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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tanreqing Capsule (TRQC) was used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQC in the treatment of COVID-19.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 82 patients who had laboratory-confirmed mild and moderate COVID-19; patients were treated with TRQC in one designated hospital. The treatment and control groups consisted of 25 and 57 cases, respectively. The treatment group was given TRQC orally three times a day, three pills each time, in addition to conventional Western medicine treatments which were also administered to the control group. The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored.@*RESULTS@#COVID-19 patients in the treatment group, compared to the control group, had a shorter negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid (4 vs. 9 days, P = 0.047) and a shorter interval of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid (0 vs. 2 days, P = 0.042). The level of CD3@*CONCLUSION@#Significant reductions in the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid and the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid were identified in the treatment group as compared to the control group, illustrating the potential therapeutic benefits of using TRQC as a complement to conventional medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improved levels of the immune indicator CD3


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Capsules , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 13, 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096694

ABSTRACT

Ante la situación actual de la pandemia del COVID-19 se aconseja a los países que continúen con la adopción de los algoritmos de diagnóstico de TB recomendados por OPS/OMS. A pesar de las diferencias en los modos de transmisión de TB y COVID-19, ciertas medidas de protección personal son relevantes para ambas enfermedades. Las medidas habituales para protegerse de la TB deben continuar junto con las precauciones adicionales para proteger a los trabajadores de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , DNA, Viral/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 435-440, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089311

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the commonest autoimmune endocrine illness in which antibodies against thyroid organ result in inflammation. The disease has a complex etiology that involves genetic and environmental influences. Viral infections may be involved in triggering of the disease as their molecular mimicry enhance autoimmune responses. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is recognized for its contribution to some autoimmune diseases. Objective: In the current study, the prevalence of HHV-6 active infection in patients with HT and with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders were compared with patients with euthyroidism. In addition, a correlation between presence of HHV-6 infections and HT was investigated. Methods: A total of 151 patients with clinically and laboratory confirmed HT, 59 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders, and 32 patients with normal thyroid function were included in the study. For further confirmation of HT disease, all the precipitants were tested for anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies. For detection of both HHV-6 types A and B, nested PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were used. HHV-6 DNA positive samples were further investigated by DNA sequencing analysis. Results: HHV-6A DNA was found in serum sample of 57 out of 151 patients (38%) with HT, which was significantly more often than in patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders (p = 0.001). However, HHV-6 DNA was not detected in serum samples of euthyroid subjects. Conclusions: The results support a possible role for active HHV-6A infection, demonstrated by the presence of HHV-6 DNA in sera, in the development of HT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Hashimoto Disease/virology , Thyroid Gland/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1236-1242, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1038636

ABSTRACT

Apesar dos bovinos serem considerados os hospedeiros naturais do BoHV-1, estudos sorológicos têm sugerido que búfalos podem ser suscetíveis ao BoHV-1 e a outros alfa-herpesvírus geneticamente relacionados. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de DNA viral de BoHV-1 em 202 amostras de gânglios trigêmeos de búfalos, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR, para detecção de um segmento do gene codificante da glicoproteína D (gD) do BoHV-1. Além disso, 242 amostras de soro foram analisadas pela técnica de soroneutralização (SN) para a detecção de anticorpos neutralizantes contra BoHV-1, BoHV-5 e BuHV. Todas as amostras clínicas foram coletadas em um matadouro na cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. O DNA de BoHV-1 foi detectado em 61 (30,1%) gânglios, e os resultados da SN demonstraram que 27,6% dos animais apresentaram anticorpos contra, pelo menos, um dos vírus testados. O sequenciamento genômico e a análise de 14 amplicons confirmaram a presença do DNA do BoHV-1 nos tecidos analisados. Em resumo, os resultados indicam que o BoHV-1 está distribuído em rebanhos bubalinos provenientes da região Sul do Brasil. Entretanto, são necessárias investigações adicionais, no sentido de elucidar o papel exato dos búfalos na epidemiologia das infecções pelo BoHV-1.(AU)


Although bovines are natural hosts for BoHV-1, serologic studies in several countries have suggested that buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) may be susceptible to BoHV-1 and other genetically related alphaherpesvirus. This study aimed to investigate the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in trigeminal ganglia from 202 buffaloes by a semi-nested PCR to amplify partially the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of BoHV-1. Additionally, 242 serum samples were tested by serum neutralization (SN) for the detection of antibodies against BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and BuHV. All clinical samples were collected in a slaughterhouse located in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. BoHV-1 DNA was detected in 61 (30.1%) of the samples and SN revealed 27.6% of the animals with neutralizing antibodies against at least one of the tested viruses. Nucleotide sequencing of 15 amplicons followed by BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in the analyzed tissues. Taken together, these data indicate that BoHV-1 infection is distributed in buffaloes in southern Brazil. However, the role of buffaloes in the BoHV-1 epidemiology needs further investigation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Viral/analysis , Buffaloes/virology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 421-427, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042657

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El inicio precoz de actividad sexual puede favorecer el desarrollo de alteraciones cervicales y de infecciones de transmisión sexual, en especial del virus papiloma humano (VPH) muy frecuente en adolescentes y jóvenes. Objetivo: Analizar el estado del cuello uterino, presencia del VPH y conductas sexuales en mujeres menores de 25 años. Material y Métodos: Participaron 182 estudiantes universitarias de 18-24 años, sanas, sexualmente activas y no vacunadas para VPH. Se realizó Papanicolaou (Pap) y clasificación del VPH en alto y bajo riesgo (AR y BR) mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena en tiempo real. Las conductas sexuales fueron consultadas privadamente. Resultados: El 46,9% de los Pap presentaron alteraciones citológicas (inflamación inespecífica/hemorrágico: 29,4% y frotis atípicos (FA):10,2%). La frecuencia de los VPH-AR fue 24,3%; de éstos, 67,4% presentó un Pap alterado. Hubo asociación entre alteraciones citológicas y presencia de VPH (p < 0,0001) y años de actividad sexual y FA o neoplasia intraepitelial grado I (NIE I) (p = 0,009). El 11,9% de las jóvenes estudiadas (21/177) presentó FA o NIE I, con 66,7% de casos VPH-AR. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos alertan la vulnerabilidad de estas jóvenes que tendrían un riesgo potencial de persistencia viral, NIE y eventualmente cáncer. Es importante enfatizar consejería y prevención previo a la edad normada de ingreso al programa de cribado para cáncer cérvico uterino en Chile.


Background: The early onset of sexual activity can promote the development of cervical alterations and sexually transmitted infections, especially the human papillomavirus (HPV) very common in adolescents and young people. Aim: The condition of the cervix, HPV and sexual behavior in young women under 25 years of age were analyzed. Methods: 182 university students, healthy, sexually active, 18-24 years old, without vaccine for HPV participated. Papanicolaou (Pap) test and classification of high and low risk HPV (HR and LR) were performed by real time polymerase chain reaction. The sexual behaviors were consulted in private. Results: The 46.9% of Pap presented cytological alterations, non-specific inflammation/hemorrhagic (29.4%) and atypical smear (10.2%) being de most frequent. The overall frequency of HPV-HR was 24.3%, of these 67.4% presented an altered Pap. There was an association between cytological alterations and HPV (p < 0.0001) and years of sexual activity and atypical smear or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN I) (p = 0.009). 11.9% of young women (21/177) presented atypical smear or CIN I, with 66.7% of cases HPV-HR. Conclusions: These findings alert the vulnerability of these young women who would have a potential risk of viral persistence, CIN and eventually cancer. It is important to emphasize counseling and prevention prior to the regular age of admission to the screening program for cervical cancer. This study was financed by the Universidad de La Frontera through Projects DI15-0047 and DI17-0123.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Universities , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papanicolaou Test
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180457, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041557

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We defined the cut-off values of the antigenemia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA tests in HIV/AIDS patients to identify CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 97 samples from 68 patients with and without CMV disease were analyzed by viral DNA detection and antigenemia assay. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative results significantly differed between assays. The cut-off values for the antigenemia and qPCR assays were 1.5 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes and 3.715 log/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Antigenemia and qPCR are suitable for monitoring CMV disease in HIV patients, however, the threshold values should be determined within the centers where the patients are monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Viral/analysis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antigens, Viral/blood
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 62-65, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040579

ABSTRACT

In occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) can be detected in serum samples; however, oral fluid collection for detection of HBV DNA has not yet been explored, despite the availability of collection devices. Serum and oral fluid samples from 45 hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients were collected for the amplification of the HBV polymerase gene. HBV DNA was detected in five serum and four oral fluid samples (the detection limit for oral fluid was 1.656 log IU/mL in paired serum). In conclusion, simple methodologies of sample collection and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed detection of HBV DNA, and these could be used to improve the diagnosis of OBI, especially in locations with limited resources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Saliva/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , DNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(11): 943-945, Nov. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896313

ABSTRACT

Summary Few studies directly compare urinary cytology with molecular methods for detecting BK and JC polyomaviruses. Reactivation of BKV infection is the main risk factor for the development of nephropathy in immunocompromised individuals. The limitation of the cytological method can be attributed to the stage where the infected cell does not have specific and sufficient morphological characteristics for a conclusive diagnosis and can be easily interpreted as degenerative alteration. Moreover, morphologically, it is not possible to differentiate the two types of viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only is a sensitive method, but also allows differentiation of viral types without quantification, and therefore is not indicative of nephropathy. According to the American Society of Nephrology, real-time PCR would be the gold standard to indicate nephropathy because it allows quantifying the number of viral copies.


Resumo Poucos estudos comparam diretamente a citologia urinária com métodos moleculares para detecção de poliomavírus BK e JC. A reativação da infecção por BKV é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de nefropatia em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. A limitação do método citológico pode ser atribuída ao estágio em que a célula infectada não possui características morfológicas específicas e suficientes para um diagnóstico conclusivo, podendo ser facilmente interpretada como alteração degenerativa. Além do mais, morfologicamente, não é possível diferenciar os dois tipos virais. A reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR), além de ser um método sensível, permite diferenciar os tipos virais sem quantificá-los, não sendo, portanto, indicativa de nefropatia. Segundo a American Society of Nephrology, a PCR em tempo real seria o padrão-ouro para indicar nefropatia, pois permite quantificar o número de cópias virais.


Subject(s)
Humans , BK Virus/isolation & purification , JC Virus/isolation & purification , Polyomavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyomavirus , BK Virus , JC Virus/genetics , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 731-736, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829255

ABSTRACT

The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58). Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63) of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24) and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18). HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009). The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/virology , Adenoma/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Cuba , Genotype , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 663-669, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829247

ABSTRACT

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are strongly associated with the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and invasive cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in cytokine-encoding genes and behavioural cofactors could play an important role in protecting an individual against viral infections and cancer. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 -174 G>C, IL-8 +396 G>T, and TGF-β1 +869 G>C and +915 G>C polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HPV infection in women from north-east (Pernambuco) Brazil. We analysed 108 healthy uninfected women (HC) and 108 HPV-positive women with cervical lesions. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed using Sanger sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of the distribution of the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the IL-18 +396 T>G polymorphism between HPV infected woman an uninfected controls showed that the GG genotype and G allele were both more frequent in the HC group, and were associated with protection from HPV infection (p = 0.0015; OR = 0.29 CI95% = 0.13-0.61; p = 0.0005; OR = 0.45 CI95% 0.29-0.7, respectively). Individuals from the control group could have previously had HPV infection that was spontaneously eliminated; however, it was undetectable at the time of sample collection. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the IL-8 +396 G>T polymorphism could interfere with susceptibility to HPV infection, by modulating the ability of immune system to fight the virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Alleles , Base Sequence , Brazil , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in sexually active women and viral persistence may cause intraepithelial lesions and eventually progress to cervical cancer (CC). The present study aimed to investigate epidemiological factors related to HPV infection and to evaluate viral persistence and CC precursor lesions frequencies in women from a city in the countryside of South Brazil. Three hundred women were recruited from a primary public health care clinic. The patients were interviewed and underwent sampling with cervical brushes for HPV-DNA detection/typing by a PCR-based assay and cytological analysis by Pap smear test. HPV was detected in 47 (15.7%) women. HPV infection was significantly associated with young age (<30 years) and low socio-economic status. Seventeen (5.7%) women presented cytological abnormalities, three of them with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions. A subgroup of 79 women had been previously analyzed and thirteen (16.4%) were persistently infected, two with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions and high-risk HPV types infection (both of them without cervical abnormalities in the first exam). In conclusion, HPV infection was associated with young age (<30 years) and low family income; viral persistence was low (16.4%) but related to CC precursor lesions; and HPV-DNA high risk types detection would help to screen CC in the population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papanicolaou Test , Prevalence , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100617

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent for its development. HPV is a heterogeneous virus, and a persistent infection with a high-risk HPV contributes to the development of cancer. In recent decades, great advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology of HPV, and HPV\'s significance in cervical cancer prevention and management has received increased attention. In this review, we discuss the role of HPV genotyping in cervical cancer by addressing: clinically important issues in HPV virology; the current application of HPV genotyping in clinical medicine; and potential future uses for HPV genotyping.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Humans , Papillomaviridae/classification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The optimal timing for discontinuing oral antiviral therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate sustained remission after stopping antiviral therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of 58 patients who were HBeAg-positive and had discontinued antiviral therapy. Antiviral therapy was discontinued after HBeAg seroconversion and HBV DNA negativity for 6-12 months with consolidation therapy. Virologic relapse was defined as an increase in serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/mL. RESULTS: No difference was observed between the virologic non-relapse and virologic relapse groups in baseline HBV DNA level (p=0.441) or duration of seroconversion (p=0.070). Time-to-undetectable HBV DNA during treatment was shorter in the virologic non-relapse group (29 patients) compared to the relapse group (29 patients) (4.9+/-2.6 vs. 13.2+/-12.7 months; p or =18 months, p=0.020) and early virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/mL) at six months during antiviral therapy (p=0.017) were significant predictors for sustained remission. CONCLUSIONS: A consolidation period of at least 18 months and early virological response at six months during antiviral therapy were associated with sustained remission in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Withholding Treatment
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the major cause of invasive cervical cancers. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are known to be responsible for two-thirds of all invasive cervical carcinomas, followed by HPV-45, -31, and -33. Current guidelines only differentiate HPV-16/18 (+) by recommending direct colposcopy for treatment. We tried to evaluate whether there are differences in risk among 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes in this study. METHODS: The pathology archive database records of 1,102 consecutive gynecologic patients, who had results for cervical cytology and histology and for HPV testing, as determined by HPV 9G DNA chip, were reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 1,102 patients, 346 were non-16/18 HR-HPV (+) and 231 were HPV-16/18 (+). We calculated the odds ratios for ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN 2) of 14 groups of each HR-HPV genotype compared with a group of HR-HPV (–) patients. Based on the odds ratio of each genotype, we divided patients with non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes (+) into two groups: HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+). The age-adjusted odds ratios for ≥CIN 2 of the HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+) groups compared with a HR-HPV (–) group were 11.9 (95% CI, 7.6 to 18.8; p<0.001) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3; p<0.001), respectively, while that of the HPV-16/18 (+) group was 18.1 (95% CI, 11.6 to 28.3; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes can be further categorized (HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 vs. HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68) by risk stratification. The HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 genotypes might need more aggressive action. Large scale clinical trials or cohort studies are necessary to confirm our suggestion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Colposcopy , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Genotype , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaginal Smears
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Research on how the risk of gastric cancer increases with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is lacking. In a systematic review that investigated studies published until September 2014, the authors did not calculate the summary odds ratio (SOR) due to heterogeneity across studies. Therefore, we include here additional studies published until October 2015 and conduct a meta-analysis with meta-regression that controls for the heterogeneity among studies. METHODS: Using the studies selected in the previously published systematic review, we formulated lists of references, cited articles, and related articles provided by PubMed. From the lists, only case-control studies that detected EBV in tissue samples were selected. In order to control for the heterogeneity among studies, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed. RESULTS: In the 33 case-control results with adjacent non-cancer tissue, the total number of test samples in the case and control groups was 5280 and 4962, respectively. In the 14 case-control results with normal tissue, the total number of test samples in case and control groups was 1393 and 945, respectively. Upon meta-regression, the type of control tissue was found to be a statistically significant variable with regard to heterogeneity. When the control tissue was normal tissue of healthy individuals, the SOR was 3.41 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.51; I-squared, 65.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study support the argument that EBV infection increases the risk of gastric cancer. In the future, age-matched and sex-matched case-control studies should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Databases, Factual , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Odds Ratio , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
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