoagulation and bleeding during ECMO treatment.@*METHODS@#According to the evidence "6S" pyramid model, all evidence on ECMO anticoagulation management and bleeding risk was searched in relevant databases, organizations and guideline websites at home and abroad. Evidence types included guidelines, expert consensus, systematic evaluation, Meta-analysis and original study. The search time limit was from May 31, 2012 to May 31, 2022. Two researchers with evidence-based research background conducted independent literature quality evaluation of the retrieved evidence, and the evidence that met the quality standards was extracted and summarized based on the opinions of industry experts.@*RESULTS@#A total of 315 articles were retrieved, and 13 articles were included, including 3 guidelines, 6 expert consensus, and 4 Meta-analysis. A total of 27 best evidences were summarized from 7 aspects, including the selection of ECMO anticoagulation, anticoagulation in priming, anticoagulation in operation, anticoagulation monitoring, bleeding and treatment, thrombosis and treatment, and prevention and management of terminal limb ischemia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study provides evidence-based basis for bleeding prevention and anticoagulant management in ECMO patients. It is recommended to selectively apply the best evidence after evaluating the clinical environmental conditions of medical institutions, so as to improve the prognosis of ECMO patients.

Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation , Hemorrhage/etiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1681-1684, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515402


Spontaneous intramural hematoma (IMH) is an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction, generally secondary to trauma. Even rarer is the spontaneous hematoma, mainly described in anticoagulated patients. We report a 73-year-old female in anticoagulant therapy who presented with a bowel obstruction. A computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a segmentary wall thickening of the distal jejunum, compatible with an IMH which obliterated the lumen and produced dilatation of the proximal bowel loops. Support management was initiated, achieving satisfactory evolution, allowing her discharge 12 days after admission.

Humans , Female , Aged , Intestinal Obstruction/complications , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20357, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403709


Abstract Our aim was to determine the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) and to identify relevant factors associated with the occurrence of the most dangerous or contraindicated pDDIs (pCDDIs) in hospitalized patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed enrolling all consecutive patients with sICH treated at the Neurological Intensive Care Unit, Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia, during the three-year period (2012-2014). The inclusion criteria encompassed patients aged 18 years and over, those diagnosed with ICH, and those prescribed at least two drugs during hospitalization, while we did not include patients whose hospitalization lasted less than 7 days, those who were diagnosed with other neurological diseases and patients with incomplete medical files. For each day of hospitalization, the online checker Micromedex® software was used to identify pDDIs and classify them according to severity. A total of 110 participants were analysed. A high prevalence of pDDIs (98.2%) was observed. The median number of pDDIs regardless of severity, was 8.00 (IQR 4.75-13.00;1-30). The pairs of drugs involving cardiovascular medicines were the most commonly identified pDDIs. Twenty percent of the total number of participants was exposed to pCDDIs. The use of multiple drugs from different pharmacological-chemical subgroups and the prescribing of anticoagulant therapy significantly increase the chance of pCDDI (aOR with 95% CI 1.19 (1.05-1.35) and 7.40 (1.13-48.96), respectively). This study indicates a high prevalence of pDDIs and pCDDIs in patients with sICH. The use of anticoagulant therapy appears to be the only modifiable clinically relevant predictor of pCDDIs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , World Health Organization , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Drug Interactions , Intensive Care Units/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Hospitalization , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(3): e002144, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398442


Lograr un adecuado nivel de anticoagulación con antagonistas orales de la vitamina K suele ser un desafío frecuente en la práctica clínica, dado que su estrecho rango terapéutico suele verse afectado por diversas interacciones farmacológicas,alimentos y condiciones clínicas. A partir de un caso de un paciente anticoagulado que presenta una hemorragia gastro-intestinal posterior a realizar un tratamiento antibiótico, la autora de este artículo revisó la evidencia sobre el riesgo desangrado secundario a la interacción entre este tipo de anticoagulantes y antibióticos orales. Su conclusión tras realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica y seleccionar la mejor evidencia disponible, es que existe un aumento del riesgo relativo desangrado en pacientes anticoagulados que reciben antibióticos, por lo que deberían evitarse aquellos antibióticos con conocido potencial de interacción. Si ello no fuera posible, se recomienda monitorizar el estado de anticoagulación con dosaje de la razón internacional normatizada (RIN) posterior a la introducción del antibiótico. (AU)

