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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1039-1049, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982429

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the neural mechanism underlying impaired stereopsis and possible functional plasticity after strabismus surgery. We enrolled 18 stereo-deficient patients with intermittent exotropia before and after surgery, along with 18 healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected when participants viewed three-dimensional stimuli. Compared with controls, preoperative patients showed hypoactivation in higher-level dorsal (visual and parietal) areas and ventral visual areas. Pre- and postoperative activation did not significantly differ in patients overall; patients with improved stereopsis showed stronger postoperative activation than preoperative activation in the right V3A and left intraparietal sulcus. Worse stereopsis and fusional control were correlated with preoperative hypoactivation, suggesting that cortical deficits along the two streams might reflect impaired stereopsis in intermittent exotropia. The correlation between improved stereopsis and activation in the right V3A after surgery indicates that functional plasticity may underlie the improvement of stereopsis. Thus, additional postoperative strategies are needed to promote functional plasticity and enhance the recovery of stereopsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exotropia/surgery , Depth Perception/physiology , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e789, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099082

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Describir algunas características clínicas de la exotropía de gran ángulo y determinar su resultado quirúrgico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 35 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Oftalmológico "Amistad Cuba-Argelia", en la Wilaya de Ouargla, Argelia, en el período enero 2014 - diciembre 2017. Se analizó el comportamiento de algunas variables relacionadas con la exotropía, como fueron la edad del paciente, el sexo, el color de la piel, las alteraciones oftalmológicas asociadas, el grado de ambliopía, el defecto refractivo asociado, el ángulo de desviación preoperatorio y posoperatorio y el tipo de cirugía realizada. Resultados: Predominó el grupo etario entre 24 y 29 años de edad con el 25,7 por ciento; el 51,4 por ciento representó al sexo femenino; el color de la piel negra fue el más frecuente con 48,6 por ciento; la ptosis palpebral correspondió al 11,4 por ciento de las alteraciones oftalmológicas asociadas y al 68,6 por ciento sin alteraciones; la ambliopía moderada se registró en el 42,9 por ciento de los casos; el defecto refractivo más observado fue el astigmatismo miópico con el 37,1 por ciento; el ángulo de desviación preoperatorio más significativo se encontró en el grupo de 71-80 dioptrías con 37,2 por ciento. A los tres meses de la cirugía el 91,4 por ciento de los pacientes se encontró en ortoforia (± 8 dioptrías) y al año de la cirugía el 94,3 por ciento se mantenía en ortoforia. El retroceso de ambos músculos rectos laterales (10,0 mm) más la resección de un músculo recto medio (7 mm) se realizó en el 37,2 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: La casi totalidad de los pacientes con exotropía de gran ángulo logran el alineamiento ocular y consiguen una mejoría en la calidad visual(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives: Describe some clinical characteristics of large-angle exotropia and determine its surgical outcome. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted of 35 patients attending Cuba-Algeria Friendship Ophthalmological Hospital in the wilayah of Ouargla, Algeria, from January 2014 to December 2017. Analysis was carried out of variables related to exotropia, such as the patients' age, sex, skin color, associated ophthalmological alterations, degree of amblyopia, associated refractive defect, pre- and post-operative angle of deviation, and type of surgery performed. Results: The 24-29 year age group prevailed with 25.7 percent; 51.4 percent of the patients were female; black skin color was the most common with 48.6 percent; eyelid ptosis represented 11.4 percent of the associated ophthalmological alterations and 68.6 percent without alteration; moderate amblyopia was present in 42.9 percent of the cases; the most frequent refractive defect was myopic astigmatism with 37.1 percent; the most significant preoperative angle of deviation was found in the 71-80 diopter group with 37.2 percent. Three months after surgery, 91.4 percent of the patients were orthophoria (± 8 diopters) and at one year 94.3 percent remained orthophoria. Bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession (10.0 mm) plus resection of a medial rectus muscle (7 mm) was achieved in 37.2 percent of the patients. Conclusions: Practically all patients achieved ocular alignment and improved their visual quality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Blepharoptosis/therapy , Amblyopia/prevention & control , Exotropia/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 98-102, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989401

