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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3765-3773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981509


Small-molecule compounds with rich sources have diverse structures and activities. The active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) provide new sources for the discovery of new antitumor drugs. Aconitum plants as Chinese medicinal plants have the effects of dispelling wind, removing dampness, warming meridian, and relieving pain. They are mainly used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, and tumors, improve heart function, and dilate blood vessels in clinical practice. Diterpenoid alkaloids are the main active components of Aconitum plants, including C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids. Stu-dies have demonstrated that diterpenoid alkaloids can effectively treat lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers. Diterpenoid alkaloids are considered as the most promising natural compounds against cancers. In this review, we summarized the chemical structures and antitumor activities of C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids extracted from plants of Aconitum, aiming to provide reference for further development of diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum as antitumor drugs.

Humans , Aconitum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Alkaloids/analysis , Diterpenes/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 28-37, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284403


Several investigations have demonstrated Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) plant extracts possess numerous health-promoting properties. This review is aimed to summarize and highlight the potential possess by D. linearisto be developed into future pharmacological entity especially as anticancer agent. This study used several electronic search engines to compile and integrate a number of scientific publications related with D. linearis. Scientifically, D. linearishas been reported to have antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, chemopreventive and antioxidant properties which can be linked to its potential to treat various kinds of ailments including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer. A number of scientific evidences related with anticancer studies suggested the ability of D. linearis-based phytochemicals to act as potent anticancer lead compounds. In conclusion, D. linearis has the potential to be developed into potent anticancer agent as depicted by a number of isolated phytochemicals which can work synergistically to contribute to its anticancer properties.

Varias investigaciones han demostrado que los extractos de la planta Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) poseen numerosas propiedades promotoras de la salud. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir y resaltar el potencial que posee D. linearispara convertirse en una entidad farmacológica futura, especialmente como agente anticancerígeno. Este estudio utilizó varios motores de búsqueda electrónicos para compilar e integrar una serie de publicaciones científicas relacionadas con D. linearis. Científicamente, se ha informado que D. linearis tiene propiedades antinociceptivas, antiinflamatorias, antipiréticas, quimiopreventivas y antioxidantes que pueden estar vinculadas a su potencial para tratar varios tipos de dolencias, incluidas las enfermedades asociadas a inflamación y el cáncer. Una serie de evidencias científicas relacionadas con los estudios anticancerosos sugirieron la capacidad de los fitoquímicos basados en D. linearis para actuar como potentes compuestos anticancerígenos. En conclusión, D. linearis tiene el potencial de convertirse en una fuente de potentes agentes anticancerígeno, como se describe en una serie de fitoquímicos aislados que pueden actuar de forma sinérgica para contribuir a sus propiedades anticancerígenas.

Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tracheophyta/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 480-491, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008273


In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the M. officinalis essential oil was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7, NCI-H460 and MOLT-4 by MTT assay. M. officinalis essential oil was characterized by high percentage of monoterpenes (77,5%), followed by the sesquiterpene fraction (14,5%) and aliphatic compounds (2,2%). The main constituents of the essential oil of M. officinalis are citral (47,2%), caryophyllene oxide (10,2%), citronellal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), geranyl acetate (4,1%) and ß- caryophyllene (3,8%). The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines, MOLT-4, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cells, with GI50 values of <5, 6±2 and 31±17 µg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that M. officinalis L. essential oil has a potential as anticancer therapeutic agent.

En el presente estudio, investigamos la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de las hojas de Melissa officinalis L. cultivadas en el sur de Bosnia y Herzegovina. La evaluación in vitro de la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de M. officinalis se llevó a cabo en tres líneas celulares de tumores humanos: MCF-7, NCI-H460 y MOLT-4 utilizando el ensayo de MTT. El aceite esencial de M. officinalis se caracterizó por un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (77,5%), seguido de la fracción sesquiterpénica (14,5%) y compuestos alifáticos (2,2%). Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. officinalis fueron citral (47,2%), óxido de cariofileno (10,2%), citronelal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), acetato de geranilo (4, 1%), y ß-cariofileno (3,8%). El aceite esencial mostró una actividad antiproliferativa significativa contra las líneas celulares de cáncer MOLT-4, MCF-7 y NCI-H460, con valores GI50 de <5, 6±2 y 31±17 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite esencial de M. officinalis L. tiene potencial como agente terapéutico contra el cáncer.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Melissa , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 492-502, sept. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915690


Irrespective of progressive treatments, cancer remains to have the utmost rate of treatment failure due to numerous reasons associated. In recent years, the use of traditional medicine in cancer research has established considerable interest. Natural products represent an amazing source for cancer therapy and combating associated side-effects. More than thousand plants have been found to possess significant anticancer properties. Vitex is the largest genus in the family Lamiaceae which comprises 250 species distributed throughout world and several species have been reported to have anticancer properties. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly in terms of its anticancer profile. Here we are reporting the updated knowledge of the antineoplastic profile of this genus available so far. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to explore its multifarious antineoplastic activities and mode of action.

Independientemente de los tratamientos progresivos, el cáncer sigue teniendo la mayor tasa de fracaso del tratamiento debido a numerosas razones asociadas. En los últimos años, el uso de la medicina tradicional en la investigación del cáncer ha despertado un gran interés. Los productos naturales representan una fuente increíble para la terapia contra el cáncer y la lucha contra los efectos secundarios asociados. Se han encontrado más de mil plantas que poseen propiedades anticancerígenas significativas. Vitex es el género más grande de la familia Lamiaceae, que comprende 250 especies distribuidas en todo el mundo y se ha informado que varias especies tienen propiedades anticancerígenas. A pesar de una larga tradición de uso de algunas especies, el género no ha sido explorado adecuadamente en términos de su perfil contra el cáncer. Aquí presentamos el conocimiento actualizado del perfil antineoplásico de este género disponible hasta el momento. En la parte final, se ha enfatizado el alcance futuro de las especies de Vitex con el objetivo de explorar sus múltiples actividades antineoplásicas y su modo de acción.

Vitex/chemistry , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 645-661, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886933


ABSTRACT Scientific and technological breakthroughs have compelled the current players in drug discovery to increasingly incorporate knowledge-based approaches. This evolving paradigm, which has its roots attached to the recent advances in medicinal chemistry, molecular and structural biology, has unprecedentedly demanded the development of up-to-date computational approaches, such as bio- and chemo-informatics. These tools have been pivotal to catalyzing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the molecular sciences, and to converting the data into insightful guidelines for use in the research pipeline. As a result, ligand- and structure-based drug design have emerged as key pathways to address the pharmaceutical industry's striking demands for innovation. These approaches depend on a keen integration of experimental and molecular modeling methods to surmount the main challenges faced by drug candidates - in vivo efficacy, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and safety. To that end, the Laboratório de Química Medicinal e Computacional (LQMC) of the Universidade de São Paulo has developed forefront research on highly prevalent and life-threatening neglected tropical diseases and cancer. By taking part in global initiatives for pharmaceutical innovation, the laboratory has contributed to the advance of these critical therapeutic areas through the use of cutting-edge strategies in medicinal chemistry.

Humans , Trypanocidal Agents/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Discovery/methods , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Tropical Medicine/trends , Chagas Disease/drug therapy
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6858, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889001


A novel heterometallic metal-porphyrinic framework (MPFs) built from Y and K ions as nods and meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin as linkers has been successfully synthesized and characterized. The single crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that this complex 1 exhibited a bilayered architecture of the porphyrins, which is seldom seen in MPFs. In addition, in vitro anticancer activity of complex 1 on three human breast cancer cells (BT474, SKBr-3 and ZR-75-30) was further determined.

Humans , Porphyrins/chemistry , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Metal-Organic Frameworks/pharmacology , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Tetrazolium Salts , Reproducibility of Results , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cell Line, Tumor , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Formazans
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e813s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974953


Cell cycle control genes are frequently mutated in cancer cells, which usually display higher rates of proliferation than normal cells. Dysregulated mitosis leads to genomic instability, which contributes to tumor progression and aggressiveness. Many drugs that disrupt mitosis have been studied because they induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell death. These antitumor compounds are referred to as antimitotics. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are natural products that target microtubules and inhibit mitosis, and their derivatives are among the most commonly used drugs in cancer therapy worldwide. However, severe adverse effects such as neuropathies are frequently observed during treatment with microtubule-targeting agents. Many efforts have been directed at developing improved antimitotics with increased specificity and decreased likelihood of inducing side effects. These new drugs generally target specific components of mitotic regulation that are mainly or exclusively expressed during cell division, such as kinases, motor proteins and multiprotein complexes. Such small molecules are now in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and many are products or derivatives from natural sources. In this review, we focused on the most promising targets for the development of antimitotics and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these targets. We also highlighted the novel natural antimitotic agents under investigation by our research group, including combretastatins, withanolides and pterocarpans, which show the potential to circumvent the main issues in antimitotic therapy.

Humans , Biological Products/chemistry , Antimitotic Agents/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Antimitotic Agents/pharmacology , Mitosis/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e482s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952842


This review will discuss the contributions of marine natural molecules, a source only recently found to have pharmaceutical prospects, to the development of anticancer drugs. Of the seven clinically utilized compounds with a marine origin, four are used for the treatment of cancer. The development of these drugs has afforded valuable knowledge and crucial insights to meet the most common challenges in this endeavor, such as toxicity and supply. In this context, the development of these compounds will be discussed herein to illustrate, with successful examples provided by cytarabine, trabectedin, eribulin and brentuximab vedotin, the steps involved in this process as well as the scientific advances and technological innovation potential associated with developing a new drug from marine resources.

Biotechnology/methods , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Oceans and Seas , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Cytarabine/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Trabectedin/chemistry , Furans/chemistry , Brentuximab Vedotin , Ketones/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1369-1379, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886755


ABSTRACT Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity.

Humans , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Lamiaceae/classification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Esters , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Fabaceae/classification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Biol. Res ; 50: 17, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838975


Realgar is a naturally occurring arsenic sulfide (or Xionghuang, in Chinese). It contains over 90% tetra-arsenic tetrasulfide (As4S4). Currently, realgar has been confirmed the antitumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo, of realgar extracted using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans). Bioleaching, a new technology to greatly improve the use rate of arsenic extraction from realgar using bacteria, is a novel methodology that addressed a limitation of the traditional method for realgar preparation. The present systematic review reports on the research progress in realgar bioleaching and its antitumor mechanism as an anticancer agent. A total of 93 research articles that report on the biological activity of extracts from realgar using bacteria and its preparation were presented in this review. The realgar bioleaching solution (RBS) works by inducing apoptosis when it is used to treat tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. When it is used to treat animal model organisms in vivo, such as mice and Caenorhabditis elegans, tumor tissues grew more slowly, with mass necrosis. Meanwhile, the agent also showed obvious inhibition of tumor cell growth. Bioleaching technology greatly improves the utilization of realgar and is a novel methodology to improve the traditional method.

Humans , Arsenicals/pharmacology , Sulfides/pharmacology , Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Arsenicals/metabolism , Arsenicals/chemistry , Sulfides/metabolism , Sulfides/chemistry , Apoptosis/drug effects , K562 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Toxicological Phenomena , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6455, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888957


Series of novel coumarin derivatives [I (a-d) and II (a-d)] were successfully synthesized and their structures were determined based on infrared 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), HRMS, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the new synthesized compounds were evaluated to identify the molecular characteristics that contribute to their cytotoxicity, which was tested against SK-LU-1, SPC-A-1 and 95D human lung cancer cell lines, using the MTT assay. The results of this study showed that compounds Ic, Id, IIc, and IId exhibited an efficient percentage of inhibition of cell proliferation.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Coumarins/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Coloring Agents , Coumarins/chemical synthesis , Coumarins/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 603-611, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950926


Resumen Introducción. Las tiosemicarbazonas y sus complejos de paladio (II) poseen actividad antineoplásica con pocos efectos secundarios, por lo cual se las considera como una nueva alternativa terapéutica. Sin embargo, existen diferencias en los rangos de la concentración inhibitoria media (CI50) asociada a la divergencia estructural y la solubilidad de los complejos, así como a la sensibilidad de los blancos celulares. La inclusión de fármacos en la beta-ciclodextrina con fines terapéuticos ha mejorado su solubilidad y estabilidad, pero los efectos de su combinación con los complejos de paladio (II) y las tiosemicarbazonas no se han comprobado aún. Objetivo. Estudiar el efecto citotóxico de los complejos de paladio en la beta-ciclodextrina. Materiales y métodos. La actividad citotóxica de los complejos de paladio en la beta-ciclodextrina se evaluó en la línea celular de cáncer de mama (MCF-7), empleando el método de la sulforodamina B. Resultados. Los ligandos MePhPzTSC y Ph2PzTSC, sus complejos de paladio (II) libres e incluidos en la beta-ciclodextrina y el cisplatino mostraron actividad citotóxica en la línea celular MCF-7; sin embargo, la citotoxicidad fue mayor con la inclusión en la beta-ciclodextrina ([Pd(MePhPzTSC)2]•ß-CD y [Pd(Ph2PzTSC)2]•ß-CD). La concentración inhibitoria media (CI50) para estos complejos se obtuvo en concentraciones de 0,14 y 0,49 μM, y con dosis hasta cinco veces inferiores comparadas con las concentraciones de los ligandos libres (1,4 y 2,9 μM), de los complejos de paladio (II) libres (0,57 y 1,24 μM) y del cisplatino (6,87 μM). Conclusiones. El uso de la beta-ciclodextrina mejoró significativamente la actividad citotóxica de las tiosemicarbazonas y sus complejos de paladio (II), lo cual probablemente está asociado al incremento de la solubilidad y biodisponibilidad del compuesto, estrategia que se puede sugerir para el diseño de futuros fármacos antineoplásicos.

Abstract Introduction: Thiosemicarbazones and palladium (II) complexes have antineoplastic activities with mild side effects, for which they are considered new alternative antineoplastic drugs. However, the IC50 ranges of these complexes vary due to differences in their structure and solubility and their sensitivities for various cellular targets. Beta-cyclodextrin is an additive used to improve the solubility and stability of various drugs for therapeutic use, but the combination of beta-cyclodextrin with palladium (II) complexes and thiosemicarbazones has not been tested yet. Objective: To study the cytotoxic effect of palladium (II) inclusion complexes in beta-cyclodextrin. Materials and methods: We tested the cytotoxic activity of palladium complexes combined with betacyclodextrin in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using a sulforhodamine B assay. Results: We tested the antiproliferative activity of palladium (II) complexes with and without the ligands MePhPzTSC and Ph2PzTSC and with and without beta-cyclodextrin in MCF-7 cells and compared them to that of cisplatin. All combinations showed antiproliferative activity; however, the activity was greater for the combinations that included beta-cyclodextrin: ([Pd (MePhPzTSC) 2] • ß-CD and [Pd (Ph2PzTSC) 2] • ß-CD), at concentrations of 0.14 and 0.49 μM, respectively. The IC50 for this complex was 5-fold lower than that of the ligand-free combinations (1.4 and 2.9 μM, respectively). The IC50 for free palladium (II) complex was 0.571.24 μM and that for cisplatin was 6.87 μM. Conclusions: Beta-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cytotoxic activities of palladium (II) complexes and thiosemicarbazones probably by improving their solubility and bioavailability. The addition of betacyclodextrin is a possible strategy for designing new anticancer drugs.

Female , Humans , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Palladium/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , Palladium/chemistry , Solubility , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Biological Availability , Drug Design , Molecular Structure , Cell Division/drug effects , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/chemistry , Drug Synergism , MCF-7 Cells , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 957-968, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769664


Abstract L-glutaminase was produced by Streptomyces canarius FR (KC460654) with an apparent molecular mass of 44 kDa. It has 17.9 purification fold with a final specific activity 132.2 U/mg proteins and 28% yield recovery. The purified L-glutaminase showed a maximal activity against L-glutamine when incubated at pH 8.0 at 40 °C for 30 min. It maintained its stability at wide range of pH from 5.0 11.0 and thermal stable up to 60 °C with Tm value 57.5 °C. It has high affinity and catalytic activity for L-glutamine (Km 0.129 mM, Vmax 2.02 U/mg/min), followed by L-asparagine and L-aspartic acid. In vivo, L-glutaminase showed no observed changes in liver; kidney functions; hematological parameters and slight effect on RBCs and level of platelets after 10 days of rabbit's injection. The anticancer activity of L-glutaminase was also tested against five types of human cancer cell lines using MTT assay in vitro. L-glutaminase has a significant efficiency against Hep-G2 cell (IC50, 6.8 μg/mL) and HeLa cells (IC50, 8.3 μg/mL), while the growth of MCF-7 cells was not affected. L-glutaminase has a moderate cytotoxic effect against HCT-116 cell (IC50, 64.7 μg/mL) and RAW 264.7 cell (IC50, 59.3 μg/mL).

Animals/chemistry , Animals/drug effects , Animals/enzymology , Animals/metabolism , Animals/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biocatalysis/chemistry , Biocatalysis/drug effects , Biocatalysis/enzymology , Biocatalysis/metabolism , Biocatalysis/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/enzymology , Cell Proliferation/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/pharmacology , Enzyme Stability/chemistry , Enzyme Stability/drug effects , Enzyme Stability/enzymology , Enzyme Stability/metabolism , Enzyme Stability/pharmacology , Glutaminase/chemistry , Glutaminase/drug effects , Glutaminase/enzymology , Glutaminase/metabolism , Glutaminase/pharmacology , Glutamine/chemistry , Glutamine/drug effects , Glutamine/enzymology , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/pharmacology , HeLa Cells/chemistry , HeLa Cells/drug effects , HeLa Cells/enzymology , HeLa Cells/metabolism , HeLa Cells/pharmacology , /chemistry , /drug effects , /enzymology , /metabolism , /pharmacology , Humans/chemistry , Humans/drug effects , Humans/enzymology , Humans/metabolism , Humans/pharmacology , Kinetics/chemistry , Kinetics/drug effects , Kinetics/enzymology , Kinetics/metabolism , Kinetics/pharmacology , Streptomyces/chemistry , Streptomyces/drug effects , Streptomyces/enzymology , Streptomyces/metabolism , Streptomyces/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity/chemistry , Substrate Specificity/drug effects , Substrate Specificity/enzymology , Substrate Specificity/metabolism , Substrate Specificity/pharmacology
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 42-49, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744699


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. .

OBJETIVO: Avaliar diferenças no comportamento alimentar infantil em função do estado nutricional, do sexo e da idade. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu crianças na faixa de seis a dez anos, de ambos os sexos, de uma escola privada em Pelotas (RS), em 2012. Para avaliar o comportamento alimentar usaram-se as subescalas do questionário Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ): resposta à comida (FR), prazer de comer (EF), desejo de beber (DD), sobreingestão emocional (EOE), subingestão emocional (EUE), resposta à saciedade (SR), seletividade (FF) e ingestão lenta (SE). Avaliou-se o estado nutricional por meio do escore-z do IMC/idade. RESULTADOS: Participaram 335 crianças de 87,9±10,4 meses. Apresentaram eutrofia 49,3% (n=163), sobrepeso 26% (n=86), obesidade 15% (n=50) e obesidade grave 9,7% (n=32). Crianças com excesso de peso tiveram maior pontuação nas subescalas de "interesse pela comida" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0,001) e menor pontuação nas subescalas de "desinteresse pela comida" (SR e SE, p<0,001 e p=0,003, respectivamente), se comparadas com as crianças com peso adequado. Não foram observadas diferenças no comportamento alimentar segundo sexo e idade. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que comportamentos alimentares que refletem "interesse pela comida" estão associados positivamente ao excesso de peso, mas não foi encontrada associação com o sexo e a idade da criança. .

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Drug Discovery , Microtubules/drug effects , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Water/chemistry , Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Aniline Compounds/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , HeLa Cells , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Solubility , Structure-Activity Relationship
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 3-11, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744700


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. .

OBJETIVO: Avaliar por meio de parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais como a fibrose cística (FC) afeta o crescimento e estado nutricional de crianças submetidas ao tratamento de FC que não foram submetidas à triagem neonatal. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte histórica com 52 pacientes com FC menores de 10 anos foi acompanhada em um centro de referência em Campinas, Sudeste do Brasil. Peso e altura foram coletados de prontuários médicos até março de 2010, quando a triagem neonatal foi implementada. Entre setembro de 2009 a março de 2010 a altura dos pais foi medida. RESULTADOS: Quatro pacientes tiveram escores Z ≤ -2 para altura/idade (A/I) e índice de massa corporal/idade (IMC/A). As seguintes variáveis foram associadas com melhor razão A/I: menor número de hospitalizações, maior tempo entre a primeira consulta e o diagnóstico, maior tempo entre o nascimento e o diagnóstico e início tardio da doença respiratória. Capacidade vital forçada [CVF(%)], fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25-75% da CVF [FEF25-75(%)], volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo [VEF1(%)], idade gestacional, peso ao nascer e início dos sintomas respiratórios foram associados com melhor IMC/I. CONCLUSÕES: Maior número de hospitalizações, retardo no diagnóstico e início precoce da doença respiratória tiveram impacto negativo no crescimento. Menores valores espirométricos, menor idade gestacional, menor peso ao nascer e o início precoce dos sintomas respiratórios tiveram impacto negativo no estado nutricional. A desnutrição foi observada em 7,7% dos casos, mas 23% das crianças apresentaram risco nutricional. .

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Bacteria/growth & development , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Fungi/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Peptides/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Selenium/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfur/chemistry , Tellurium/chemistry
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 104-113, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744708


OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pregnant women and their children is an important health problem with severe consequences for the health of both. Thus, the objectives of this review were to reassess the magnitude and consequences of VDD during pregnancy, lactation and infancy, associated risk factors, prevention methods, and to explore epigenetic mechanisms in early fetal life capable of explaining many of the non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D (ViD). DATA SOURCE: Original and review articles, and consensus documents with elevated level of evidence for VDD-related clinical decisions on the health of pregnant women and their children, as well as articles on the influence of ViD on epigenetic mechanisms of fetal programming of chronic diseases in adulthood were selected among articles published on PubMed over the last 20 years, using the search term VitD status, in combination with Pregnancy, Offspring health, Child outcomes, and Programming. DATA SYNTHESIS: The following items were analyzed: ViD physiology and metabolism, risk factors for VDD and implications in pregnancy, lactation and infancy, concentration cutoff to define VDD, the variability of methods for VDD detection, recommendations on ViD replacement in pregnant women, the newborn and the child, and the epigenetic influence of ViD. CONCLUSIONS: VDD is a common condition among high-risk pregnant women and their children. The routine monitoring of serum 25(OH)D3 levels in antenatal period is mandatory. Early preventive measures should be taken at the slightest suspicion of VDD in pregnant women, to reduce morbidity during pregnancy and lactation, as well as its subsequent impact on the fetus, the newborn and the child. .

OBJETIVO: Deficiência de vitamina D (DVD) nas gestantes e seus filhos é problema de saúde, com consequências graves à saúde de ambos. Assim, esta revisão visou reavaliar a magnitude e as consequências da DVD na gestação, lactação e infância, fatores de risco associados, métodos de prevenção, além de explorar os mecanismos epigenéticos na vida fetal capazes de explicar benefícios não-esqueléticos da vitamina D (ViD). FONTES DE DADOS: Selecionaram-se artigos originais, de revisão e consensos com nível elevado de evidência para decisões clínicas relacionadas à DVD na saúde das gestantes e seus filhos e artigos sobre sua ação sobre os mecanismos epigenéticos da programação fetal de doenças crônicas na vida adulta, publicados no PubMed nos últimos 20 anos, empregando-se VitD status, e em combinação com Pregnancy, Offspring health, Child outcomes e Programming. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Abordou-se fisiologia, metabolismo, fatores de risco para a DVD e implicações na gravidez, lactação e infância, concentração de corte para definir DVD, variabilidade de métodos na sua detecção, recomendações sobre a reposição de ViD nas gestantes, no recém-nascido e na criança, bem como sobre ter as influências epigenéticas da ViD. CONCLUSÕES: DVD é frequente entre gestantes de alto risco e seus filhos. Monitorar rotineiramente os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D3 no período antenatal é imperativo. Medidas preventivas precoces devem ser instituídas à menor suspeita de DVD na gestante, para reduzir morbidades durante a gestação e a lactação, bem como seu posterior impacto sobre o feto, o recém-nascido e na infância. .

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Benzothiazoles/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 88-103, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744710


OBJECTIVE: To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD), its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords: NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications. .

OBJETIVO: Resgatar a origem do termo atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (DNPM), sua evolução conceitual ao longo do tempo e construir mapa conceitual do termo com base em busca bibliográfica. FONTES DE DADOS: Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas do Portal da Capes, que incluem Scielo Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online e Springer, referente a Janeiro/1940-Janeiro/2013. Palavras-chave: atraso e retardo do DNPM, developmental delay e global developmental delay. Foram selecionados 71 artigos e construído o mapa conceitual do termo. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Das 71 referências, 55 eram internacionais e 16 nacionais. Os termos mais encontrados foram global developmental delay e developmental delay na literatura internacional e retardo e atraso do DNPM no Brasil. Internacionalmente, o termo surgiu em meados da década de 40 ganhando força nos anos 90. No Brasil, o termo começou a ser usado na década de 80 e vem sendo frequentemente citado na literatura. O atraso é citado em 23 trabalhos como característica presente em 13 tipos de condições clínicas. Com relação ao uso, foram encontrados 19 estudos, com sete situações de uso. Dentre os artigos revisados, 34 deles apresentaram definições, sendo identificados 16 conceitos diferentes. CONCLUSÕES: O atraso do desenvolvimento é abordado na literatura internacional e nacional sob diversos nomes, diferentes aplicações e conceitos heterogêneos. Internacionalmente, apontam-se caminhos para melhorar a comunicação entre profissionais, com definição padronizada do termo e uso em situações específicas até o quinto ano de vida, o que não foi encontrado nas publicações nacionais. .

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Phthalazines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/antagonists & inhibitors , Quinolines/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Phthalazines/chemistry , Phthalazines/chemical synthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , Quinolines/chemistry , Quinolines/chemical synthesis , Structure-Activity Relationship
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(1): 1-5, Feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750503


Concomitant tumor resistance (CR) is a phenomenon in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. While former studies have indicated that T-cell dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, the most universal manifestation of CR induced by immunogenic and non-immunogenic large tumors had been associated with an antitumor serum factor that remained an enigma for many years. In a recent paper, we identified that elusive factor(s) as an equi-molar mixture of meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine, two isomers of tyrosine that are not present in normal proteins and that proved to be responsible for 90% and 10%, respectively, of the total serum anti-tumor activity. In this work, we have extended our previous findings demonstrating that a periodic intravenous administration of meta-tyrosine induced a dramatic reduction of lung and hepatic metastases generated in mice bearing two different metastatic murine tumors and decreased the rate of death from 100% up to 25% in tumor-excised mice that already exhibited established metastases at the time of surgery. These anti-metastatic effects were achieved even at very low concentrations and without displaying any detectable toxic-side effects, suggesting that the use of meta-tyrosine may help to develop new and less harmful means of managing malignant diseases, especially those aimed to control the growth of metastases that is the most serious problem in cancer pathology.

La resistencia concomitante antitumoral (RC) es el fenómeno según el cual un individuo portador de tumor inhibe el crecimiento de implantes tumorales secundarios y metástasis. Si bien desde hace tiempo se sabe que la RC inducida por tumores inmunogénicos de pequeño tamaño es generada por mecanismos inmunológicos dependientes de células T, por otro lado, la manifestación más universal de la RC, generada tanto por tumores inmunogénicos como no-inmunogénicos de gran tamaño, había sido asociada con un (unos) factor sérico antitumoral cuya naturaleza permaneció elusiva por años. En un trabajo reciente, nuestro grupo de trabajo identificó este factor como la mezcla equi-molar de meta-tirosina y orto-tirosina, dos isómeros de tirosina que no están presentes en proteínas normales y que demostraron ser responsables del 90% y 10%, respectivamente, de la actividad antitumoral total del suero. En este trabajo, continuamos nuestras investigaciones demostrando que la administración periódica de meta-tirosina reducía drásticamente el número de metástasis pulmonares y hepáticas en ratones portadores de dos tumores murinos altamente metastásicos y disminuía dramáticamente la mortandad (de 100% a 25%) de ratones con metástasis ya establecidas al momento de la extirpación quirúrgica del tumor. Estos efectos anti-metastásicos se lograron aun con muy bajas concentraciones de meta-tirosina y sin efectos tóxicos perceptibles, lo que sugiere que su uso puede ayudar a diseñar nuevas y menos nocivas estrategias para el tratamiento del cáncer, especialmente aquellas destinadas a controlar el crecimiento metastásico, que es el problema más grave en la enfermedad oncológica.

Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/prevention & control , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Tyrosine/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Isomerism , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tyrosine/adverse effects , Tyrosine/chemistry
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 534-538, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731264


With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.

Com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de endoparasitas de equinos da Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de Minas Gerais, 25 animais naturalmente infectados por helmintos foram avaliados. Por meio de necropsias parasitológicas, diferentes endoparasitas foram identificados. A sub - família Cyathostominae apresentou maior incidência, seguido por Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna e Anoplocephala perfoliata. No presente estudo, se não for considerada a espécie Probstmayria vivipara na prevalência, a frequência de Cyathostominae é equivalente a 94,85%. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo, permitiu detectar e identificar diferentes espécies de helmintos em equinos, bem como confirmar a elevada incidência de nematódeos pertencentes à sub-família Cyathostominae na Região Centro-Oeste de Minas Gerais.

Humans , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Pneumocystis/enzymology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Regression Analysis
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163309


Aims: To determine antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of organic extracts from leaves of Acridocarpous orientalis (qafas) from Sultanate of Oman. Study Design: Brine shrimp test, DPPH assay and Disc diffusion method. Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, University of Nizwa, Oman, December 2012. Methodology: Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and hydroalcoholic extract were obtained by Kupchan’s partitioning of ethanol extract isolated from leaves of A. orientalis by maceration. Antioxidant activity was determined by free radical scavenging of (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH). The antimicrobial activity was checked using agar disc diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gramnegative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa). Brine shrimp test was used to measure cytotoxic activity. Results: All extracts demonstrated potential antioxidant activities, hydroalcoholic extract showed the strongest activity (RC50 = 6.11 g/ml). The order of antioxidant activity was hydro alcohol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > hexane extract. Ethylacetate extract showed low activity against Pseudomonus aeruginosa. None of the extracts was found to be active against brine shrimp larvae. Conclusion: A. orientalis could be considered as a good source of antioxidant compounds.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Malpighiaceae/chemistry , Oman , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/pharmacology