Achieving an adequate level of anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonists is often a frequent challenge in clinical practice, given that their narrow therapeutic range is often affected by various drug interactions, food, and clinical conditions. Based on a case of an anticoagulated patient who presented gastrointestinal bleeding after antibiotic treatment, the authorof this article reviewed the evidence on the risk of secondary bleeding due to the interaction between this type of anticoagulants and oral antibiotics. Their conclusion, after performing a literature search and selecting the best available evidence, is that there is an increased relative risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients receiving antibiotics, so antibiotics with known potential for interaction should be avoided. If it weren't possible, it is recommended to monitor the anticoagulation status with International Normalized Ratio (INR) dosing after the introduction of the antibiotic. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Warfarin/pharmacology , Warfarin/pharmacokinetics , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , International Normalized Ratio , Drug Interactions , Acenocoumarol/pharmacology , Acenocoumarol/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 67-76, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928477


Trauma-induced pulmonary thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in severe trauma patients. Primary fibrinolytic hyperactivity combined with hemorrhage and consequential hypercoagulability in severe trauma patients create a huge challenge for clinicians. It is crucial to ensure a safe anticoagulant therapy for trauma patients, but a series of clinical issues need to be answered first, for example, what are the risk factors for traumatic venous thromboembolism? How to assess and determine the status of coagulation dysfunction of patients? When is the optimal timing to initiate pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism? What types of prophylactic agents should be used? How to manage the anticoagulation-related hemorrhage and to determine the optimal timing of restarting chemoprophylaxis? The present review attempts to answer the above questions.

Humans , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hemorrhage , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.244-251, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349504
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 346-352, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347293


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de embolia pulmonar, seu relacionamento com os níveis de dímero D e outros possíveis fatores associados, além dos efeitos adversos da anticoagulação e meios de contraste. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em um hospital público chileno. Foram incluídos os pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos com COVID-19, mecanicamente ventilados na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos entre março e junho de 2020. Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia com heparina, que foi aumentada até uma dose de anticoagulação com níveis de dímero D acima de 3µg/mL. Resultados: Foram acompanhados 127 pacientes, dos quais 73 foram submetidos à angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (média de idade de 54 ± 12 anos; 49 homens). Sessenta e dois dos 73 pacientes (84,9%) receberam anticoagulação total antes da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada. Além disso, 18 dos 73 pacientes tiveram embolia pulmonar (24,7%). Na comparação entre pacientes com e sem embolia pulmonar, não se observaram diferenças significantes em termos de idade, sexo, obesidade, tabagismo, escores de Wells e Genebra revisado, dímero D ou mortalidade. O uso de anticoagulantes foi similar em ambos os grupos. O número de dias desde o início da anticoagulação até a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi significantemente menor no grupo com embolia pulmonar (p = 0,002). Três pacientes tiveram lesão renal aguda após o contraste (4,1%), e um paciente teve sangramento importante. Conclusão: Apesar da anticoagulação, um em cada quatro pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à ventilação mecânica e avaliados com angiografia por tomografia computadorizada apresentou embolia pulmonar. Com uma maior demora para realização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada após início de anticoagulação empírica, identificou-se um número significantemente menor de embolias