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and surgical impacts of phenomena that could occur in intermittent exotropia. Methods: The medical records of intermittent exotropia cases from 1991 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a series of measures, including a protocol to assess monocular occlusion based on the propedeutics proposed by Kushner. Results: Outdoor sensitivity was observed in 31% of patients with an undercorrection rate of 44% vs. 18% of cases with no outdoor sensitivity. After 1 h of monocular occlusion, 41% of all patients achieved an increase in deviation with an undercorrection rate of 40%, whereas 25% did not. Conclusion: The results show the importance of complete propedeutics, since there is a higher rate of late undercorrection in cases with outdoor sensitivity and increased deviation after occlusion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os impactos clínico e cirúrgico dos fenômenos que podem ocorrer na exotropia intermitente. Métodos: Os prontuários de casos de exotropia intermitente de 1991 a 2014 foram revisados retrospectivamente. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma serie de medidas incluindo o protocolo com oclusão monocular com base na propedêutica proposta por Kushner. Resultados: Outdoor sensitivity foi observada em 31% dos pacientes com taxa de subcorreção de 44% vs. 18% dos casos sem outdoor sensitivity. Após 1 hora de oclusão monocular, 41% de todos os pacientes apresentaram um aumento no desvio com uma taxa de subcorreção 40%, enquanto 25% não. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstram a importância da propedêutica completa, uma vez que há maior taxa de subcorreção tardia nos casos de outdoor sensitivity e maior desvio após a oclusão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Exotropia/surgery , Exotropia/physiopathology , Education, Premedical/methods , Postoperative Period , Reoperation , Time Factors , Vision, Monocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Convergence, Ocular/physiology , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 31(3): 0-0, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985577

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Duane es una alteración de la motilidad ocular caracterizada por la retracción del globo ocular y el estrechamiento de la hendidura palpebral con la aducción, asociada a la restricción de la abducción, aducción o ambas. Han surgido muchas teorías sobre la etiología del síndrome de Duane, pero la mayoría de los autores coinciden en que es consecuencia de una alteración congénita del VI par craneal, con una inervación aberrante del recto lateral por el III par craneal. Esta es la causa más frecuente de inervación aberrante ocular congénita. Es más frecuente en el ojo izquierdo. El síndrome de Duane tipo I es el más frecuente, y es menos frecuente el tipo II. Presentamos dos pacientes masculinos de 11 y 37 años de edad respectivamente, con diagnóstico de síndrome de Duane tipo II, con exotropía de 15 grados por Hirchsberg en el ojo izquierdo y en el ojo derecho respectivamente; tortícolis mentón a la derecha, limitación de la aducción con estrechamiento de la hendiduda palpebral y marcado upshoot en relación con el ojo afecto. Se decide realizar reseción del recto lateral 8,0 mm del ojo afectado más Y split, para mejorar el marcado upshoot. Los pacientes después de la cirugía estaban en ortotropía sin upshoot, ni tortícolis(AU)


Duane's syndrome is an eye motility disorder characterized by globe retraction and palpebral fissure narrowing with adduction, associated to abduction restriction, adduction restriction or both. Many theories have been put forth about the etiology of Duane's syndrome, but most authors agree that it is the consequence of a congenital alteration of the sixth cranial pair with aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by the third cranial pair. This is the most common cause of congenital aberrant ocular innervation, and is more frequent in the left eye. Duane's syndrome type I is the most common and type II is the least common. A presentation is provided of two male patients aged 11 and 37 years with a diagnosis of Duane's syndrome type II with 15 degree exotropia on Hirchsberg's scale in the left and right eye, respectively, chin torticollis to the right, adduction limitation with palpebral fissure narrowing, and marked upshoot in relation to the affected eye. It is decided to perform resection of the lateral rectus 8.0 mm from the affected eye plus Y split to improve the marked upshoot. After surgery the patients were on orthotropics without upshoot or torticollis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Duane Retraction Syndrome/diagnosis , Duane Retraction Syndrome/etiology , Exotropia/surgery
5.
Medwave ; 18(6): e7318, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948435

ABSTRACT

Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: En determinadas circunstancias clínicas, la exotropia intermitente básica requiere resolución quirúrgica. Existen dos técnicas para ello: el retroceso bilateral de rectos laterales y el retroceso/resección unilateral. Aunque el retroceso bilateral es la técnica más utilizada, no está claro cuál de estas técnicas tiene mejores resultados. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron siete estudios primarios, de los cuales tres son ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que el retroceso/resección unilateral podría tener un mayor éxito quirúrgico y probablemente disminuiría la tasa de subcorrección/recurrencia, cuando se le compara al retroceso bilateral de rectos laterales.


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Intermittent exotropia requires surgical resolution under some clinical circumstances. The main techniques are bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral recess/resection. Although bilateral recession is the most widely used, it is not clear whether it leads to better results. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified five systematic reviews including seven studies overall, of which three were randomized trials. We concluded unilateral recess/resection might achieve greater surgical success and probably decrease the rate of undercorrection/recurrence when compared to bilateral lateral rectus recession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Exotropia/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Recurrence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Exotropia/physiopathology , Databases, Factual , Treatment Outcome , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): 355-358, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888166

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (<4 years vs. ≥4 years), and motor and sensory outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (p<0.001). For each month younger at the time of surgery, there was 0.69 s of arc worsening in the Titmus test. Conversely, when we separately analyzed the patients in whom the first postoperative alignment was esotropic vs. orthophoric/exotropic, we found no correlation between the immediate postoperative alignment in the first week and sensory outcome at the last visit. Conclusions: When indicated, patients with intermittent exotropia can be operated upon safely under 4 years of age, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os resultados em pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica de exotropia intermitente e comparar o sucesso motor e sensorial em relação à idade na cirurgia. Métodos: Estudo tipo coorte retrospectivo. Os resultados cirúrgicos de pacientes com exotropia intermitente foram avaliados em um período de 4 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos de acordo com a idade na primeira cirurgia (antes ou após os 4 anos de idade) e foram comparados quanto aos resultados motores e sensoriais. Results: 136 pacientes foram avaliados, 67 operados antes dos 4 anos e 51 operados após esta idade. A idade média na cirurgia foi de 6,8 ± 2,6 anos. A taxa de reoperação em pacientes operados antes dos 4 anos foi de 48% versus 42% naqueles operados mais tarde (p=0,93). A estereopsia pós-operatória mostrou uma associação linear inversa com a idade na cirurgia (p<0,001). Para cada mês mais jovem na idade da cirurgia, houve uma piora de 0,69 segundos de arco no teste de Titmus. Por outro lado, não foi encontrada correlação entre o alinhamento pós-operatório na primeira semana e o resultado sensorial na última visita, quando avaliamos separadamente os pacientes que se apresentaram com esotropia ou orto/exotropia na primeira semana pós-cirúrgica. Conclusão: Havendo critério para cirurgia, os pacientes com exotropia intermitente podem ser operados com segurança antes dos 4 anos de idade, e podem muitas vezes apresentar um melhor resultado motor do que os pacientes operados mais tarde. A estereopsia pós-operatória em crianças mais jovens foi pior, mais provavelmente por imaturidade ao realizar o teste do que por idade inadequada na cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Exotropia/surgery , Visual Acuity , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 61(1): 56-61, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-849245

ABSTRACT

Estrabismo consiste em uma enfermidade oftalmológica de alta prevalência na população mundial. A correção cirúrgica binocular, técnica que envolve a abordagem de três a quatro músculos extraoculares, é amplamente utilizada na terapêutica dos estrabismos de grande ângulo. Entretanto, a cirurgia monocular, realizada a partir de recuos e ressecções de maior amplitude, quando aplicada em pacientes amblíopes, possui importantes vantagens em relação à técnica binocular, tais como a preservação do olho dominante e a redução do tempo da cirurgia. Neste estudo, são descritos quatro casos de pacientes amblíopes portadores de exotropia de grande ângulo submetidos à correção cirúrgica monocular. Os pacientes apresentaram desvios oculares prévios equivalentes a 60, 65, 70 e 80 dioptrias prismáticas (Δ). Todos foram submetidos à cirurgia de recuo-ressecção através de recuo mínimo de 8 milímetros (mm) em músculo reto lateral e ressecção mínima de 9 mm em reto medial. Após três meses de acompanhamento, um paciente apresentou-se ortotrópico, enquanto os demais apresentaram desvios residuais de 10 a 12 (Δ). Observou-se limitação na abdução ocular no pós-operatório inicial de dois pacientes. Nenhum paciente apresentou restrição ao teste das versões e duções após três meses de acompanhamento. A cirurgia de recuo-ressecção monocular tem determinado importante relevância no tratamento dos estrabismos horizontais de grande ângulo, mostrando-se uma opção cirúrgica clinicamente factível. Contudo, deve-se estar atento às possíveis complicações que podem relacionar-se à maior amplitude das intervenções musculares (AU)


Strabismus is an ophthalmologic disease of high prevalence in the world population. Binocular surgical correction, a technique that involves approaching three to four extraocular muscles, is widely used in the treatment of wide-angle strabismus. However, monocular surgery, performed from wider recoils and resections, when applied to amblyopic patients, has important advantages over the binocular technique, such as preservation of the dominant eye and reduction of surgery time. In this study, four cases of amblyopia patients with large angle exotropia submitted to monocular surgical correction are described. The patients had previous ocular deviations equivalent to 60, 65, 70 and 80 prismatic diopters. All patients underwent recoil-resection surgery with minimal recoil of 8 mm in the lateral rectus muscle and minimal resection of 9 mm in the medial rectus. After three months of follow-up, one patient was orthoptic, while the others had residual deviations of 10 to 12 diopters. Limitation of ocular abduction in the initial postoperative period was observed in two patients. No patient had a restriction on the test of the versions and ductions after three months of follow-up. The monocular recoil-resection surgery has acquired an important relevance in the treatment of horizontal wide-angle strabismus, proving to be a clinically feasible surgical option. However, one should be aware of the possible complications that may be related to the greater amplitude of the muscular interventions (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Exotropia/surgery , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 28(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747732

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: determinar el alineamiento quirúrgico en pacientes adultos mayores de 18 años intervenidos quirúrgicamente de exotropía con un ángulo de desviación mayor de 50 dioptrías prismáticas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de septiembre del 2009 a septiembre del 2011, donde se hizo una valoración del alineamiento motor posoperatorio a largo plazo (dos años) a los pacientes con exotropía de gran ángulo que acudieron a la Consulta de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer, a quienes se les realizó cirugía de tres a cuatro músculos en un solo acto quirúrgico. Solo una paciente recibió la cirugía de cuatro músculos horizontales. Resultados: en los 20 pacientes estudiados existió un predominio del sexo femenino. La desviación preoperatoria fue similar de cerca y de lejos; solo un paciente presentó una desviación mayor de 90 dioptrías prismáticas. Se apreció que, al ser evaluados a los dos años, aún 14 pacientes (70 por ciento) se encontraban alineados quirúrgicamente. Conclusiones: se aprecia una gran mejoría de las subescalas psicosocial y funcional posterior a la cirugía, lo cual significa una elevación notable en la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La casi totalidad de los pacientes logra el alineamiento ocular en un solo tiempo quirúrgico(AU)


Objective: to determine the surgical alignment in adult patients aged over 18 years and operated on from exotropia with deviation angle over 50 dioptries. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was conducted from September 2009 through December 2011. It assessed the long-term motor alignment after surgery (2 years) in a group of patients with large angle exotropia, who had been seen at the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service of Ramon Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Most of them had undergone single-staged three-horizontal muscles squint surgery and just one female patient underwent four-horizontal muscle surgery. Results: females prevailed in the group of 20 patients under study. The preoperative deviation was similar at near and far distances; only one patient presented a deviation bigger than 90 dioptries. It was observed that after two years, 14 (70 percent) of the evaluated patients were surgically aligned. Conclusions: after this surgery, great improvements of the psychosocial and functional subscales were noticed, which leads to remarkable rise of the quality of life in these patients. Almost all of them reached the right ocular alignment in a single-staged surgery.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Exotropia/surgery , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 26(2): 227-235, mayo.-ago. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695033

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar los resultados quirúrgicos en pacientes adultos mayores de 18 años intervenidos quirúrgicamente de exotropía con un ángulo de desviación mayor 50 dioptrías prismáticas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo desde septiembre de 2009 a septiembre de 2010, en pacientes (9) que acudieron a la Consulta de Oftalmología pediátrica y estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer y que se les realizó la cirugía de 3 músculos horizontales en un solo acto quirúrgico. Resultados: el mayor grupo se ubicó entre los 18 y 28 años de edad siendo todos en ese intervalo del sexo masculino para un 80 porciento, no existió predominio significativo de un sexo. La desviación preoperatoria fue similar de cerca y de lejos, y se encontró una desviación media de 80 dioptrías prismáticas. De los 5 pacientes que se encontraron hipercorregidos al mes de la cirugía, todos pasaron a la ortotropía al año de la cirugía, solo una paciente quedó hipocorregida desde el inicio la cual está pendiente de otra cirugía para corregir su ángulo residual de 25 dioptrías prismáticas. Conclusiones: se logró una gran mejoría de la subescala psicosocial y funcional después de la cirugía, lo cual significa una elevación notable en la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Casi todos los pacientes lograron el alineamiento ocular en un solo tiempo quirúrgico y al año de la cirugía todos excepto una paciente se encontraban en ortotropía


Objective: to find out the surgical outcomes achieved in adult patients aged over 18 years, who were operated on from more than 50 D deviation angle exotropia. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was conducted from September 2009 through September 2010 in nine patients, who had gone to the pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus service of Ramon Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. They all underwent a single-stage three horizontal muscles squint surgery. Results: the largest group was made up of male patients aged 18 to 28 years for 80 percent; none of both sexes was significantly predominant. The preoperative deviation was similar near and distant, with mean deviation of 80 D. Of the five overcorrected patients one month after surgery, all reached orthotropia a year later, except for one female patient who showed overcorrection from the very beginning and is waiting for another surgery to correct the residual angle of 25 D. Conclusions: after this surgery, great improvement of the psychosocial and functional subscales was attained, which leads to remarkable rise of the quality of life in these patients. Almost all of them reached ocular alignment in just a single surgical time, and one year after surgery, all except one were found orthotropic


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Exotropia/surgery , Strabismus , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 26(2): 259-272, mayo.-ago. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695036

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir la estabilidad ocular en los pacientes operados de exotropía intermitente y su relación con algunos factores de riesgo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo, prospectivo de serie de casos, en pacientes operados de exotropía intermitente en el servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica del Ramón Pando Ferrer, en el período de enero de 2009 a septiembre de 2011. El universo fue de 35 pacientes con exotropía intermitente con ángulo de desviación preoperatoria ›20 dioptrías prismáticas, valorados al año de la cirugía. Las variables fueron: ángulo de desviación preoperatoria y posoperatoria, edad quirúrgica, la agudeza visual estereoscópica preoperatoria y posoperatoria a los 6 meses y al año de la cirugía y la presencia o no de defecto refractivo. Resultados: el 48,6 por ciento de los pacientes operados de exotropía intermitente estaban alineados a los 6 meses de cirugía, mientras que la estabilidad quirúrgica al año fue de 32,4 por ciento. Todos los paciente que lograron estabilidad ocular después de la cirugía presentaban estereopsia, el 75 por ciento de los pacientes que presentaban buena estereopsia no lograron estabilidad quirúrgica al año. El 100 por ciento de los pacientes de 4 a 5 años tuvieron un buen alineamiento ocular. El 65,6 por ciento de los pacientes presentaron defecto refractivo. Conclusiones: la intervención quirúrgica temprana resulta importante para mejorar el resultado funcional motor. Los pacientes que logran el máximo de estabilidad del alineamiento ocular tienen buena agudeza visual estereoscópica. No existe relación significativa entre el defecto refractivo y el logro de la estabilidad del alineamiento ocular


Objective: to describe the ocular stability of patients undergoing intermittent exotropia surgery and its relationship with some risk factors. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective, and descriptive case series study was conducted in patients undergoing intermittent exotropia surgery at pediatric ophthalmology service of Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in the period of January 2009 to September 2011. The universe of study was 35 patients with intermittent exotropia and preoperative deviation angle of ? 20 diopters, measured one year after surgery. The variables were deviation angle preoperatively and postoperatively, age at surgery, stereoscopic visual acuity preoperatively and postoperatively, at 6 months and one year later, and the presence or absence of refractive error. Results: iIn this group, 48.6 percent of patients who underwent intermittent exotropia surgery showed eye alignment at 6 months, whereas surgical stability after a year was 32.4 percent. All the patients who achieved stability after ocular surgery had stereopsis, 75 percent of the patients, who showed good stereopsis, failed in reaching surgical stability one year later. All the patients aged 4 to 5 years had a good eye alignment and 65.7 percent of patients had refractive error. Conclusions: early surgical intervention is important in improving motor functional outcome. The patients who achieve the maximum stability in ocular alignment have good stereoscopic visual acuity. There is no significant relationship between refractive error and the stability of eye alignment


Subject(s)
Humans , Depth Perception , Exotropia/surgery , Exotropia/physiopathology , Ocular Physiological Phenomena , Refraction, Ocular , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies
11.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 25(2): 280-287, oct.-dic. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657932

ABSTRACT

Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2010 en el Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer. Se estudiaron 17 pacientes, entre 5 y 10 años de edad, operados de exotropía intermitente con agudeza visual mejor corregida mayor de 0,4. Se analizaron las variables: edad en el momento de la cirugía, sexo, la desviación en dioptrías prismáticas y la visión estereoscópica cercana medida por TNO, antes de la cirugía y a los 6 meses...


Methods: a prospective descriptive study carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 at the pediatric ophthalmology service of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Seventeen patients aged 5 to 10 years, who had been operated on from intermittent exotropia and with best corrected visual acuity greater than 0.4, were studied. Those variables such as age at the time of surgery, sex, angle of deviation in prism diopters (PD) and near stereoscopic visual acuity measured by the TNO preoperatively and after 6 months...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Visual Acuity/physiology , Exotropia/surgery , Depth Perception/physiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 74(4): 267-270, jul.-ago. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604176

ABSTRACT

A exotropia permanente (XT) acomete cerca de 1 a 2 por cento da população. Seu tratamento é clínico: antiambliogênico e correção dos erros refrativos, e cirúrgico. O objetivo do tratamento cirúrgico é alinhar os olhos na posição primária do olhar, proporcionando melhor resultado estético. Há muito tempo diversos autores estudam os fatores pré, per e pós-operatórios relacionados ao resultado cirúrgico, uma vez que a taxa de sucesso varia de 60 a 80 por cento. Ainda são poucos os estudos que comparam a presença de ambliopia como fator de influência no resultado final. OBJETIVO: Comparar o resultado cirúrgico dos pacientes amblíopes e não-amblíopes submetidos à cirurgia de correção de XT. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 37 prontuários de pacientes amblíopes (Grupo A) e não-amblíopes (Grupo B) submetidos à correção cirúrgica de XT por retrocessoressecção monocular, sendo avaliados os registros pós-operatórios imediatos e tardios. Idade: grupo A 24,7 ± 14,2 anos, grupo B 22,6 ±18,6 anos; Desvio pré-operatório: grupo A 29,1± 7,2Δ, grupo B 28,4 ± 6,8Δ. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sucesso foi de 60 por cento e 100 por cento (p<0,05), no pós-operatório imediato e 50 por cento e 82,3 por cento (p=0,082), no pós-operatório final, nos grupos A e B, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante quanto aos desvios pós-operatórios imediatos, tardios e variação do desvio. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se concluir que o grupo B mostrou melhor resultado no pós-operatório imediato; porém não houve diferença no resultado cirúrgico de correção de exotropia permanente entre pacientes amblíopes e não-amblíopes no período pós-operatório de seis meses.


Permanent exotropia (XT) occurs in 1 to 2 percent of the pediatric population. Its management involves careful assessment of patient, treatment of amblyopia, refractive errors and surgery. The aim of the surgery is to straighten the eyes in the primary gaze position, giving a better cosmetic outcome. The factors reported to affect surgical outcome after exotropia surgery vary widely in reports and success rates for strabismus surgery have been reported to range from 60 percent to 80 percent. There are few reports to determine the relation between amblyopia and surgical outcome in exotropic patients. PURPOSE: To compare the surgical outcome of permanent exotropia surgery in amblyopic and non-amblyopic patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 37 clinical records from amblyopic patients (Group A) and non-amblyopic patients (Group B) who underwent recess-resect in one eye for XT. Postoperative deviation was analyzed in one month (immediate) and insixmonths (final) in both groups and in between. Age: group A 24.7 ± 14.2 years, group B 22.6 ± 18.6 years; Preoperative deviation: group A 29.1 ± 7.2Δ, group B 28.4 ± 6.8Δ. RESULTS: The success rate in the imediate postoperative period was 60 percent (Group A) and 100 percent (Group B) (p<0.05); 50 percent (Group A) and 82.3 percent (Group B) (p=0.082) in the final postoperative period. There was a statistical difference in the imediate postoperative deviation, but the final deviation and the variation of the deviation were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: There is a better outcome in patients of group B and no diference in the surgical outcome between these amblyopic and non-amblyopic patients in the final postoperative period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Amblyopia/complications , Exotropia/surgery , Exotropia/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 527-529, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181465

ABSTRACT

The changes of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession were evaluated. Forty eyes of 20 children were enrolled and their wavefront information was assessed until postoperative 3 months. Even though the root mean square (RMS) of total aberration was not changed, the RMS of HOA was transiently increased at postoperative 1 week and returned to baseline level after 1 month. Among individual Zernike coefficient, secondary astigmatism, quadrafoil, secondary coma, secondary trefoil, and pentafoil showed similar tendency with the RMS of HOA. However, coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration were not changed. Regarding recession amount, it did not correlate with any Zernike coefficient. In summary, our data imply that the HOAs are transiently increased after lateral rectus recession surgery. These results are in collusion with previous reports that strabismus surgery induced transient corneal astigmatism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Astigmatism/etiology , Exotropia/surgery , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Vision Tests
14.
Cir. & cir ; 77(3): 167-171, mayo-jun. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-566504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirugía de reforzamiento unilateral del recto inferior es una alternativa terapéutica en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la desviación vertical disociada (DVD), indicada en casos de DVD muy asimétrica con mala visión monocular. Dado que el músculo recto inferior tiene como acción secundaria la aducción, al realizar un reforzamiento amplio de éste puede modificarse hacia adentro la posición horizontal. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la modificación de la posición horizontal después del plegamiento monocular en U del músculo recto inferior del ojo con mala visión. Material y métodos: Se realizó plegamiento del recto inferior monocular en 10 pacientes con DVD espontánea, sin cirugía horizontal y mala visión monocular; se llevó a cabo seguimiento mínimo de seis meses. Se cuantificó la magnitud de la desviación horizontal en dioptrías prismáticas (dp) en el pre y posoperatorio. El análisis estadístico se realizó con U de Mann- Whitney, con nivel de significancia de 0.05. Resultados: La desviación preoperatoria osciló entre 20 dp de exotropía y 10 dp de endotropía (± 10.34); en el posoperatorio, de 12 dp de exotropía a 15 dp de endotropía (± 7.82). La posición horizontal se modificó entre 2 y 15 dp hacia adentro, con una media de 9.4 ± 3.70 dp (p = 0.03). Conclusiones: El reforzamiento monocular del recto inferior modifica 9.4 dp en promedio la posición horizontal hacia adentro.(aU)


BACKGROUND: Unilateral tucking of the inferior rectus muscle is a therapeutic alternative in the surgical treatment of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). It is usually performed in asymmetric DVD associated with monocular low vision. Adduction is a secondary action of the inferior rectus muscle. If excessive reinforcement is done, the horizontal position can be modified toward esotropia. We undertook this study to evaluate the horizontal position modification after unilateral tucking of the inferior rectus muscle. METHODS: Unilateral tucking of the inferior rectus muscle was done in 10 patients with spontaneous DVD, without horizontal surgery and poor monocular vision. Follow-up was done for 6 months. Horizontal deviation in prism diopters (PD) was measured. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was used with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: Preoperatively, horizontal deviation was between 20 PD of exotropia and 10 PD of esotropia (+/-10.34 SD). Postoperatively, horizontal deviation was between 12 PD of exotropia and 15 PD of esotropia (+/-7.82 SD). Horizontal deviation was modified between 2 and 15 PD towards esotropia, on average 9.4 PD (+/-3.70 SD) ( p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Monocular inferior rectus muscle reinforcement modifies the horizontal position on average 9.4 PD towards esotropia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Esotropia/surgery , Exotropia/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Prospective Studies , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Young Adult
15.
Clinics ; 64(4): 303-308, 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of monocular surgery under peribulbar anesthesia for large-angle horizontal strabismus. INTRODUCTION: Monocular surgery may preserve some muscles if a repeat operation is required, may help to avoid the exposure of the dominant eye to the inherent risks of a surgical procedure and may reduce surgical time. METHODS: We evaluated ninety-two consecutive patients who underwent monocular surgery under peribulbar anesthesia for large-angle horizontal strabismus (angle of 40 prism diopters or greater). Patients were divided into group 1- esotropia and group 2 -exotropia. The postoperative follow-up was at 6 months, when the residual deviation was evaluated. In cases of residual deviations of over 15 PD (prism diopter), a second procedure was indicated. RESULTS: In all patients with preoperative deviations up to 60 PD, residual deviations were under 15 PD. Some patients with preoperative deviations of 65 PD (two in group 1 and four in group 2) and all patients with deviations over 65 PD had residual deviations over 15 PD. The 13 patients who underwent a second procedure experienced successful outcomes. Our ROC curve analysis showed that the cutoff point for obtaining a successful surgical result was 62.5 PD. No patient presented with a major limitation in respect of ocular movement. CONCLUSIONS: Monocular surgery under peribulbar anesthesia can be an alternative for horizontal large-angle strabismus given deviations of up to 60 PD. Monocular surgery did not result in successful outcomes for deviations of over 65 PD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Esotropia/surgery , Exotropia/surgery , Analysis of Variance , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 21(1)ene.-jun. 2008. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-506403

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo se propone evaluar la efectividad de las suturas ajustables en los pacientes operados con esta técnica (66) en el Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo del Instituto Oftalmológico Ramón Pando Ferrer, en el período comprendido entre abril de 2004 y enero de 2005, con seguimiento posoperatorio durante un año. El procedimiento estadístico se realizó mediante el la prueba t de Student de independencia. En este grupo de pacientes se analizó la necesidad de realizar el ajuste de las suturas a las 24 h de la cirugía. En este universo de estudio se determinaron algunos parámetros preoperatorios, como agudeza visual corregida, fijación y ángulo de desviación y su relación con los resultados de la operación. Se comparó el alineamiento al año entre el grupo de las esotropías y las exotropías. Se identificaron las complicaciones posoperatorias al año. El ajuste de las suturas permitió colocar los ojos en la posición deseada por el cirujano. Se relacionaron con buenos resultados quirúrgicos la buena agudeza visual corregida, la fijación central y ángulos pequeños y medianos de desviación preoperatorio. Las esotropías alcanzaron mejores resultados que las exotropías. Las complicaciones fueron muy escasas con esta técnica quirúrgica.


The present paper was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of Adjustable Sutures in patients operated on with this technique (66) at the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus service of Ramon Pando Ferrer Ophthalmologic Institute in the period from April 2004 to January 2005, with one-year postoperative follow-up. The statistical procedure was X2 test of independence. In this group of patient, the need of adjusting sutures 24 h after surgery was analyzed. In this universe of study, some preoperative parameters were determined such as corrected visual acuity, fixation, deviation angle and their relationship with surgical results. The alignment was compared after one year between the esotropia group and the exotropia group. The postoperative complications were identified one year after surgery. The suture adjustment (39 percent) allowed putting the eyes in the position anticipated by the surgeon. Good corrected visual acuity, central fixation and small and medium deviation angles at the preoperative phase were associated to positive surgical results. The esotropia showed better surgical results than the exotropia. Very few complications were found by using this surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esotropia/surgery , Exotropia/surgery , Suture Techniques/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
17.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 174-177, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41301

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of unilateral medial rectus muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of thirtypatients who underwent unilateral medial rectus resection for recurrent exotropia. All had prior bilateral lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia. Data were collected for age, the preoperative deviation, the postoperative deviation at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and the last visit, and the amount of medial rectus resection performed. RESULTS: The average preoperative deviation was 27.0+/-3.6 PD. After unilateral medial rectus resection, average deviation at distance was 2.8 PD at postoperative 2 weeks, 4.5 PD at 3 months, 5.1 PD at 6 months and 5.8 PD at last visit. The average deviation corrected per millimeter of medial rectus resection was 3.53+/-0.17 PD/mm. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that deviation angles of recurrent exotropia is smaller than those of primary surgery and the possibility of saving the other medial rectus muscle, unilateral rectus muscle resection could be effective surgical method for recurrent exotropia.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Exotropia/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Recurrence , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies
18.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 178-182, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41300

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical course of esodeviation after exotropia surgery in older patients (older than 15 years) and to compare it with that in younger patients (15 years or younger). METHODS: The medical records of all surgeries for exodeviation from December 2004 to February 2007 were reviewed and 82 patients were found with consecutive esodeviation. The patients were divided into two groups according to their age: Group A (patients older than 15 years) and Group B (patients age 15 or younger). The clinical course of esodeviation in Group A was compared to that in Group B by means of survival analysis. RESULTS: The median survival times of the esodeviation were 2.0+/-0.1 months in Group A and 1.0+/-0.1 months in Group B (p=0.40). The prevalence of consecutive esotropia at six months was 0% in Group A and 6.1% in Group B (p=0.32). The myopic refractive error, worse sensory condition, and a larger preoperative exodeviation in Group A did not affect the clinical course of the two groups differently. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative esodeviation of patients older than 15 years after exotropia surgery tended to persist longer during the early postoperative period than that of patients 15 years or younger, however, the difference did not persist at postoperative six months.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Age Factors , Esotropia/etiology , Exotropia/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology
19.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 111-114, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the surgical outcomes between bilateral lateral rectus muscles (BLR) re-recession and bilateral medial rectus muscles (BMR) resection in recurrent exotropia. METHODS: The medical records of patients with recurrent exotropia who underwent surgery for intermittent exotropia during the 6 years from January 2001 to December 2006 and followed up for more than 6 months were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: In group A, BLR recessions was performed at the first surgery and BLR re-recession was performed at the second surgery. In group B, BLR recession was performed at the first surgery and BMR resection at the second surgery. Success rates at the last follow-up after the second operation were 81.9% in Group A and 83.3% in Group B, showing no statical difference between the two groups. In group A, no significant underaction of the BLR was noted. Success rates were not statistically different between the 2 mm re-recessed subgroup and 3 mm re-recessed subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the notion that BLR re-recession successfully corrects recurrent exotropia without producing significant limitation of abduction.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Exotropia/surgery , Eye Movements , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vision, Binocular
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 70(3): 429-432, maio-jun. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-459828

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the results between recession of the lateral recti and monocular recess-resect procedure for the correction of the basic type of intermittent exotropia. METHODS: 115 patients with intermittent exotropia were submitted to surgery. The patients were divided into 4 groups, according to the magnitude of preoperative deviation and the surgical procedure was subsequently performed. Well compensated orthophoria or exo-or esophoria were considered surgical success, with minimum of 1 year follow-up after the operation. RESULTS: Success was obtained in 69 percent of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti, and in 77 percent submitted to monocular recess-resect. In the groups with deviations between 12 PD and 25 PD, surgical success was observed in 74 percent of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti and in 78 percent of the patients submitted to monocular recess-resect. (p=0.564). In the group with deviations between 26 PD and 35 PD, surgical success was observed in 65 percent out of the patients submitted to recession of the lateral recti and in 75 percent of the patients submitted to monocular recess-resect. (p=0.266). CONCLUSION: recession of lateral recti and monocular recess-resect were equally effective in correcting basic type intermittent exotropia according to its preoperative deviation in primary position.


OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados entre o retrocesso dos retos laterais e retrocesso-ressecção monocular, para correção de exotropia intermitente do tipo básico. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 115 prontuários de pacientes portadores de exotropia intermitente do tipo básico submetidos a cirurgia no período entre janeiro de 1991 e dezembro de 2001. Os planejamentos cirúrgicos seguiram orientação do setor de Motilidade Extrínseca Ocular da Clínica Oftalmológica da Santa Casa de São Paulo e basearam-se na magnitude do desvio na posição primária do olhar. Os pacientes foram divididos em 4 grupos, de acordo com a magnitude de desvio pré-operatório (desvios entre 12D e 25D ou entre 26D e 35D) e o procedimento cirúrgico realizado. Considerou-se como sucesso cirúrgico a ortoforia ou exo ou esoforia bem compensada, no mínimo 1 ano após a operação. RESULTADOS: Dos 115 pacientes estudados, 34 (69 por cento) dos 49 pacientes submetidos ao retrocesso dos retos laterais e 51 (77 por cento), dos 66 pacientes submetidos ao retrocesso-ressecção monocular, obtiveram sucesso cirúrgico. Em relação aos grupos com desvios entre 12D e 25D, observou-se sucesso em 17 (74 por cento) dos 23 pacientes submetidos ao retrocesso dos retos laterais (1A) e em 36 (78 por cento) dos 46 submetidos ao retrocesso-ressecção monocular (1B) (p=0,564). No segundo grupo (desvios entre 26D e 35D), observou-se sucesso de 17 (65 por cento) dos 26 pacientes submetidos ao retrocesso dos retos laterais (2A) e em 15 (75 por cento) dos 20 submetidos ao retrocesso-ressecção monocular (2B) (p=0,266). CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que, nos pacientes com exotropia intermitente do tipo básico, tanto para desvios entre 12D e 25D quanto para desvios entre 26D e 35D, submetidos ao retrocesso dos retos laterais ou retrocesso-ressecção monocular, ambos os procedimentos podem ser considerados igualmente efetivos, não havendo diferença significante entre a magnitude da exotropia pré-operatória e a correção obtida.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Exotropia/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Treatment Outcome
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