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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
2.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 35-43, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.


RESUMO Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) é utilizada na medicina Ayurveda, medicina da Índia antiga e seu principal constituinte é a vitamina C, que possui propriedade sequestrante de radicais livres. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante in vitro e o perfil de biodisponibilidade da vitamina C na amla e suas combinações com piperina e gengibre em comparação com a vitamina C sintética, utilizando coelhos da Nova Zelândia. Os estudos de atividade antioxidante in vitro de vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre foram realizados utilizando-se diferentes modelos para sequestrantes, como 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidrazil, óxido nítrico, peróxido de hidrogênio, capacidade redutiva total e a estimativa da capacidade de absorvância do radical oxigênio. Os resultados do estudo mostraram que vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre possuem atividade antioxidante in vitro significativa. Para os estudos de biodisponibilidade, administraram-se oralmente vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre 100 mg/kg e as amostras de soro foram analisadas por CLAE em 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas. Os estudos de biodisponibilidade revelaram que a associação de amla com piperina tem maior concentração de vitamina C, quando comparada com a vitamina C sintética. Este efeito é provavelmente devido à presença de piperina, que é intensificador de biodisponibilidade. O presente estudo apoia o fato de que a associação de amla e piperina pode ser uma alternativa para a vitamina C sintética.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Phyllanthus emblica , Piper nigrum , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Ginger
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 1016-1022, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762579

ABSTRACT

Valproic acid (VPA), widely used in treating epileptic patients, can damage reproductive parameters causing male infertility. This study aimed to investigate protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. branch (PE) extract on rat testicular damage induced with VPA. Male rats were divided into 6 groups (control, VPA, 250 mg/kgBW PE only, and 50, 100, 250 mg/kgBW PE+VPA, respectively). Animals were pretreated with PE for 23 days and co-administered with VPA for 10 days before all reproductive parameters were determined. The results showed all doses of PE significantly protected the decrease testicular weight and testosterone level in VPA rats. PE significantly improved the decrease sperm concentration in VPA treated rats. Moreover, testicular histology of PE+VPA groups showed declining of testicular histopathologies as compared to VPA group. Therefore, it seems that PE branch extract can prevent testicular damages including male reproductive parameters in rats induced with VPA.


El ácido valproico (AVP) es utilizado frecuentemente en el tratamiento de pacientes epilépticos y puede dañar los parámetros reproductivos que causan la infertilidad masculina. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto protector de la rama Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) sobre el daño testicular de ratas inducidas con AVP. Ratas machos fueron divididas en 6 grupos (control, AVP, PE 250 mg/kg peso corporal, APV+ PE 50, 100, 250 mg/kg peso corporal, respectivamente). Los animales fueron pretratados con PE durante 23 días y se administró AVP durante 10 días antes de medir todos los parámetros reproductivos. Los resultados mostraron que todas las dosis de PE protegen significativamente el peso y los niveles reducidos de testosterona testicular en ratas con AVP. El extracto de PE mejoró significativamente la concentración de espermatozoides en ratas tratadas con AVP. Por otra parte, la histología testicular de los grupos PE+AVP mostró disminución de la histopatología testicular en comparación con el grupo tratado sólo con AVP. Por lo tanto, parece que el extracto de la rama PE puede prevenir daños testiculares incluyendo los parámetros reproductores masculinos en ratas inducidas con AVP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Valproic Acid/toxicity , Anticonvulsants/toxicity , Epididymis/drug effects , Epididymis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Sperm Count
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 110-115, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741223

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of six Indian plant extracts and 0.2% chlorhexidine against clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, which were isolated from the plaque samples of 45 pediatric patients. Six plant extracts were prepared in three different forms, namely aqueous extracts, organic solvent-based extracts and crude (raw) extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the mean zones of inhibition (mm) produced against the bacterial isolates. Results showed that crude garlic extract exhibited greater antibacterial activity than chlorhexidine. Aqueous extract of amla and organic solvent-based extract of ginger showed the maximum antibacterial activity against S. mutans, whereas aqueous extract of tulsi and organic solvent based extract of amla showed the minimum antibacterial activity. This study suggests that plant extracts like garlic in crude form, amla as aqueous infusion and ginger as alcoholic tincture have potential for the control of S. mutans. These extracts can be used as an alternative remedy for dental caries prevention or in the form of mouthwash, which is safe and economical.


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a atividade antibacteriana de seis plantas indianas contra linhagens clínicas de Streptococcus mutans, que foram isoladas das amostras de biofilme dental de 45 pacientes pediátricos, com 0,2% de clorexidina. Seis extratos vegetais foram preparados em três formas diferentes, a saber, extratos aquosos, extratos à base de solventes orgânicos e extratos brutos. Os testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foram realizados por método de difusão em agar. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada através da medição da zona de inibição, em milímetros, produzida contra os isolados bacterianos. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de alho cru apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana do que a clorexidina. O extrato aquoso de amla e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de gengibre mostraram a máxima atividade antibacteriana contra S. mutans, enquanto o extrato aquoso de tulsi (manjericão) e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de amla mostraram mínima atividades antibacteriana. Este estudo sugere que extratos de plantas como o alho em forma bruta, amla como infusão aquosa e gengibre como tintura alcoólica tem um potencial para o controle de S. mutans. Estes extratos podem ser utilizados como uma via alternativa para a prevenção de cáries dentárias ou sob a forma de bochechos, que são seguros e econômicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Plaque/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Aloe/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Ginger/chemistry , Glycerides/chemistry , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ocimum/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 115-121, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317099

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Triphala against bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Animals were divided into five groups of six rats and treated as follows: Group I was a normal control and received no treatment, Group II received only bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg), Groups III and IV received bromobenzene and Triphala (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), Group V received Triphala alone (500 mg/kg), and Group VI received bromobenzene and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Antioxidant status and serum kidney functional markers were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Bromobenzene treatment resulted in significant (P< 0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total reduced glutathione. There was a significant (P< 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were significant (P< 0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as well as significant (P< 0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Triphala treatment alleviated the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and kidney functional markers.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Diagnosis , Metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bromobenzenes , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Kidney , Metabolism , Pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Preparations , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Structures , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Silymarin , Pharmacology , Terminalia , Treatment Outcome
6.
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2015; 24 (4): 195-202
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-167521

ABSTRACT

Itrifal -Saghir or Triphala [tri = three and phala = fruits] is one of the oldest and commonly used polyherbal preparation. It is a botanical preparation include equal parts of three herbal fruits: Phyllanthus emblica., Terminalia chebula Retz and Terminalia belerica Retz. This study focuses on the indiations and components of Atrifel Sagir in obesity. Research resources include important traditional medicine book such as Al-Qanoon Fel Teb, Kolasetol hekma, Makzan al adviyeh and databases such as Google Scholar, Pub Med, Web of Science, SID and Iran Medex. Search terms were "Triphala", "Atrifal -Saghir", "Itrifal -Saghir" and "obesity" without narrowing or limiting search elements, with any outcome in humans and animals. There are a variety of indications for Atrifal - Saghir as described in Al-Qanoon Fel Teb such as purifies stomach enabling it for better coction. It is good for expels the phlegm. Its oral intake is useful for treating cases melancholy and anti-obesity. It strengthens the stomach by improving its capacity of coction assimilation and in improving relaxity and moistness of the stomach


Subject(s)
Plant Preparations , Fruit , Phyllanthus emblica , Terminalia , Obesity , Medicine, Traditional
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321343

ABSTRACT

This study is to establish the fingerprint for Phyllanthus emblica and their tannin parts from different habitats by HPLC for its quality control. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, with methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1). The temperature was maintained at 30 degrees C and the detected wavelength is 260 nm, Thirteen chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of the fingerprint of P. emblica, and eleven as the common peaks of P. emblica tannin parts, and five peaks were identified by comparing with referent samples. The fingerprints of 8 samples were compared and classified by similarity evaluation, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The similarity degrees of eight P. emblica were between 0.763 and 0.993, while tannin parts were between 0.903 and 0.991. All the samples of P. emblica and their tannin parts were classified into 3 categories. The method was so highly reproducible, simple and reliable that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of P. emblica from different habitats.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Chemistry , Classification , Quality Control , Tannins , Tibet
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) fruit on normal and type 2 diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#Type 2 diabetes was induced into the male Long-Evans rats. The rats were divided into nine groups including control groups receiving water, type 2 diabetic controls, type 2 diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (T2GT) and type 2 diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of fruit pulp of E. officinalis. They were fed orally for 8 weeks with a single feeding. Blood was collected by cutting the tail tip on 0 and 28 days and by decapitation on 56 day. Packed red blood cells and serum were used for evaluating different biochemical parameters.@*RESULTS@#Four weeks administration of aqueous extract of E. officinalis improved oral glucose tolerance in type 2 rats and after 8 weeks it caused significant (P<0.007) reduction in fasting serum glucose level compared to 0 day. Triglycerides decreased by 14% but there was no significant change in serum ALT, creatinine, cholesterol and insulin level in any group. Furthermore, reduced erythrocyte malondialdehyde level showed no significant change (P<0.07) but reduced glutathione content was found to be increased significantly (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The aqueous extract of E. officinalis has a promising antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and may be considered for further clinical studies in drug development.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Blood Glucose , Creatinine , Blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Glucose , Metabolism , Glutathione , Blood , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Insulin , Blood , Male , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Oxidative Stress , Phyllanthus emblica , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Long-Evans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199236

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a series of catabolic process mediating the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles through formation of a double-membrane vesicle, known as an autophagosome, and fusing with lysosome. Autophagy plays an important role of death-survival decisions in neuronal cells, which may influence to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Chebulagic acid, the major constituent of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, is a benzopyran tannin compound with various kinds of beneficial effects. This study was performed to investigate the autophagy enhancing effect of chebulagic acid on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. We determined the effect of chebulagic acid on expression levels of autophagosome marker proteins such as, DOR/TP53INP2, Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE 16) and Light chain 3 II (LC3 II), as well as those of its upstream pathway proteins, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Beclin-1. All of those proteins were modulated by chebulagic acid treatment in a way of enhancing the autophagy. Additionally in our study, chebulagic acid also showed a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) - induced cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson's disease. This effect seems partially mediated by enhanced autophagy which increased the degradation of aggregated or misfolded proteins from cells. This study suggests that chebulagic acid is an attractive candidate as an autophagy-enhancing agent and therefore, it may provide a promising strategy to prevent or cure the diseases caused by accumulation of abnormal proteins including Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , Adenosine Triphosphatases , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Autophagy , Cell Line , Humans , Lysosomes , Negotiating , Neuroblastoma , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Organelles , Parkinson Disease , Phyllanthus emblica , Sirolimus , Terminalia
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157528

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract on serum lipids and atherogenesis, in albino rats fed with high fat diet. Materials and Methods: Healthy albino rats of Wistar strain (150-200 gm each) were randomized into five groups of six animals each- Group A (received normal diet), Group B (received normal diet + Emblica officinalis extract 1 gm/kg BW) Group C (received high fat diet consisting of vanaspati ghee and coconut oil at a ratio of 3:2, at a dose of 10 ml/kg/day), Group D (received high fat diet + Emblica officinalis extract 1 gm/kg BW) and Group E (received high fat diet + simvastatin 1.8 mg/ kg BW). Treatment period was 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, lipid profile was evaluated by estimating total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum LDL, serum HDL and atherogenic index. Results: Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis showed significant antihyperlipidaemic activity (P< 0.01) with significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01). Conclusion: Present study suggests that Emblica officinalis extract at a dose of 1 gm/kg BW exerts antihyperlipidaemic effect comparable to that of simvastatin. It also possesses hypolipidaemic activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipids/blood , Lipids/drug therapy , Lipids/metabolism , Phyllanthus emblica/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Simvastatin/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To synthesize silver nanoparticles by amla extract, screen the cytotoxic, oxidative stress and apoptotic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Hep2 cell line (laryngeal carcinoma cells) in vitro, and to compare the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) (amla) with AgNPs synthesized by amla and 5-FU.@*METHODS@#AgNPs was synthesized by P. emblica (aqueous extract) and nanoparticles were characterized UV-Vis spec, the presence of biomoloecules of amla capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and DLS. Cytotoxicity of experimental drugs was tested to find IC(50) value. ROS generation in cells have been measured by DCFH-DA staining, AO-EtBr, Rhodamine-123 staining and DNA fragmentation were performed to assess apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic DNA damage, respectively. Oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring lipid peroxides and antioxidants level to understand the cancer cell death by pro-oxidant mechanism.@*RESULTS@#PE-AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of NPs. The shape of PE-AgNPs was spherical and cubic since it was agglomerated, and the nanoparticle surface was complicated. Average particle size distribution of PE-AgNPs was found to be 188 nm. Potent biomolecules of P. emblica such as polyphenols were capped with AgNPs and reduced its toxicity. In cytotoxicity assay the concentration in which the maximum number of cell death was 60 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL for P. emblica (alone) and AgNPs, respectively and IC(50) values were fixed as 30 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL. ROS generation, apoptotic morphological changes, mitochondrial depolarization, DNA damage and oxidative stress was observed as more in AgNPs treated cells than in P. emblica (30 μg/mL) (alone) treated cells and 5-FU treated cells gave similar result.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results suggest that the AgNPs are capped with biomolecules of amla enhanced cytotoxicity in laryngeal cancer cells through oxidative stress and apoptotic function on Hep2 cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Fluorouracil , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metal Nanoparticles , Chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Silver , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Metabolism
12.
Mycobiology ; : 8-13, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729363

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Bacteria , Biphenyl Compounds , Candida albicans , Endophytes , Escherichia coli , Ethanol , India , Phenol , Phyllanthus emblica , Picrates , Plants , Salmonella enterica , Streptococcus pyogenes
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) Linn. ethanolic extract on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and denture acrylic surfaces.@*METHODS@#Human BECs and transparent acrylic strips were pretreated with ethanolic extract solution of P. emblica fruits at concentration ranged from 18.7 to 300 mg/mL. After washing BECs and the strips were inoculated with three strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10281 and two clinical isolates) (10(7) cells/mL). Normal saline solution (NSS) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. BECs were harvested on 12 μm-polycarbonate filters (Millipore, USA). The membrane filters and the strips were stained with Gram stain. Adherent yeast cells on 100 randomly selected epithelial cells and 20 randomly selected fields on each strip were counted under microscope. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at a significant level of P< 0.05.@*RESULTS@#Significant lower numbers of all strains of yeasts adhering to BECs and acrylic strips were observed after exposure to 75-300 mg/mL of plant extract compared with NSS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present study demonstrates that P. emblica ethanolic extract interferes with the adhesion of C. albicans to BECs and denture acrylic surfaces in vitro.


Subject(s)
Acrylates , Adult , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Candida albicans , Cell Adhesion , Cells, Cultured , Dentures , Microbiology , Epithelium , Microbiology , Humans , Phyllanthus emblica , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 85(5): 613-620, set.-out. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-567820

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS: Melasma é uma melanodermia comum, cuja terapêutica representa um desafio clínico. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança clínicas do complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides, em comparação à hidroquinona 2 por cento, na abordagem do melasma. MÉTODOS: Após 60 dias de uso exclusivo de fotoprotetor FPS35, 56 mulheres com idades entre 18 e 60 anos, fotótipos I a IV, com melasma epidérmico ou misto, foram divididas em dois grupos de um estudo clínico monocego: A) creme contendo complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides 7 por cento, usado duas vezes ao dia; B)creme de hidroquinona 2 por cento, usado à noite. O estudo durou 60 dias consecutivos e avaliações médica, das voluntárias (auto-avaliação) e fotográfica (Visia®) foram realizadas quinzenalmente. RESULTADOS: 89 por cento das voluntárias (50/56), 23 do Grupo A e 27 do Grupo B, concluíram o estudo. Duas voluntárias do Grupo A contra sete do Grupo B apresentaram eventos adversos leves transitórios. Houve despigmentação do melasma pelas avaliações médica (Grupo A: 78,3 por cento; Grupo B: 88,9 por cento) e auto-avaliação (Grupo A: 91,3 por cento; Grupo B: 92,6 por cento), todos estatisticamente significantes (p<0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos (p>0,05). O mesmo padrão foi observado pelo Visia®, tanto no número (p = 0,001) quanto no tamanho e no tom (p<0,001), para ambos os grupos, e sem diferenças entre eles (p>0,05) nas manchas UV. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença estatística na melhora do melasma nos dois grupos; o Grupo A apresentou menor incidência de eventos adversos. Logo, o complexo despigmentante emblica, licorice e belides é uma alternativa segura e eficaz na abordagem do melasma.


BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common skin pigment disorder with a difficult clinical response to treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the association of Belides, Emblica and Licorice 7 percent, compared to Hydroquinone 2 percent, in the treatment of melasma. METHODS: After 60 days of exclusive use of an SPF35 sunscreen, 56 women, 18 to 60 years of age, phototypes I to IV, with epidermal or mixed melasma, were divided into two different groups in a mono-blind clinical study: A) cream with Belides, Emblica and Licorice, applied twice a day; B) cream with Hydroquinone 2 percent, used at night. They were observed in a 60-day study; every 15 days, they were submitted to medical evaluation, self-evaluation, and photographic registration (Visia®). RESULTS: 50 volunteers (89 percent), 23 in Group A and 27 in Group B, concluded the study. Two volunteers in Group A and 7 in Group B had mild skin adverse events. Depigmentation was observed through medical evaluation (Group A: 78.3 percent; Group B: 88.9 percent) and volunteers' self-evaluation (Group A: 91.3 percent; Group B: 92.6 percent); these results were statistically significant (p<0.001), with no differences between groups (p>0.05). This pattern of results was observed by Visia® in the number (p = 0.001) and size and tone (p<0.001) of the uv stains, for both groups, with no differences between them (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: There were no statistic differences between groups in the improvement of melasma. Group A showed less skin adverse events. Therefore, the association of Emblica, Licorice and Belides is a safe and efficient alternative for the treatment of melasma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Asteraceae/chemistry , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Hydroquinones/therapeutic use , Melanosis/drug therapy , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Phytotherapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Mar; 47(3): 157-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56241

ABSTRACT

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.


Subject(s)
Aging/drug effects , Animals , Lens, Crystalline/drug effects , Lens, Crystalline/growth & development , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ranidae , Regeneration/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-18471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Emblica officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: The effect of short- (15 days) and long (30 days)-term feeding of amla in mice on the course of K. pneumoniae ATCC43816 infection in lungs was studied, in terms of bacterial colonization, macrophage activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite production in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level in serum was also assessed. RESULTS: Though there was a decrease in bacterial colonization after short-term feeding, it was not significant. On the contrary, the decrease in bacterial load was significant (P < 0.05) on long-term feeding. The operative mechanisms in terms of lipid peroxidation, phagocytosis and nitrite production were studied by estimating their levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Maximum decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increase in phagocytic activity and nitrite levels on long-term feeding was seen. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dietary supplementation with amla protects against bacterial colonization of lungs on long-term feeding in experimental model. Further studies need to be conducted to understand the actual mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation , Mice , Nitrites/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jul; 45(7): 626-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58615

ABSTRACT

Efficacy of a herbal product of E. officinalis (fruit) (EO) has been evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA) induced changes in rat liver. Chronic treatment of CCl4 and TAA revealed abnormal histopathology indicative of pre-fibrogenic events. EO reversed such alterations with significant regenerative changes suggestive of its preventive role in prefibrogenesis of liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/pharmacology , Carcinogens/analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Liver/drug effects , Liver Cirrhosis , Phyllanthus emblica/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thioacetamide/pharmacology , Toxins, Biological
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 May; 45(5): 450-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56184

ABSTRACT

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH abuse resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with an elevation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). On the other hand, the HCH-induced impairment in hepatic catalase, G-6-PDH and SOD activities were modulated by amla at the 10% level of intake. Prefeeding of amla at 5 and 10% levels appeared to reduce the HCH-induced raise in renal GGT activity. The results show the elevation of hepatic antioxidant system and reduction of cytotoxic products as a result of prefeeding of amla, which were otherwise affected by the HCH administration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Kidney/enzymology , Hexachlorocyclohexane , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Liver Diseases/chemically induced , Male , Organ Size/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Weight Gain/drug effects , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 May; 43(5): 430-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61391

ABSTRACT

A single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, po in corn oil) increased the levels of SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), glutathione-S-transferase and depletion in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. It also caused enhancement in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA synthesis. There was also pathological deterioration of hepatic tissue as evident from multivacuolated hepatocytes containing fat globules around central vein. The pretreatment of E. officinalis for 7 consecutive days showed a profound pathological protection to liver cell as depicted by univacuolated hepatocytes. Pretreatment with E. officinalis at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, prior to CCl4 intoxication showed significant reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, LDH, glutathione-S-transferase, LPO and DNA synthesis. There was also increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The results suggest that E. officinalis inhibits hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , DNA Replication/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Male , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-25481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population. METHODS: Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three groups i.e., Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda (a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions. RESULTS: The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05), an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analysis of Variance , Female , Humans , India , Male , Malvaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Sleep/drug effects , Terminalia/chemistry , Time Factors , Withania/chemistry , Yoga
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