Abstract Objective: To assess pulmonary embolism incidence, its relationship with D-dimer levels and other possible associated factors in addition to anticoagulation and contrast medium adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study at a Chilean public hospital was performed. Intensive care unit mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients older than 18 years old between March and June 2020 were included. All patients received heparin thromboprophylaxis, which was increased to the anticoagulation dose with D-dimer greater than 3µg/mL. Results: A total of 127 patients were followed up, of whom 73 underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (mean age, 54 ± 12 years; 49 men). Sixty-two of the 73 patients (84.9%) received full anticoagulation before computed tomography angiography. In addition, 18 of the 73 patients had pulmonary embolism (24.7%). When comparing patients with and without pulmonary embolism, no significant differences were observed in age, sex, obesity, smoking, Wells and revised Geneva scores, D-dimer or mortality. Anticoagulant use was similar in both groups. Days from the start of anticoagulation until computed tomography angiography were significantly lower in the pulmonary embolism group (p = 0.002). Three patients presented post contrast-acute kidney injury (4.1%), and one patient had major bleeding. Conclusion: Despite anticoagulation, one in four COVID-19 patients connected to mechanical ventilation and evaluated with pulmonary computed tomography angiography had pulmonary embolism. With a longer the delay in performing computed tomography angiography once empirical anticoagulation was started, significantly less pulmonary embolism was identified.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 207-211, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880645


Anticoagulation drugs should be used for patients with mechanical heart valve (MHV) in case of potential risk of thrombosis. Pregnant women with MHV have to change therapies due to teratogenic effect of some anti-coagulation drugs. European Society of Cardiology clinical guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy gives specific suggestions for anticoagulation therapy.We have treated 2 patients with mechanical heart valve thrombosis (MVT) during pregnancy: One received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) throughout the pregnancy and developed MVT at the third trimester of pregnancy; one developed MVT at the first trimester when replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKA) with LMWH. These patients raised secondary reflection on the balance between clinical guideline and personalized medicine. During LMWH therapy, we should dynamically monitor patients' anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) level to evaluate coagulation function during pregnancy. When a pregnant woman with MHV develops symptoms of acute heart failure, stuck mechanical valve should be paid attention to and surgery should be promptly performed if necessary.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valves , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200036, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250235


Abstract Our study describes a fatal case of phlegmasia cerulea dolens and massive venous thrombosis in a patient taking rivaroxaban regularly to treat cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Blood tests samples were positive for lupus anticoagulant. The unique evolution of the case, as well as the positivity for lupus anticoagulant, raises the possibility of an acquired hypercoagulation syndrome. We highlight the fact that the test recommended as the first line for lupus anticoagulant diagnosis (dilute Russell viper venom time) is the most affected by rivaroxaban, leading to a high prevalence of false-positive results. We also discuss potential diagnoses for the current case and review the current state-of-the-art of use of the novel oral anticoagulation agents in this unusual situation. So far, there are no recommendations to use such agents as first options in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or in hypercoagulation syndromes.

Resumo Nosso estudo descreve um caso fatal de flegmasia cerúlea dolens e trombose venosa maciça em um paciente usando regularmente rivaroxabana para o tratamento de trombose de seio venoso cerebral. A investigação laboratorial foi positiva para o anticoagulante lúpico. A evolução única do caso aumenta a possibilidade de uma síndrome de hipercoagulabilidade adquirida, bem como a positividade para o anticoagulante lúpico. Destacamos o fato de que o teste recomendado como primeira linha para o diagnóstico de anticoagulante lúpico (veneno de víbora de Russel diluído) é o mais afetado pela rivaroxabana, levando a uma alta prevalência de resultados falso-positivos. Também discutimos os potenciais diagnósticos para o presente caso e revisamos o estado da arte atual dos novos agentes de anticoagulação oral usados nessa situação incomum. Até o presente momento, não há recomendações para o uso de tais agentes como primeira opção na trombose de seios venosos cerebrais ou nas síndromes de hipercoagulação.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thrombophlebitis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Thrombophlebitis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Factor Xa Inhibitors
Clinics ; 76: e2518, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153969


The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.

