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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256242, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360226

ABSTRACT

Binders are the products that are used to bind, glue or hold the various feed ingredients together in order to maintain pellet integrity. For aqua-culturists, feed manufacturing is an expensive exercise due to the high cost of ingredients along with traditional artificial binders. The use of grain starches as aqua feed binders have advantages which include availability of that binder, nutritional contribution, and minimization of feed cost. A research trial was conducted to test physical properties such as palatability, water stability, dustiness, friability, settling velocity and floatation time of locally available starch i.e. wheat gluten, pea starch and guar gum and to assist their incorporation in on-farm aqua feed. Results revealed that among these three starch, the starch from pea source was proved superior over other two (wheat gluten and guar gum) as all physical quality parameters (dustiness, water stability and friability) revealed better performance of pea starch except pelletability in which guar gum performed best. Although not a single diet proved best in case of flotation time (Tf) and settling velocity (Vset) at varying lengths (6mm, 9mm and 12 mm). This finding indicates the significance of suitable binders for optimal water pollution and sustainable aquaculture. The use of these binders i.e. wheat gluten, pea starch and guar gum in fish feed pellets may also reduce dependence on synthetic binders and minimizes cost.


Aglutinantes são produtos usados para unir, colar ou manter juntos os vários ingredientes da ração, a fim de conservar a integridade do pellet. Para os aquicultores, a fabricação de ração é uma atividade difícil e cara por causa do alto preço dos aglutinantes artificiais tradicionais. O uso de amidos de grãos como aglutinantes de rações aquáticas tem vantagens que incluem acessibilidade, disponibilidade, contribuição nutricional e minimização do custo da ração. Um ensaio de pesquisa foi conduzido para testar propriedades físicas, como palatabilidade, estabilidade em água, pulverulência, friabilidade, velocidade de sedimentação e tempo de flutuação de amido disponível localmente, ou seja, glúten de trigo, amido de ervilha e goma de guar, e para auxiliar sua incorporação em rações aquáticas. Os resultados revelaram que, entre esses três amidos, o amido de ervilha se mostrou superior aos outros dois (glúten de trigo e goma de guar), pois todos os parâmetros de qualidade física (pulverulência, estabilidade da água e friabilidade) obtiveram melhor desempenho, exceto peletabilidade, em que a goma de guar se destacou. Nenhuma dieta se mostrou melhor no caso de tempo de flotação (Tf) e velocidade de sedimentação em comprimentos variados (6 mm, 9 mm e 12 mm). Essa descoberta indica a importância de aglutinantes adequados para a poluição ótima da água e a aquicultura sustentável. O uso desses aglutinantes, ou seja, glúten de trigo, amido de ervilha e goma de guar, em pellets de ração para peixes também pode reduzir a dependência de aglutinantes sintéticos e minimizar o custo.


Subject(s)
Starch , Aquaculture , Glutens , Animal Feed/economics
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(3): 77-82, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443143

ABSTRACT

La dermatitis herpetiforme, también denominada Enfermedad de Dühring-Brocq, es una dermatosis autoinmune crónica que evoluciona por brotes, caracterizada por la presencia de ampollas pequeñas que tienden a agruparse, en codos, rodillas y glúteos, con disposición simétrica, intensamente pruriginosas. Es considerada una manifestación cutánea de la enfermedad celíaca. Afecta a adultos jóvenes (20 a 50 años). El estudio histopatológico evidencia ampollas subepidérmicas. La inmunofluorescencia directa es característica: depósitos granulares de IgA en las puntas de las papilas dérmicas. Aún ante falta de sintomatología digestiva debe investigarse enfermedad celíaca en todos los pacientes. La dieta libre de gluten es la clave del tratamiento. En aquellos pacientes con intenso prurito o con una dermatosis muy extensa se puede utilizar dapsona vía oral, que alivia rápidamente las manifestaciones cutáneas, pero no modifica el curso de la enfermedad digestiva. Se presenta un paciente en quien a partir de las lesiones cutáneas se realizó diagnóstico de dermatitis herpetiforme primero y de enfermedad celíaca luego


Dermatitis herpetiformis, also known as Dühring-Brocq disease, is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis that evolves in outbreaks. It is characterized by the presence of small blisters that tend to cluster on the elbows, knees, and buttocks, with a symmetrical distribution and intense itching. It is considered a cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. It affects young adults (20 to 50 years old). Histopathological examination reveals subepidermal blisters. Direct immunofluorescence is characteristic, showing granular deposits of IgA at the tips of the dermal papillae. Even in the absence of digestive symptoms, celiac disease should be investigated in all patients. A gluten-free diet is the key to treatment. In patients with intense itching or extensive dermatosis, oral dapsone can be used to quickly relieve cutaneous manifestations, but it does not alter the course of the digestive disease. We present a patient in whom the diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiformis was made initially, followed by a diagnosis of celiac disease based on the skin lesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Celiac Disease/pathology , Dermatitis Herpetiformis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Glutens
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 196-204, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399277

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of vegetable proteins as ingredients in food systems is based on their functional properties. The water and oil holding capacity, foaming, and emulsifying capacity/stability, and antioxidant assay of the protein fractions - albumins, globulins 7S/11S, glutelins and prolamins - isolated from Leucaena seed were evaluated. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties and antioxidant capacity of the concentrate and protein fractions of ripe Leucaena spp. seeds. Materials and methods: Ripe Leucaena seeds were collected and evaluated in Oaxaca, Mexico (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) during the months of February-April 2021.The protein concentrate was isolated by isoelectric precipitation (pH=9, pH=4). The albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins were isolated based on their solubility properties in different extracting solutions. Results: Glutelins constituted the main protein fraction (75.88%). Prolamins were not found. The glutelins fractions showed the highest oil holding capacity (0.93±0.08 mL g-1). The albumins fraction had the highest water holding capacity (2.53±0.15 mL g-1), foaming capacity and foam stability (71.83±1.26 % and 70.00±0.00%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (18.09±0.88%). The globulins exhibited the highest emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability (56.83±1.76% and 55.67±1.20%, respectively). Conclusions: The concentrate and protein fraction of Leucaena seeds showed different techno-functional and antioxidant properties of interest for the food industry, like those showed by other commercial vegetable proteins(AU)


Introducción: El uso de proteínas vegetales como ingredientes en sistemas alimentarios se basa en sus propiedades funcionales. Se evaluó la capacidad de retención de agua y aceite, la capacidad/estabilidad espumante y emulsionante y el ensayo antioxidante de las fracciones proteicas -albúminas, globulinas 7S/11S, glutelinas y prolaminas- aisladas de las semillas de Leucaena. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades funcionales y la capacidad antioxidante del concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas maduras de Leucaena spp. Materiales y métodos: Las semillas maduras de Leucaena fueron recolectadas y evaluadas en Oaxaca, México (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) durante los meses de febrero-abril del año 2021. Se usó harina de Leucaena desgrasada para la preparación de las fracciones proteicas. El concentrado proteico se aisló por precipitación isoeléctrica (pH=9, pH=4). Las albúminas, globulinas, glutelinas y prolaminas se aislaron en función de sus propiedades de solubilidad en diferentes soluciones de extracción. Resultados: Las glutelinas constituyeron la principal fracción proteica (75,88%). No se encontraron prolaminas. La fracción de glutelinas mostró la mayor capacidad de retención de aceite (0.93±0,08 mL g-1). La fracción de albúminas presentó la mayor capacidad de retención de agua (2,53±0,15 mL g-1), capacidad espumante y estabilidad de la espuma (71,83±1,26% y 70,00±0,00%, respectivamente) y capacidad antioxidante (18,09±0,88%). Las globulinas mostraron la mayor capacidad emulsionante y estabilidad de la emulsión (56,83±1,76 y 55,67±1,20%, respectivamente). Conclusiones: El concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas de Leucaena mostraron diferentes propiedades tecno-funcionales y antioxidantes de interés para la industria alimentaria, similares a los reportados por diversas proteínas vegetales comerciales(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins, Dietary/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Seeds , Plant Oils/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Food Industry , Albumins/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry , Globulins/chemistry , Glutens/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 719-727, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153409

ABSTRACT

Abstract Six different bread wheat genotypes; two Egyptian commercial varieties (control); Giza-168 and Gemmeiza-11, and four promising lines; L84 and L148, resulted via hybridization and M10 and M34 via radiation mutation program) were rheologically evaluated using extensograph and for protein, analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The radiation mutant M10 and M34 had the highest maximum resistance which is a very good indicator of strong gluten. The amount of gluten content was higher in M10, L148, and M34 compared to the control samples Gz168 and Gm11. Sulfide amino acids (CYS and MET) are slightly higher in M10. The electrophoretic results and amino acid analyzers show that the best technological quality was exhibited by M10. Radiation mutants wheat genotypes have a protein with good characteristics, mainly gluten which is significantly higher compared to control samples. The rheological properties measured as extensograph and gel electrophoresis were much better in irradiated lines M10 and M34.


Resumo Seis diferentes genótipos de trigo de pão, duas variedades comerciais egípcias (controle) - Giza-168 e Gemmeiza-11 - e quatro linhas promissoras - L84 e L148, obtidas via hibridação, e M10 e M34, via programa de mutação por radiação - foram avaliados reologicamente por meio de extensógrafo, enquanto, para proteínas, foram feitas análises utilizando eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Os mutantes de radiação M10 e M34 apresentaram a maior resistência máxima, o que é um indicador muito bom de glúten forte. A quantidade de glúten foi maior em M10, L148 e M34 em comparação com as amostras de controle Gz168 e Gm11. Os aminoácidos sulfurados (CYS e MET) são um pouco mais altos no M10. Os resultados eletroforéticos e analisadores de aminoácidos mostram que a melhor qualidade tecnológica foi exibida pelo M10. Os genótipos de trigo mutantes da radiação possuem uma proteína com boas características, principalmente o glúten, que é significativamente maior em comparação às amostras do grupo controle. As propriedades reológicas medidas, como extensógrafo e eletroforese em gel, foram muito melhores nas linhas irradiadas M10 e M34.


Subject(s)
Bread , Flour , Triticum/genetics , Genotype , Glutens
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 214-216, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285320

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune reaction mostly to wheat gluten. The diagnosis is based on clinical, serological and histological findings in patients ingesting gluten. Cases that the clinical profile indicates CD and the autoantibodies are negative bring so a dilemma for the professional, as the risk of missed the diagnosis or a delay at the same. OBJECTIVE: To show the importance of correct diagnosis of cases with seronegative celiac disease (SNCD). METHODS: Ten cases of SNCD Brazilian patients were retrospectively studied (2013 to 2019). Data of clinical complaints, autoantibodies, IgA serum levels, histological findings and HLA-DQ2/DQ-8 were compiled. Dual-X densitometry, delay at diagnosis, previous autoimmune diseases and family history of CD were also checked. RESULTS: All SNCD patients presented clinical symptoms of CD, with confirmed diagnosis by histological findings of the duodenal mucosa and HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 positivity. All patients had normal IgA levels and negative autoantibodies (IgA-anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysial). Dual-X densitometry detected osteopenia in two women and osteoporosis in two males, all with low levels of vitamin D. Delay diagnostic ranged from 1 to 19 years. Familiar occurrence of CD was reported in 40% of the cases. After one year of gluten-free diet, eight patients refer improve of symptoms, while duodenal biopsies, done in five cases, showed histological improvement. CONCLUSION: Patients who demonstrate the clinical profile of celiac disease with negative serology and normal levels of IgA, especially those who have family members with celiac disease, should be submitted to duodenal biopsies to look for histological findings.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença celíaca (DC) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada por reação imune principalmente ao glúten do trigo. O diagnóstico é baseado em achados clínicos, sorológicos e histológicos em pacientes que ingerem glúten. Casos em que o perfil clínico indica DC e os autoanticorpos são negativos trazem um dilema para o profissional, como o risco de não realizar ou atrasar o diagnóstico da DC. OBJETIVO: Mostrar a importância do diagnóstico correto de casos com doença celíaca soronegativa (DCSN). MÉTODOS: Dez casos de pacientes brasileiros com DCSN foram estudados retrospectivamente (2013 a 2019). Foram compilados dados de queixas clínicas, autoanticorpos, níveis séricos de IgA, achados histológicos e HLA-DQ2 / DQ-8. Densitometria, atraso no diagnóstico, doenças autoimunes prévias e histórico familiar de DC também foram verificados. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes com DCSN apresentaram sintomas clínicos de DC, com diagnóstico confirmado por achados histológicos da mucosa duodenal e positividade para HLA-DQ2 e/ou HLA-DQ8. Todos os pacientes apresentavam níveis normais de IgA e autoanticorpos negativos (IgA-anti-transglutaminase e anti-endomisial). A densitometria detectou osteopenia em duas mulheres e osteoporose em dois homens, todos com baixos níveis de vitamina D. O atraso no diagnóstico variou de 1 a 19 anos. A ocorrência familiar de DC foi relatada em 40% dos casos. Após 1 ano de dieta isenta em glúten, oito pacientes referem melhora dos sintomas, enquanto as biópsias duodenais, realizadas em cinco casos, mostraram melhora histológica. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes que apresentam quadro clínico de doença celíaca com sorologia negativa e níveis normais de IgA, principalmente aqueles que possuem familiares com doença celíaca, devem ser submetidos à biópsia duodenal para pesquisa de achados histológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Autoantibodies , Transglutaminases , Retrospective Studies , Diet, Gluten-Free , Glutens
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 164-167, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by the ingestion of gluten. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines published in 2012 suggested a no-biopsy pathway (NBP) for symptomatic children with IgA tissue transglutaminase (TGA-IgA) ≥10x upper limit of normal (ULN). Biopsy confirmation remained mandatory for other cases. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective case note study was aimed at evaluating the adherence to the ESPGHAN 2012 guidelines for diagnosing CD in our unit. METHODS: Forty-three cases with positive TGA-IgA were identified by a laboratory database search from January 2013 to December 2019. 6 of 43 patients were not referred for a confirmation of CD diagnosis. Data was collected on the diagnostic pathways followed, and appropriateness of adherence was compared with the existing ESPGHAN guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 37 cases were included with 35 children diagnosed with CD. 29/35 (83%) were diagnosed via the NBP;15/29 (52%) children did not meet all the criteria required for NBP, but were diagnosed and managed as having CD. 20/35 (57%) children were diagnosed with CD in adherence to the 2012 guidelines. CONCLUSION: The recommended diagnostic guidelines were frequently not implemented; adherence to the guidelines may improve following regular educational sessions. The revised 2020 ESPGHAN guidelines which exclude HLA-DQ2/DQ8 testing would address the issue of diagnosis for the 10/15 NBP cases (with TGA-IgA >10xULN) in our study who did not have HLA testing and were therefore non-adherent to the 2012 diagnostic guidelines. NBP, with the reduced need for endoscopy may be beneficial in resource limited settings.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença celíaca (DC) é uma doença sistêmica imuno-mediada provocada pela ingestão de glúten. As diretrizes da Sociedade Europeia de Gastroenterologia Pediátrica, Hepatologia e Nutrição (ESPGHAN) publicadas em 2012 sugeriram uma via sem biópsia (VSB) para crianças sintomáticas com transglutaminase de tecido IgA (TGA-IgA) ≥10x limite superior do normal (LSN). A confirmação da biópsia permaneceu obrigatória para outros casos. OBJETIVO: Este estudo retrospectivo de dados de caso teve como objetivo avaliar a adesão às diretrizes da ESPGHAN 2012 para o diagnóstico de DC em nossa unidade. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e três casos com TGA-IgA positivo foram identificados por uma pesquisa laboratorial de banco de dados de janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2019. Seis de 43 pacientes não foram encaminhados para confirmação do diagnóstico de DC. Os dados foram coletados nas vias diagnósticas seguidas, e a adequação da adesão foi comparada com as diretrizes ESPGHAN existentes. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 37 casos com 35 crianças diagnosticadas com DC. Foram diagnosticados 29 (83%) de 35 VSB; 15 (52%) de 29 crianças não atenderam a todos os critérios exigidos para a VSB, mas foram diagnosticadas e gerenciadas como tendo DC. Vinte (57%) em 35 foram diagnosticadas com DC em adesão às diretrizes de 2012. CONCLUSÃO: As diretrizes diagnósticas recomendadas não foram frequentemente implementadas; a adesão às diretrizes pode melhorar após sessões educativas regulares. As diretrizes revisadas ESPGHAN de 2020 que excluem os testes HLA-DQ2/DQ8 abordariam a questão do diagnóstico para 10 em 15 casos VSB (com TGA-IgA >10x LSN) em nosso estudo os quais não fizeram testes de HLA e, portanto, não aderiram às diretrizes de diagnóstico de 2012. A VSB, com a necessidade reduzida de endoscopia, pode ser benéfica em configurações limitadas de recursos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Autoantibodies , Biopsy , Transglutaminases , Retrospective Studies , Glutens
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00244219, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153698

ABSTRACT

As desordens relacionadas ao glúten (DRG) afetam de 1% a 6% da população, com complicações e alto risco de morbimortalidade em curto e longo prazos. Desde 2009, o Brasil possui um Protocolo Clínico de Diretrizes Terapêuticas para a Doença Celíaca, entretanto, são comuns as queixas das pessoas com DRG a respeito da falta de conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde nessa temática e das dificuldades relacionadas ao cuidado em saúde em relação tanto ao diagnóstico quanto ao tratamento. Este estudo objetivou compreender as fragilidades no cuidado em saúde percebidas por pessoas com DRG. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa virtual no grupo Viva Sem Glúten (VSG), da rede social Facebook, na qual foram consultados os registros armazenados no grupo por 65 meses, que totalizaram 510 postagens e seus respectivos comentários. Os dados foram agrupados em categorias, e foi realizada análise temática de conteúdo, adotando-se os referenciais teóricos sobre o cuidado em saúde. A análise revelou que as buscas por um diagnóstico e por tratamento adequado frequentemente são descritas como uma peregrinação, sendo decorrentes das fragilidades no cuidado em saúde, traduzidas pela falta de conhecimento atualizado dos profissionais sobre as DRG e por problemas na relação profissional-paciente. As fragilidades no cuidado em saúde e os diagnósticos tardios contribuem para aumentar o risco de complicações e óbitos. Nesse contexto, o grupo VSG se destaca em seu papel de grupo de apoio e rede de solidariedade, favorecendo o esclarecimento e o empoderamento de inúmeras pessoas com DRG.


Gluten-related disorders affect 1% to 6% of the population, with complications and high risk of short and long-term morbidity and mortality. Since 2009, Brazil has a Clinical Protocol of Therapeutic Guidelines for Celiac Disease, but there are frequent complaints by persons with gluten-related disorders concerning the lack of healthcare professionals' knowledge of this topic and the difficulties related to healthcare, for both diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to understand the weaknesses in healthcare perceived by persons with gluten-related disorders. An online qualitative survey was conducted in the Living Without Gluten group on Facebook, consulting the records saved by the group for 65 months, which totaled 510 posts and the respective comments. The data were grouped in categories, and thematic content analysis was performed, adopting the theoretical references on healthcare. The analysis revealed that the searches for diagnosis and adequate treatment were often described as a forced pilgrimage, resulting from shortcomings in healthcare, including lack of up-to-date knowledge on gluten-related disorders among the healthcare professionals and problems in the physician-patient relationship. Weaknesses in patient care and late diagnoses contribute to increasing the risk of complications and deaths. In this context, the Living Without Gluten group plays a leading role as a support group and network of solidarity, favoring increased awareness and empowerment of numerous Brazilians with gluten-related disorders.


Los desórdenes relacionados al gluten afectan de 1% a 6% de la población, con complicaciones y alto riesgo de morbimortalidad en corto y largo plazos. Desde 2009, Brasil posee un Protocolo Clínico de Directrices Terapéuticas para la Enfermedad Celíaca, sin embargo, son comunes las quejas de las personas con desórdenes relacionados al gluten, respecto a la falta de conocimiento de los profesionales de salud en esa temática y las dificultades relacionadas con el cuidado en salud, en relación tanto con el diagnóstico como con el tratamiento. Este estudio se marcó como objetivo comprender las fragilidades en el cuidado en salud percibidas por personas con desórdenes relacionados al gluten. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa virtual en el grupo Vivir Sin Gluten (VSG) de la red social Facebook, en la que se consultaron los registros almacenados en el grupo durante 65 meses, que totalizaron 510 posts y sus respectivos comentarios. Los datos se agruparon en categorías y se realizó un análisis temático de contenido, adoptándose los referenciales teóricos sobre el cuidado en salud. El análisis reveló que las búsquedas de un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado frecuentemente se describen como una peregrinación, siendo derivados de las fragilidades en el cuidado en salud, traducidas por la falta de conocimiento actualizado de los profesionales sobre las desórdenes relacionados al gluten y por problemas en la relación profesional-paciente. Las fragilidades en el cuidado en salud y los diagnósticos tardíos contribuyen a aumentar el riesgo de complicaciones y óbitos. En este contexto el grupo VSG se destaca en su papel de grupo de apoyo y red de solidaridad, favoreciendo la información y el empoderamiento de innumerables personas con desórdenes relacionados al gluten.


Subject(s)
Humans , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Glutens/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Diet, Gluten-Free
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210256, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339311

ABSTRACT

Abstract While the role of cytokines in celiac disease has been investigated in detail, cytokine release in the event of the exposure of healthy subjects to glutens has only recently been studied. This study was aimed at determining the effects of corn and wheat glutens, incorporated as protein sources into the diet, on serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels and the immunohistochemical distribution of CD3 and CD8 receptors in the small intestine in male rats. The study material comprised 24 twenty-day-old male Wistar albino rats, which were randomly assigned in equal numbers to three groups (2 rats/replicate and 4 replicates/group). The feed rations provided to all three groups contained high levels of proteins, which were soybean meal, corn gluten and wheat gluten in the control, corn and wheat groups, respectively. The in Control, Corn and Wheat groups serum IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels respectively 55.83 - 46.37; 81.65 - 61.95 and 81.65-61.31 was determined but these differences were statistically insignificant. Furthermore, immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a mathematical increase to have occurred in the distribution of the CD3 and CD8 receptors in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples of the corn and wheat groups. In result, based on the findings obtained in this study, we suggest that the long-term feeding of rats on high levels of gluten causes systemic adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cytokines/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Glutens/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar
10.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: e1786, 31 mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489619

ABSTRACT

Com objetivo de produzir pão sem glúten com composição química aprimorada e boa qualidade sensorial, foram elaboradas três formulações com diferentes quantidades de mucilagem de quiabo: (F0) 0 mL; (F1) 100 mL; (F2) 150mL. Determinou-se: rendimento da mucilagem, composição centesimal, valor calórico e atributos sensoriais dos pães por meio de escala hedônica. A mucilagem aumentou o rendimento das F1 e F2. Não houve diferença no teor de proteínas e o teor de lipídios de 7,9 g 100 g-1 (F1) e 6,0 g 100 g-1 (F2) foram inferiores ao da F0. A umidade da F1 (32,15 g 100 g-1) foi menor que nas demais formulações, enquanto cinzas (0,70 g 100 g-1), carboidrato (56,75 g 100 g-1) e valor calórico (308,1 kcal 100 g-1) foram superiores. No teste sensorial, todos os atributos foram avaliados nas categorias “gostei ligeiramente” e “gostei extremamente” pela maioria dos julgadores. A F1 obteve avaliações superiores às da F2 para textura, cor e impressão global e não diferiu em nenhum dos atributos na F0. Conclui-se que a F1 pode ser uma opção viável na busca de pão sem glúten com composição química aprimorada, por conter menor teor de lipídio e umidade, maior teor de cinzas e boa aceitação sensorial.


With the goal of producing gluten-free bread with improved chemical composition and good sensorial quality, three formulations were prepared with different amounts of okra mucilage: (F0) 0 mL; (F1) 100 mL; (F2) 150 mL. From this was determined: mucilage yield, centesimal composition, caloric value and sensory attributes of bread by hedonic scale. Mucilage increased the yield of F1 and F2. There was no difference in protein content and the lipid content of 7.9 g 100 g-1 (F1) and 6.0 g 100 g-1 (F2) were lower than that of F0. The moisture content of F1 (32.15 g 100 g-1) was lower than the other formulations, while ash (0.70 g 100 g-1), carbohydrate (56.75 g 100 g-1) and caloric value (308,1 kcal 100 g-1) were higher. In the sensory test, attributes were rated in the categories “liked slightly” and “liked extremely” by most judges. F1 scored higher than F2 for texture, color and overall impression and did not differ in any of the attributes at F0. It can be concluded that F1 may be a viable option in the search for gluten-free bread with improved chemical composition, as it contains lower lipid and moisture content, higher ash content and good sensory acceptance.


Subject(s)
Abelmoschus , Glutens/analysis , Plant Mucilage , Polysaccharides , Bread/analysis , Food Composition , Diet, Gluten-Free , Celiac Disease
11.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2020. 58 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1179129

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación de campo se enfocó en hacer un estudio sobre la alimentación de las personas celiacas en El Salvador asociadas en ACELYSES. Se propuso un recetario de alimentos libres de gluten como fuente de carbohidratos complejos, a base de yuca, camote y otros vegetales inocuos para contribuir en la dieta de personas con intolerancia al gluten (celíacos). Para la elaboración de las 27 recetas fue necesario dar prioridad a la inocuidad y control de la contaminación cruzada, es decir, que los alimentos no hayan sido contaminados con gluten en ningún proceso. Otro aspecto importante fue analizar la trazabilidad de las materias primas que se deben utilizar para preparar los alimentos, así como los utensilios con los que se preparan, a fin de evitar riesgos a las personas con esta patología. Se realizaron pruebas sensoriales y hedónicas a través de focus group para obtener la opinión de aceptación de las recetas propuestas; igualmente, se elaboró una tabla con el contenido nutricional de cada receta, lo cual permitirá al usuario informarse del consumo de grasas, carbohidratos y otros minerales en beneficio de su salud.


This field research was focused on conducting a study of the diet of people with celiac disease in El Salvador associated with ACELYSES. A recipe book for gluten-free foods was proposed as a source of complex carbohydrates, based on yucca, sweet potato and other harmless vegetables to contribute to the diet of people with gluten intolerance (celiacs). For the preparation of the 27 recipes, it was necessary to give priority to safety and control of cross contamination, that means that the food had not been contaminated with gluten in any process. Another important aspect was to analyze the traceability of the raw materials that should be used to prepare food, as well as the utensils with which they are prepared, in order to avoid risks to people with this pathology. Sensory and hedonic tests were carried out through focus groups to obtain the opinion of acceptance of the proposed recipes; Likewise, a table was prepared with the nutritional content of each recipe, which can allow the user to find out about the consumption of other fats, carbohydrates and minerals for the benefit of their health.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Yucca , Ipomoea batatas , Diet , Glutens , Research , Carbohydrates , Food
12.
Hig. aliment ; 34(290): 86-95, Janeiro/Junho 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482538

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar ingredientes, informação nutricional e valor financeiro de biscoitos isentos e com glúten. A amostra foi composta por 25 unidades de biscoitos sem glúten e 25 unidades com este componente, disponíveis em lojas de produtos naturais e em hipermercados do município de Barbacena/MG. As informações nutricionais foram obtidas por meio dos rótulos. Não houve diferença estatística entre os valores calóricos de biscoitos com e sem glúten ou acerca dos valores de carboidratos, gorduras totais e saturadas, fibras ou sódio. A quantidade de proteínas foi estatisticamente menor nos biscoitos sem glúten (p < 0,001) e os substitutos da farinha de trigo mais utilizados foram as fontes amiláceas: amido de milho e farinha de arroz. O preço dos biscoitos isentos de glúten foi significativamente maior comparado aos biscoitos com glúten (p < 0,001). Então, os biscoitos isentos de glúten avaliados possuem menor valor nutricional devido ao teor proteico reduzido, e maior custo, comparado ao biscoito com glúten.


The aim of this study was to compare ingredients, nutritional information and financial support of gluten-free and cookies with gluten. The sample consisted of 25 gluten-free cookies units and 25 with cookies with gluten units, available at health products stores and hypermarkets at the Barbacena city. Nutritional information was obtained through labels. There was not statistical difference between the caloric values of cookies with and without gluten or about the values of carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, fiber or sodium. The amount of protein was statistically lower in gluten-free cookies (p < 0.001) and the most used wheat flour substitutes were starchy sources: corn starch and rice flour. The price of gluten-free cookies was significantly higher compared to gluten-free cookies (p < 0.001). So, the gluten-free cookies evaluated have less nutritional value due to the reduced protein content and higher cost compared to the cookies with gluten


Subject(s)
Cookies , Diet, Gluten-Free , Glutens , Nutritive Value
13.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2019080, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092141

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status and gastrointestinal changes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of 39 children with ASD aged between three and ten years old, registered in the participating association. Nutritional status was evaluated by body mass index/age and weight/age, according to the guidelines from the World Health Organization. In order to investigate whether gastrointestinal alterations occurred, the interviewees answered a questionnaire about the presence of these symptoms within the last 30 days. In order to evaluate food consumption, a 24-hour recall questionnaire was applied and the food reported were grouped as: gluten sources, casein and ultra-processed sources. For the statistical analysis, Epi-Info software version 7.2 was used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the variables associated with gastrointestinal alterations. Results: There was a high prevalence of overweight children with autism spectrum disorder (64.1%). No child was underweight. Thirty-four children (84.2%) had gastrointestinal symptoms. Consumption of gluten was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (β=0.38; 95%CI 0.07-0.75; p=0.02). Conclusions: The high prevalence of being overweight should be considered during the follow-up visits of children with ASD. The influence of gluten consumption on the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms was observed in this study, and the causes involved in these alterations need to be further investigated.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a presença de alterações gastrintestinais em crianças com transtorno do espectro autista. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, composto por 39 crianças autistas com idades entre três e dez anos, cadastradas na associação participante. O estado nutricional foi analisado a partir do índice de massa corporal/idade e do peso/idade, tendo como referências as curvas da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Para investigação das alterações gastrintestinais, o entrevistado respondeu sobre a presença de alterações nos últimos 30 dias. Na avaliação do consumo alimentar foi aplicado um recordatório de 24 horas e os alimentos listados foram categorizados em: fontes de glúten, fontes de caseína e ultraprocessados. A análise estatística utilizou o software Epi-Info, versão 7.2. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada para avaliar os fatores associados às alterações gastrintestinais. Resultados: Observou-se alta prevalência de excesso de peso nas crianças com transtorno do espectro autista (64,1%), não sendo registrada nenhuma criança com déficit de peso. Um total de 34 crianças (84,2%) apresentava alterações gastrintestinais. O consumo de glúten esteve associado às manifestações gastrintestinais (β=0,38; IC95% 0,07-0,75; p=0,02). Conclusões: A elevada prevalência do excesso de peso deve ser tratada com maior atenção em crianças com transtorno do espectro autista. Foi observada a influência do consumo de glúten no aparecimento das alterações gastrintestinais, sendo necessário que as causas envolvidas nessas alterações sejam mais bem investigadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutritional Status , Overweight/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Body Mass Index , Diet Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Glutens/administration & dosage , Glutens/adverse effects
14.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 132-136, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) on hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) concentrations among previously immunized pediatric celiac disease (CD) subjects.METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated pediatric CD subjects in serological remission who were previously immunized for hepatitis B virus as infants. The temporal relationship between HBsAb concentration, the amount of time on a GFD, and age were evaluated.RESULTS: Overall, 373 CD subjects were analyzed: 156 with HBsAb sampled prior to GFD initiation and 217 after initiation of a GFD and in serological remission. Median age at HBsAb concentration measurement for those before and after GFD initiation was 5.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.1–9.2 years) and 7.6 years (IQR, 5.4–10.9 years), respectively (p<0.001). There was no sex difference between the groups. The median time of HBsAb measurement was 2 months (IQR, 0–5.7 months) before and 12.8 months (IQR, 5.3–30.3 months) after initiation of GFD. The HBsAb concentration was low in 79 (50.6%) and 121 (55.7%) subjects before and after GFD initiation, respectively (p=0.350). Age was inversely associated with low HBsAb concentrations. Neither being on a GFD nor sex was associated with low HBsAb concentrations.CONCLUSION: Adherence to a GFD does not affect HBsAb concentration in children with CD. Age is inversely associated with HBsAb concentration.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Antibodies , Celiac Disease , Diet, Gluten-Free , Glutens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Immunization , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 11-16, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787239

ABSTRACT

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a term that is used to describe individuals who are not affected by celiac disease or wheat allergy, yet they have intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms related to gluten ingestion with improvement of their symptoms upon withdrawing gluten from their diet. Gluten-related disorder groups are manifested by symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders, as well as hematological dermatological endocrinological, gynecological, rheumatological and nervous system symptoms. It is believed that NCGS represents heterogeneous groups with different subgroups characterized by different etiologies, clinical histories and clinical courses. There also appears to be an overlap between NCGS and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is a need for establishing strict criteria for diagnosing NCGS. The absence of validated biomarkers remains a significant limitation for research studies on NCGS. New evidence shows that a gluten-free diet may be beneficial for some patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as those symptoms commonly found in patients with IBS. Further studies about NCGS are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Biomarkers , Celiac Disease , Diarrhea , Diet , Diet, Gluten-Free , Eating , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glutens , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Nervous System , Wheat Hypersensitivity
16.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 419-427, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041367

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of gluten intake according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related behavioral variables in adolescents. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a two-stage cluster sampling, conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. Foods containing gluten were identified using a 24-hour Recall. We calculated the prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios with multiple Poisson regression. Results: The study had a sample of 924 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years. Among the foods assessed, 26.9% (confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 25.3-28.6) contained gluten. We found a higher prevalence of gluten intake in younger individuals (10 to 14 years), as well as in subgroups of adolescents who had a higher number of household appliances, attended school, consumed fewer beans and vegetables during the week (<4 times), and whose head of the family had better education level (≥12 years of schooling). The main food sources of gluten in their diet were: bread, cakes, and cereals (30.2%), chocolate milk (14%), chicken nuggets (12.3%), and cookies (11%). Conclusions: The results of the study show the epidemiological profile associated with gluten intake in adolescents and could support actions aimed at promoting healthy eating habits and preventing gluten-related diseases.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência da ingestão de alimentos com glúten segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde em adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra por conglomerados e em dois estágios, realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, em 2008-2009. Os alimentos com glúten foram identificados por meio do Recordatório de 24 horas. Calcularam-se prevalências e razões de prevalência ajustadas por meio de regressão múltipla de Poisson. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 924 adolescentes de dez a 19 anos. Entre os alimentos referidos, 26,9% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 25,3-28,6) continham glúten. Prevalências superiores de ingestão de glúten foram verificadas nos indivíduos mais jovens (dez a 14 anos), bem como nos subgrupos de adolescentes cujo chefe de família era mais escolarizado (≥12 anos de estudo), nos que possuíam maior número de equipamentos domésticos na residência, nos que frequentavam a escola e naqueles que consumiam menos feijão e hortaliças durante a semana (<4 vezes). As principais fontes alimentares de glúten na dieta foram: pães, bolos e cereais (30,2%), achocolatado (14%), nuggets (12,3%) e biscoitos (11%). Conclusões: Os resultados do estudo mostram o perfil epidemiológico associado ao consumo de glúten em adolescentes e podem subsidiar ações voltadas à promoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis e de prevenção de doenças relacionadas ao glúten.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adolescent Behavior , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Glutens , Diet Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion
17.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(2): e820, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003963

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sensibilidad al gluten no celíaca es una afección emergente descrita en la última década, mediada por mecanismos inmunes, sin reconocido marcador serológico. Objetivo: Actualizar los conocimientos sobre esta condición, patogenia, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones en español e inglés en bases de datos de Google académico, PubMed, Scielo y Latindex desde el 2014 hasta el 20 agosto 2018. Resultados: Se trata de una afección no alérgica ni autoinmune. Se analiza su repercusión en niños y adultos. La epidemiología no está establecida, su presencia varía entre 6-10 por ciento, con predominio femenino/masculino 3:1. Se revisaron los criterios sobre la patogenia relacionados con las prolaminas de cereales tóxicos, carbohidratos de cadena corta fermentable e inhibidores de amilasa y tripsina. Se evaluaron los síntomas clínicos (intestinales y extraintestinales) y analizaron los argumentos del diagnóstico definitivo y diferencial con otras enfermedades desencadenadas por gluten. La dieta sin gluten representa la única opción terapéutica. Los síntomas desaparecen con su supresión y reaparecen con su reintroducción. Consideraciones finales: La sensibilidad al gluten no celíaca es una entidad de nueva aparición con participación de procesos inmunes y patogenia sustentada por distintos mecanismos con síntomas intestinales y extraintestinales relacionados con consumo de gluten. El diagnóstico no debe ser por exclusión del gluten, sino evaluación clínica, pues no existe diagnóstico serológico. Hay otras afecciones con similares manifestaciones como enfermedad celíaca, alergia al gluten, síndrome intestino irritable y enteritis linfocítica, con las que se debe hacer diagnóstico diferencial(AU)


Introduction: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SGNC, by its acronyms in Spanish) is an emerging condition of the last decade, which is mediated by immune mechanisms without a recognized serological marker. Objective: To update knowledge on SGNC, its pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment. Methods: Publications in Spanish and English were reviewed in Google scholar, PubMed, SciELO and Latindex databases from 2014 to August 20, 2018. Results: Information about the description of SGNC as a non-allergic or autoimmune condition and impact on children and adults is updated. Epidemiology is not established, although recent studies report that it varies between 6 to 10 percent, with predominance of female / male 3:1. The criteria for the pathogenesis related to the prolamines of toxic cereals, fermentable short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) and amylase and trypsin inhibitors are reviewed. The clinical symptoms (intestinal and extraintestinal) were evaluated and it was analyzed the argument established for the diagnosis of certainty and differential with other diseases triggered by gluten, especially celiac disease. The gluten-free diet represents the only treatment option. The symptoms disappear with gluten suppression and reappear when re-introducing it. Final Considerations: SGNC is a new entity mediated by an immune mechanism with pathogenesis supported by different mechanisms with intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms related to gluten consumption. The diagnosis should not be by exclusion of foods that contain gluten, but by clinical evaluation since there is not serological diagnosis. To know better on it is of interest due to other conditions, such as celiac disease, gluten allergy, irritable bowel syndrome and lymphocytic enteritis, which should be made by differential diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Food Intolerance/complications , Glutens/physiology
18.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1210-1213, abr.-maio 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482130

ABSTRACT

A determinação de importantes parâmetros de qualidade de cervejas foram realizados em duas cervejas comerciais sem glúten (A e B). Para a análise, as amostras foram degaseificadas em sonicador Desruptor de Célula Ultra-Sônico (UNIQUE) para posterior aferição de parâmetros físico-químicos. As análises foram realizadas em equipamento Anton Paar Beer analyzer do Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Ao final, seus resultados foram comparados com trabalhos da literatura com outras duas cervejas com glúten (C e D) em mesmo tipo de aparelho. Foram encontrados em média valores para as cervejas sem glúten inferiores a 26% para o álcool (%p/p), 8% para extrato real (%p/p), 22% para extrato original (%p/p) e 20% para grau real de fermentação (RDF %).


Subject(s)
Beer/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Glutens , Diet, Gluten-Free
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 92 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048744

ABSTRACT

Os produtos sem glúten vêm aumentando sua participação no mercado atual, direcionados a uma população com restrição alimentar, como no caso da doença celíaca. Para segurança destes consumidores, foi criada uma legislação tratando das informações contidas nos rótulos, como as alegações relativas à presença ou não de glúten nos produtos. No entanto, a alegação "NÃO CONTÉM GLÚTEN" é informação útil à indústria, no contexto de seu marketing nutricional e, assim, como um elemento de sua estratégia de concorrência. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar o impacto do marketing nutricional de alimentos sem glúten industrializados na rotulagem, sobre as escolhas alimentares de consumidores leigos, sem doença celíaca. Por meio de uma pesquisa qualitativa descritiva utilizando o método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo, concluiu-se que mais de 50% dos participantes recrutados seguem uma dieta livre de glúten motivados pela crença de ser saudável e auxiliar na manutenção do peso corpóreo. Estas motivações contrapõem-se à análise dos rótulos de produtos sem glúten industrializados que, apesar de estarem em conformidade com a LF 10.674/2003, são produtos, em sua maioria, ricos em carboidratos, com elevada densidade energética e sódio, cujos preços variam de 2 a 16 vezes mais que os produtos tradicionais similares. Grande parte das informações obtidas pelos participantes advém de meios virtuais como a internet e redes sociais, que promovem informação equivocada por meio de um marketing nutricional virtual que se aproveita de mitos envolvendo o glúten. Com os resultados dessa pesquisa, propõe-se o aumento de ações que visem informar corretamente a população brasileira sobre o assunto e o aprimoramento da legislação vigente determinando especificamente o local e o formato da informação básica sobre o glúten na rotulagem


Gluten-free products are increasing their share in the current market, targeting a population with food restriction, as in the case of celiac disease. For the safety of these consumers, legislation has been introduced dealing with information on labels such as claims regarding the presence or absence of gluten in products. However, the "GLUTEN FREE" claim is useful information to the industry in the context of its nutritional marketing and thus as an element of its competitive strategy. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of nutritional marketing of gluten-free foods by labeling processing on the food choices of lay consumers without celiac disease. Through a descriptive qualitative research using the Collective Subject Discourse method, it was concluded that more than 50% of the recruited participants follow a gluten-free diet motivated by the belief of being healthy and assisting in maintaining body weight. These motivations contrast with the analysis of processed gluten-free product labels which, while complying with LF 10.674/2003, are mostly carbohydrate-rich, high-calorie and sodium products, the prices of which vary. 2 to 16 times more than similar traditional products. Much of the information obtained by participants comes from virtual media such as the internet and social networks, which promote misinformation through virtual nutritional marketing that takes advantage of gluten myths. With the results of this research, it is proposed to increase actions aimed at correctly informing the Brazilian population about the subject and the improvement of current legislation, specifically determining the location and format of basic information on gluten in the labeling


Subject(s)
Marketing/instrumentation , Glutens/analysis , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Food Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 585-588, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762366

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glutens , Pilot Projects , Urticaria
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