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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(2): e202000203, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic conditioning associated to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on testicular ischemia∕reperfusion (I∕R) injury in rats. Methods Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=5), as follows: Sham, I∕R, Perconditioning (PER), NAC and PER+NAC. Two-hour ischemia was induced by rotating the left testis 720° to clockwise direction, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Perconditioning was performed by three I/R cycles of 10 min each on the left limb, 30 min before reperfusion. N-acetylcysteine (150 mg∕kg) was administered 30 min before reperfusion. Results Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p<0.01), in addition there was statistical difference between PER and Sham, and PER+ NAC groups (p<0.05) in plasma. Conclusions The protective effect of perconditioning isolated in the reduction of lipid peroxidation related to oxidative stress was demonstrated. However, when Perconditioning was associated with NAC, there was no protective effect against testicular injury of ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Testis/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: sham, Group 2 ( T/D): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion, Group 3 (T/D+ G. lucidum ): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion and 7 days of 20 mg/kg via gastric gavage G. lucidum polysaccharides per day. Biochemical assays of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) levels , histopathology and expression levels of VEGF and Bcl-2 with immunohistochemical methods were examined in testicular tissue. Results G. lucidum treatment was found to have prevented the T/D-induced I/R injury by decreasing MDA levels of the testis. SOD, CAT and GSH activities were decreased in group 2, while they were increased in group 3 (p<0.001) and significant improvement in the tube diameter was observed in group 3. Bcl-2-positive germinal cells were lowered in group 3 compared to the group 2. VEGF expression showed an increase in group 2, whereas it decreased in group 3. Conclusion The antioxidant G. lucidum is thought to induce angiogenesis by reducing the apoptotic effect in testicular torsion-detorsion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reishi/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901102, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of Picroside II on testicular ischemia and reperfusion (l/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operated group (Sham), Sham with Picroside II treatment group (Sham+ Pic II), l/R group (l/R) and l/R with Picroside II treatment group (I/R+ Pic II). l/R model was established by rotating the left testis 720° in a clock-wise direction for 4 hours. The histopathologic and spermatogenetic evaluation was performed. The apoptosis changes and the levels of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), MPO (myeloperoxidase), NOX (NADPH oxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), XO (xanthine oxidase) and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) were measured. Results: The seminiferous tubules were damaged in l/R rats, but Picroside II alleviated the changes induced by l/R. The increased level of apoptosis was decreased by Picroside II (P=0.01, 9.05±0.35 vs. 4.85±0.25). The activities of HO-1, MPO, NOX, XO and MDA content were increased and the SOD activity was decreased in l/R (P<0.05) and could be reversed by Picroside II (P=0.03, 405.5±7.5 vs. 304±17U/mgprot; P=0.02, 0.99±0.05 vs. 0.52±0.04 mgprot; P=0.01, 260+7 vs. 189±2 mgprot; P=0.04, 10.95+0.55 vs. 8.75+0.35 U/mgprot; P=0.045, 6.8+0.7 vs. 3.75+0.35 mgprot; P=0.04, 44.5+3.5 vs. 57.5+3.5 mgprot). Western blot showed that the expression of iNOS, nNOS and eNOS were increased in l/R (P<0.05); however, they were decreased after Picroside II treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Picroside II attenuated testicular I/R injury in rats mainly through suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress through reduction of nitric oxide synthesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Iridoid Glucosides/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/analysis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Heme Oxygenase-1/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 682-684, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002276

ABSTRACT

Complete duplication of testicular veins is a rare phenomenon. However, a few cases of duplication of gonadal veins have been reported. Here, I report a case of unusual formation and termination of the right testicular vein in an adult male cadaver. Five veins arose from the pampinniform plexus and entered the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring. The most medial among the five was large (3 mm in diameter) and it continued as a testicular vein and opened into the right edge of the inferior vena cava, 1 cm above the union of the common iliac veins. The other four veins were about 1 mm in diameter and they united to form two veins in front of the lower part of the right psoas and iliacus muscles (about 2 cm above the deep inguinal ring) and the two veins united to form upper testicular vein, 4 cm above the deep inguinal ring. This testicular vein was 3 mm in diameter and it opened into the inferior vena cava, 4 cm above the union of common iliac veins. Having five veins at deep inguinal ring might increase the chances of varicocele and decrease the chances of indirect inguinal hernia.


La duplicación completa de las venas testiculares es un fenómeno raro. Sin embargo, se han reportado algunos casos de duplicación de venas gonadales. En el presente trabajo se informa un caso de formación y terminación inusual de la vena testicular derecha en un cadáver de un hombre adulto. Cinco venas surgieron del plexo pampiniforme y penetraron en el abdomen a través del anillo inguinal profundo. El más medial entre los cinco fue de gran tamaño (3 mm de diámetro) y continuó como una vena testicular y se abrió hacia el margen derecho de la vena cava inferior, 1 cm por encima de la unión de las venas ilíacas comunes. Las cuatro venas restantes eran de 1 mm de diámetro aproximadamente, y se unieron para formar dos venas frente a la parte inferior de los músculos psoas e ilíaco derechos (aproximadamente 2 cm por encima del anillo inguinal profundo). Se unieron dos venas para formar la vena testicular superior, la cual medía 3 mm de diámetro y se abría hacia la vena cava inferior, 4 cm por encima de la unión de las venas ilíacas comunes. Cinco venas en el anillo inguinal profundo podrían aumentar las posibilidades de varicocele y disminuir las posibilidades de una hernia inguinal indirecta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Veins/abnormalities , Inguinal Canal/blood supply , Testis/blood supply , Varicocele/etiology , Vena Cava, Inferior/abnormalities , Gonads/blood supply , Hernia, Inguinal/etiology
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 617-622, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effect of papaverine and alprostadil on testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. Four hours of right testicular torsion was applied to each group, excluding sham oper- ated group. The torsion-detorsion (T/D), T/D + papaverine and T/D + alprostadil groups received saline, papaverine and alprostadil at the same time as surgical detorsion, respectively. At 14 days after the surgical detorsion, ischaemic changes and the degree of damage were evaluated with Cosentino scoring and the Johnson tubular biopsy score (JTBS). Results: JTBS was determined as 8.8±2.7 in the Sham group, 5.08±1.9 in the T/D+papaverine group, 5.29±2.3 in the T/D +alprostadil group and 2.86±1.9 in the TD group. The JTBS was determined to be statistically significantly high in both the T/D + papaverine group and the T/D + alprostadil group compared to the T/D group (p=0.01, p=0.009). In the T/D + papaverine group, 3 (43%) testes were classified as Cosentino 2, 3 (43%) as Cosentino 3 and 1 (14%) as Cosentino 4. In the T/D +alprostadil group, 5 (50 %) testes were classified as Cosentino 2, 3 (30 %) as Cosentino 3 and 2 (20%) as Cosentino 4. Conclusion: The present study indicated that spermatic cord administration of alprostadil and papaverine showed a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury after right-side testes torsion and histological changes were decreased after testicular ischemia reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Papaverine/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/prevention & control , Testis/blood supply , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Papaverine/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Testis/pathology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Alprostadil/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 268-281, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886268

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the behavior of arterial circulation and testicular volume in patients submitted to conventional inguinal hernia repair without the use of a synthetic prosthesis to reinforce the posterior wall. Methods: A prospective observational clinical trial was performed on 26 male patients with unilateral inguinal hernia types I and II by the Nyhus classification, who underwent surgical correction using the modified Bassini technique. Bilateral Doppler ultrasonography was performed preoperatively, at the third and at the sixth postoperative month. The studied variables were: systolic peak velocity (SPV), diastolic peak velocity (DPV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and testicular volume. Results: There were no statistically significant changes over time in the variables studied on the operated side: SPV (p = 0.916), DPV (p = 0.304), RI (p = 0.879), PI (p = 0.475), and testicular volume (p = 0.100). The variables on the control side also did not change statistically until the sixth postoperative month: SPV (p = 0.784), DPV (p = 0.446), RI (p = 0.672), PI (p = 0.607), and testicular volume (p = 0.413). Conclusion: Surgical correction of the inguinal hernia without the use of a prosthesis does not cause alterations in vascularization and testicular volume in the first six months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Testis/anatomy & histology , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Testis/blood supply , Testis/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Hernia, Inguinal/diagnostic imaging
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 125-133, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886259

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. Results: The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pheniramine/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Testis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Nebivolol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1160-1166, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Testicular torsion (TT) refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. Materials and Methods: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; shamoperated, torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined. Results: Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histopathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ozone/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Testis/blood supply , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(9): 755-766, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886239

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine the effect of folic acid (FA) on experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. The control group received physiologic saline orally. The sham-operated group received physiologic saline orally then exposed to midline laparotomy without clamping the IR. The I/R rats received oral gavage of the saline then subjected to 1h ischemia /24h reperfusion, period. In folic acid (2mg/kg+IR) rats received oral gavage of the FA (2mg/kg) then subjected to 1h I/24h R. groups 5-6 received FA (5 and 10 mg/kg), then subjected to 1 h I/24 h, respectively. At the end of the study, semen samples were collected for spermatozoa characteristics. The left testis was removed for histological analysis and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) measurement. Results: Spermatozoa mobility, mortality (%) significantly decreased in I/R group (P<0.05). Dose dependent increase observed on spermatozoa mobility, mortality (%) using different levels of the FA (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) treated rat (P<0.05). Tissue MDA levels significantly increased in I/R rat (P<0.05) while FA (2, 5 and 10mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner decreased I/R-induced MDA (P<0.05). Experimental I/R significantly decreased SOD and GPx activity (P<0.05). Administration of the FA (2, 5 and 10mg/kg) significantly increased tissue SOD and GPx activity in I/R rat (P<0.05). Seminiferous tubules degenerated and loss of spermatogenesis with few spermatocytes was observed in degenerated testis tubules in I/R rat. Orally administration of the FA (5 and 10 mg/kg) improved testis characteristics with few normal seminiferous tubules and spermatocyte in seminiferous tubules in experimental I/R-induced rat. Conclusion: The treatment of folic acid had a benefit effect against ischemia-reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Spermatozoa/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1210-1219, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828923

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the roles of age, testicular rotation and time in the surgical outcome of intravaginal testicular torsion (iTT). Patients and Methods We retrieved the records of all iTT patients treated in our unit from January 2012 to January 2014. Explanatory variables were: age (years); presentation delay (PrD, time between symptoms and hospitalization); surgical delay (SurgD, time between hospitalization and surgery) and testicular rotation (rotation), with surgical outcome (orchidopexy, orchidectomy) as response variable. Differences in PrD, SurgD, age and rotation by surgical outcome were evaluated non-parametrically. Step-down logistic regression included age, PrD, SurgD and rotation as predictors. Statistical significance and confidence intervals (CI) were set at p<0.05 and 0.95. Odds ratios (OR) were computed from the model's coefficients. Results Complete variable information was available for 117 patients, and most (61, 52.1%) underwent orchidectomy. Ages were similar between orchidectomy and orchidopexy patients (median 15.8 vs. 16.0 years, p=0.78). In contrast, PrD (85.0 vs. 8.4 hours, p<0.001), SurgD (3.0 vs. 16.0 hours, p<0.001) were different between orchidectomy and orchidopexy patients. SurgD was similar with PrD<24 hours (4.0 vs. 2.8, p=0.1). Orchidectomy patients had greater rotation (3.0π vs. 2.0π radians, p<0.001). Logistic regression revealed that PrD (OR 0.94; 0.92–0.97; p<0.001) and rotation (OR 0.43; 0.27–0.70; p<0.001) were inversely associated with orchidopexy. Conclusion Testicular rotation exerts a multiplicative effect on PrD, so time should not be regarded as the sole predictor of surgical outcome in iTT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Testis/surgery , Orchiectomy/methods , Prognosis , Testis/blood supply , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1028-1032, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Report case (s) relevant aspects: Man, 27 years old, complaining of acute testicular pain by 2 hours in the remaining left testicle. Denies fever, lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, urinary frequency, concommitant or prior urethral discharge to the painful condition. He underwent right orchiectomy 13 years ago by testicular torsion. He is a chronic user of cocaine for 15 years and during the last three days the drug use was continuous and intense. Proposed premise substantiating case (s) description: Initial diagnostic hypothesis: Syndromic: Acute Scrotum Syndrome (SEA) Main Etiologic (testicular torsion) Secondary Etiologic (acute orchiepididymitis) Briefly delineates what might it add? Lines of research That Could be Addressed: In this challenging clinical case we presented an alternative and new etiologic diangosis for the acute scrotum which the main etiologic factor remains testicular torsion. This new diangosis is acute testicular ischemia as a complication of cocaine abuse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Scrotum/blood supply , Testicular Diseases/etiology , Testis/blood supply , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Acute Pain/etiology , Ischemia/etiology , Scrotum/pathology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Testicular Diseases/pathology , Testis/pathology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/poisoning , Cocaine/poisoning , Diagnosis, Differential , Ischemia/pathology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 950-952, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828968

ABSTRACT

Any compression of testicular arteries may lead to loss of spermatogenesis and gonadal hormone production, existence of the variational arteries is accountable in cases of vasoligation, orchidopexy and other surgical approach on them. Anomalies of the testicular blood arteries were observed during dissection of the pelvic cavity in a 68-year-old male cadaver. This report describes a very rare case of lack of testicular arteries. For the blood supply to the testis, thick deferential arteries form some vascular winding and loops and course accompanied by deferent duct to the testis. This case report would serve as ray of light for knowledge of the possible variations of the testicular arteries during surgical procedures.


Cualquier compresión de las arterias testiculares puede conducir a la pérdida de la espermatogénesis y la producción de hormonas gonadales. La existencia de variaciones en las arterias testiculares es relevante en los casos de vasectomía, orquidopexia y otros tipos de abordaje quirúrgico. Se observaron anomalías de las arterias testiculares durante la disección de la cavidad pélvica de un cadáver de sexo masculino de 68 años de edad. En este trabajo se describe un caso muy poco frecuente de ausencia de arterias testiculares. Para el suministro sanguíneo del testículo, se encontraron arterias deferentes gruesas que producen sinuosidad y tortuosidad vascular junto al conducto deferente en los testículos. Este caso podría ser útil para el conocimiento de las posibles variaciones de las arterias testiculares durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Testis/blood supply , Umbilical Arteries/abnormalities , Anatomic Variation , Cadaver , Umbilical Arteries/anatomy & histology , Vas Deferens/blood supply
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 411-416, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of metformin on testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=6), as follows: Sham, I/R, and Metformin. 1-hour ischemia was induced by the left testicular artery and vein clipping followed by 7 days of reperfusion. Metformin (100 mg/kg) was administrated orally for 7 days via oral gavage after ischemic period. At the end of trial, the left testis was removed for histological analysis and oxidative stress measurement. RESULTS: I/R reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and testicular Johnsen's scores accompanied by an elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in comparison with the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared to I/R group, metformin restored testicular Johnsen's scores, SOD activity, MDA and MPO levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin has a protective effect against I/R injury on the testis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 414-421, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749644

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on testicular damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Sham group underwent left scrotal exploration only (group 1). The ischemia-reperfusion only group underwent left testicular torsion and detorsion (group 2). The ischemia-reperfusion plus Dex group underwent left testicular torsion, received 50 µg/kg Dex (group 3) and 100 µg/kg Dex (group 4) intraperitoneally at minute 180 of ischemia and then underwent detorsion. We determined histopathological findings and performed specific biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Increasing doses of Dex significantly increased TAS, and significantly decreased OSI. Analyzing the antioxidant effects of increasing doses of Dex in torsion and contrlateral testicles: Dex 100 µg/kg statistically significant increased the tissue total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) when compared with Dex 50 µg/kg but not found significantly change on the tissue total oxidant status (TOS). However, Dex did not significantly improve these histological alterations. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in ipsilateral and contrlateral testis, but in the histopathological level, there was no difference statistically according to Johnsen's scoring system between groups at both sides. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , /pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Spermatic Cord Torsion/prevention & control , Testis/blood supply , /therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Time Factors , Testis/pathology
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 450-456, 07/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture (Ac) and electroacupuncture (EAc) on oxidative stress and inflammation in testis torsion/detorsion (T/D) model in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups. G1 Group (Sham) served as control. The remaining groups were submitted to spermatic cord torsion (720°) for 3 hours, followed by detorsion and reperfusion for 4 hours. Before detorsion G3, G4 and G5 rats were treated with Ac, EAc 2Hz and EAc 10 Hz, respectively, applied to acupoint Gulai (S-29) bilaterally under anesthesia for 5 minutes. Next, the testes were detorsioned and reperfused for 4 hours. Afterwards, blood samples and the right testis were collected for biochemical assays: reduced Glutathione (GSH), Malonaldehyde (MDA), Myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: EAc stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) promoted significant increase in concentrations of GSH in plasma and testis of G4-G5 rats, compared with G1. There was significant increase of tissue MDA in groups G4-G5 and plasma MDA in all groups, compared with G1. There was a significant reduction in MPO activity in groups G4-G5 compared with G1. CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats subjected to testicular torsion/detorsion. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acupuncture Points , Electroacupuncture/methods , Oxidative Stress , Spermatic Cord Torsion/therapy , Glutathione/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde/blood , Peroxidase/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Testis/blood supply , Testis/metabolism
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(1): 109-117, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704178

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the oxidative damage and histopathological alterations caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and ameliorative effects of carvedilol (CVD) in the rat testis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one male rats were randomized into 3 groups as follows: Group I (n = 7); control (sham) group, Group II (n = 7); I/R group, in which I/R injury was performed by torsing the left testis 720º clockwise for 2 hours and detorsing for 2 hours. Group III (n = 7); CVD treatment group; in addition to I/R process, one-dose of CVD was administered (2mg/kg, i.p) 30 min. before detorsion. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) were determined in testicular tissues and serum of rats. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically and Johnsen scores were determined. Results: Activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum and testicular tissues were increased by I/R, but administration of CVD decreased these levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). Significantly increased MDA levels in serum and testicular tissues were decreased by CVD treatment (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). Concerning PC levels in serum and testicular tissues, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.989 and p = 0.428). There was not a statistically significant difference in terms of mean Johnsen scores between the groups (p = 0.161). Conclusions: Administration of CVD decreased oxidative damage biochemically in the rat testis caused by I/R injury, but histopathologically no change was observed between all of the groups. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Necrosis , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Protein Carbonylation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(1): 62-66, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704179

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the effect of high grade varicocele treatment in infertile patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients were selected by the following criteria: infertility persisting for more than 1 year; abnormal semen parameters; no other infertility-related disease; no obvious causes of infertility in the subject’s partner; basal eco-color Doppler ultrasound demonstrating continuous reflux in the spermatic vein. All patients considered for the study had at least a six months period from the diagnosis to the surgery due to waiting list, choice of the patient or time needed to complete diagnostic evaluation of the couple. The surgical procedure was performed through an inguinal approach. All enrolled patients were counseled to have unprotected intercourse during the ovulation period in order to maximize the probability of pregnancy within the 6-month preoperative period. The achievement of pregnancy and semen parameters were recorded during the preoperative and postoperative period. Results: Two of the seventy-five patients were excluded because of persistent varicocele after surgery. The preoperative pregnancy rate was 1.3% (1 couple). The postoperative pregnancy rate was 42.5%. The stratification of pregnancies by semester showed a significantly higher rate in the first postoperative period (p = 0.0012). Mean time to conception was 13.5 months. Mean preoperative sperm count was 17.6x10 6 /mL compared to 19.7x10 6 /mL in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001). Mean percentage of progressive sperm motility was 13.7%, compared to 17.6% in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001). Mean percentage of normal sperm morphology was 7.6%, compared to 15.2% postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Surgical treatment of high grade varicocele proved to effectively treat associated infertility by improving seminal parameters and pregnancy rate in our patient cohort. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Infertility, Male/surgery , Testis/blood supply , Varicocele/surgery , Chi-Square Distribution , Ligation/methods , Postoperative Period , Pregnancy Rate , Reproducibility of Results , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Treatment Outcome , Veins/surgery
18.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 53(4): 365-367, ago. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690719

ABSTRACT

A vasculite testicular é uma manifestação extra-articular muito rara da artrite reumatoide (AR). Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 53 anos com diagnóstico de AR por oito anos, sem controle adequado da doença. O paciente desenvolveu vasculite reumatoide, manifestada por úlceras de membros inferiores e neuropatia periférica. Apresentou ainda meningite neutrofílica aguda, tendo sido tratado com antibióticos e posterior pulsoterapia endovenosa com metilprednisolona (500 mg/dia) por três dias, seguida de ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg/ dia) e prednisona orais. O paciente apresentou melhora do quadro, mas 15 dias após a alta hospitalar, houve reativação da meningite bacteriana. O paciente foi reinternado e tratado novamente com antibióticos. Três dias depois da segunda admissão hospitalar, o paciente apresentou dor, aumento de volume do testículo esquerdo e posteriormente gangrena. Foi realizada orquiectomia unilateral e o exame anatomopatológico revelou vasculite linfocítica. O paciente faleceu dois dias após a cirurgia devido a pneumonia aspirativa. Esse caso ilustra a vasculite testicular como uma manifestação rara e grave da vasculite reumatoide.


Testicular vasculitis is a very rare extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe the case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with RA for eight years, who was poorly controlled and developed rheumatoid vasculitis, which manifested as leg ulcers and peripheral polyneuropathy. The patient also had acute neutrophilic meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and intravenous pulse therapy with methylprednisolone (500 mg daily) for three days, followed by oral cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg daily) and prednisone. Overall improvement was observed, and the patient was discharged. But 15 days later, the meningitis recurred, and the patient was readmitted and treated again with antibiotics. Three days later, he developed pain and enlargement of his left testicle with gangrene. Unilateral orchiectomy was performed, revealing lymphocytic vasculitis. The patient died two days later due to aspiration pneumonia. This case illustrates a rare and severe manifestation of rheumatoid vasculitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Testis/blood supply , Vasculitis/etiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(7): 518-522, July 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of FAS ligand (FASL) in ipsilateral and contralateral testicles of rats submitted to ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n=21) distributed into groups control (GC), n=5, testicular exposure; ischemia (GI), (n=8), Torsion in the left testicular Cord (TCT) for three hours followed by orchiectomy without distortion and orchietomy of the contralateral testicle after 24 hours; and reperfusion (GR), (n=8), left TCT for 3 hours and distortion and repositioning on the scrotum and bilateral orchiectomy after 24 hours. Quantification of the FASL expression by immune-histochemistry. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed similarity between GC and GI (p>0.05), differences detected are concentrated on the GR (p<0.05), increase in immunoexpression of FASL in the subgroups Right GR (406.8+-61.5) and Left GR (135.3 +-28.9) with significant predominance in the GR subgroup. CONCLUSION: Ischemia/reperfusion increased the FASL expression significantly in contralateral testicles in GR, in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Fas Ligand Protein/analysis , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Orchiectomy , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Testis/blood supply
20.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 50(5): 384-395, 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789888

ABSTRACT

The testicular artery is responsible for the blood supply that reaches the testis and has great importance in heat radiation. Vascular changes in the testis may lead to damage in sperm production, reflected in sperm motility and morphology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between testicular vascularity and sperm characteristic. Eight adult Santa Ines rams showing different reproductive status were used. The testicular vascularity and sperm characteristics were evaluated fortnightly during 90 days. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to evaluate the testicular hemodynamic. Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the testicular artery were evaluated by spectral-Doppler mode. The color-Doppler mode was used to evaluate the blood flow of the pampiniform plexus and testicular parenchyma. The semen analyses assessed were volume, concentration, motility, and morphology. The data were submitted to Pearson´s linear correlations test (p 0.05 was considered significant). No correlations were found between motility and testicular hemodynamic. The percentage of total sperm defects was positively correlated to left and right parenchymal score and to left RI and PI. On the other hand, the pampiniform plexus score was positively correlated to the number of colored pixels and negatively correlated to the RI and PI, for both sides. This study showed that the increase of sperm defect can be related to increase of testicular blood flow; however, more studies are need.


A artéria testicular é responsável pelo fluxo de sangue que chega aos testículos e tem grande importância na termorregulação. Mudanças vasculares nos testículos podem levar à queda da produção espermática, refletindo na motilidade e morfologia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as correlações entre a vascularização testicular e as características espermáticas. Foram utilizados oito carneiros adultos Santa Inês com diferentes status reprodutivos. A vascularização testicular e as características seminais foram avaliadas por um período de 90 dias. A ultrassonografia Doppler colorida foi utilizada para avaliar a hemodinâmica testicular. Foram calculados os índices de resistência (RI) e os índices de pulsatilidade (PI) com o modo espectral do Doppler. O modo colorido do Doppler foi utilizado para analisar o fluxo sanguíneo do plexo pampiniforme e do parênquima testicular. As características seminais avaliadas foram o volume, concentração, motilidade e morfologia. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de correlação linear de Person (P 0.05 foi considerado significativo). Não foram encontradas relações entre motilidade e a hemodinâmica testicular. A porcentagem de defeitos totais correlacionou-se positivamente com o escore de vascularização dos parênquimas direito e esquerdo, e com o RI e PI esquerdos. Também o escore de vascularização dos plexos se correlacionou positivamente com a média de pixels e negativamente com o RI e PI, de ambos os lados. Este trabalho mostrou que o aumento de defeitos espermáticos pode estar correlacionado com o aumento do fluxo sanguíneo nos testículos; contudo, mais estudos são necessários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemodynamics , Sheep/physiology , Semen , Testis/physiology , Testis/blood supply , Sperm Motility , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/veterinary
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