Humans , Thrombosis , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 717-718, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1131352


Resumo Baixas doses de edoxabana e enoxaparina sódica foram objeto de uma comparação retrospectiva implementada com a técnica do escore de propensão a fim de mitigar os efeitos das diferenças nas características clínicas basais de duas coortes e minimizar o risco de viés. Posteriormente, usando um modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox, avaliou-se a associação de cada tipo de terapia com o risco do composto de morte por todas as causas, acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, hospitalizações e ocorrência de sangramentos maiores. Para essa análise, um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. A terapia com enoxaparina e cirrose hepática como causadora de trombocitopenia estiveram associadas ao aumento do risco do endpoint composto (enoxaparina: hazard ratio (HR): 3,31; IC 95%: 1,54 a 7,13; p = 0,0023; cirrose hepática, HR: 1,04; 95% CI: 1,002 a 1,089; p = 0,0410). Por outro lado, a terapia com edoxabana mostrou-se significativamente associada à diminuição do risco do endpoint composto (HR: 0,071; 95% CI: 0,013 a 0,373; p = 0,0019). Com base nessa análise retrospectiva, o edoxaban em doses baixas seria uma ferramenta farmacológica segura e eficaz para a profilaxia de eventos cardioembólicos em pacientes com FA e trombocitopenia.

Abstract Low-dose edoxaban and enoxaparin sodium have been the subject of a retrospective comparison implemented with the propensity score technique in order to mitigate the effects of the differences in the basal clinical features of two cohorts and minimize the risk of bias. Subsequently, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the association of each type of therapy with the risk of the composite of all-cause death, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hospitalizations and major bleeding events was assessed. For this analysis, a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Therapy with enoxaparin and liver cirrhosis as causing thrombocytopenia were associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint (enoxaparin: hazard ratio (HR): 3.31; 95% CI: 1.54 to 7.13; p = 0.0023; liver cirrhosis, HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.089; p = 0.0410). Conversely, edoxaban therapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.071; 95% CI: 0.013 to 0.373; p = 0.0019). Based on this retrospective analysis, edoxaban at low doses would appear as an effective and safe pharmacological tool for the prophylaxis of cardioembolic events in patients with AF and thrombocytopenia.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Femina ; 48(8): 509-512, ago. 30, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118620


Tem sido observado, corriqueiramente, o uso indiscriminado de anticoagulantes durante a gravidez com a finalidade de evitar perdas gestacionais. A eficácia do uso de anticoagulantes na prevenção de perdas, precoces e tardias, tem sido questionada, levando-se em consideração os impactos econômicos, sociais e psicológicos gerados nas famílias a partir da indicação da utilização dessa terapia. Dada a relevância do tema, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura nos bancos de dados PubMed, Cochrane Library e Medline com a finalidade de avaliar evidências científicas do uso e da eficácia de anticoagulação na gravidez. Na literatura revisada, não foi possível sustentar a hipótese de que a anticoagulação é capaz de intervir ativamente no sucesso do curso da gravidez. Conclui-se, portanto, que mais estudos devem ser realizados a fim de determinar intervenções eficazes ao casal, preservar a saúde do concepto e minimizar o impacto econômico, social e psicológico da utilização de anticoagulantes durante a gravidez.(AU)

In medical practice, the anticoagulants indiscriminate use during pregnancy has been commonly observed to prevent future pregnancy losses. The effectiveness of using anticoagulants in preventing losses, early and late, has been questioned taking into account the economic, social and psychological impacts generated on families from the indication of the use of such drugs. Given the relevance of the topic, a literature review was carried out in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Medline databases in order to assess scientific evidence on the anticoagulation efficacy use in pregnancy. It was not possible to support the hypothesis that anticoagulation is able to actively intervene in the success of the course of pregnancy. It is concluded, therefore, that more studies should be carried out in order to determine effective interventions for the couple, preserve the health of the fetus and minimize the economic, social and psychological impact of the anticoagulants use during pregnancy.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Heparin/adverse effects , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/prevention & control , Databases, Bibliographic , Abortion, Habitual/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 364-387, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137197


Abstract The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guideline, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have presented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narrative review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrombotic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade.

Resumo Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioperatório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprovados pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações conflitantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa e feitas declarações de consenso. Elas foram projetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decorrentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional.

Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Brazil , Risk Factors , Perioperative Care/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects