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Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 117-225, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388345


INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, el cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) es la segunda causa de muerte por neoplasias malignas en la mujer. El principal agente causal es el virus papiloma humano (VPH). Comparando con la población general, los o las trabajadoras(es) sexuales (TS) tienen alto riesgo de adquirir VPH. OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y genotipos del VPH cervical y vaginal en TS que se atienden en un Centro de Salud Sexual de Santiago, Chile. Pacientes y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 97 mujeres TS, de 19 a 70 años de edad. Se obtuvieron dos muestras por paciente, una de exocérvix y otra de paredes vaginales. El ADN de VPH fue identificado por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y su genotipo fue investigado para 32 tipos de VPH. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de VPH global fue de 45%, observándose portación cervical en 41,2% y vaginal en 36,1%, con una coinfección de 32%. El 63% de las muestras tenía genotipos de alto riesgo. Los VPH de alto riesgo más frecuentes fueron el VPH 66 (12%), VPH 58 (9,3%), seguidos por VPH 16, VPH 59 y VPH 82 con igual frecuencia (8% c/u). Treinta y dos mujeres (43%) fueron infectadas con genotipos múltiples. CONCLUSIÓN: El VPH es una infección frecuente entre las TS. Este es el primer estudio en Chile sobre prevalencia y genotipos de VPH en TS.

BACKGROUND: In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in women. The main causal agent of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Compared with the general population, sex workers (SW) are at increased risk of acquiring HPV. AIM: To analyze the prevalence and genotypes of cervical and vaginal HPV in female SW attending a Sexual Control Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 97 women (19-70 years old). Two samples were taken per patient, one from exocervix and the other from vaginal walls. HPV DNA. was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using specific probes for 32 types of HPV. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HPV was 45%, 41.2% in cervical carrier and 36.1% in vaginal carrier, 32% were co-infected, 63% of HPV were high-risk genotypes. The most frequent high-risk HPV was HPV 66 (12%), HPV 58 (9.3%), followed by HPV 16, HPV 59 and HPV 82 with the same frequency (8% each one). Thirty two (43%) of females were infected with multiple genotypes. CONCLUSION: HPV is frequent infection among SW. This is the first study in Chile on the prevalence and genotypes of HPV in sex workers.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus/genetics , Sex Workers , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 347-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935219


Objective: To investigate the influence of HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on their postoperative recurrence. Methods: The HCC patients treated in Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from October 2009 to August 2010 were selected. The clinicopathological data and adjacent tissues of 718 patients were collected, and dextran polymer immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues. According to the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues, the tissues were divided into HBsAg positive group and HBsAg negative group. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 718 patients in the whole group, 153 were HBsAg negative and 565 were HBsAg positive. There was a statistically significant difference in serum HBV DNA level between HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients (P<0.001). The number of patients with serum DNA≥2 000 IU/ml and<2 000 IU/ml in HBsAg negative group were 52 and 93, while the patients in HBsAg positive group were 325 and 205. The cumulative recurrence rates of all patients at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 30.2%, 54.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. The expression of HBsAg was related to the recurrence (P=0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that γ-GT, PT, multiple tumors, tumor length, and portal vein invasion were independent risk factors for recurrence of HCC (P<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load (HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml) and without cirrhosis, the recurrence rates of HBsAg-positive patients were 14.3% and 31.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, compared with HBsAg negative patients (all 0), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.021). Conclusion: The positive expression of HBsAg in peritumoral tissue increases the postoperative recurrence risk of HCC patients.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , China , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880988


OBJECTIVE@#Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tanreqing Capsule (TRQC) was used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQC in the treatment of COVID-19.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 82 patients who had laboratory-confirmed mild and moderate COVID-19; patients were treated with TRQC in one designated hospital. The treatment and control groups consisted of 25 and 57 cases, respectively. The treatment group was given TRQC orally three times a day, three pills each time, in addition to conventional Western medicine treatments which were also administered to the control group. The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored.@*RESULTS@#COVID-19 patients in the treatment group, compared to the control group, had a shorter negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid (4 vs. 9 days, P = 0.047) and a shorter interval of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid (0 vs. 2 days, P = 0.042). The level of CD3@*CONCLUSION@#Significant reductions in the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid and the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid were identified in the treatment group as compared to the control group, illustrating the potential therapeutic benefits of using TRQC as a complement to conventional medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improved levels of the immune indicator CD3

Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Capsules , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357


Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.

DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887743


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), two of the most prevalent human herpesviruses, cause a wide spectrum of diseases and symptoms and are associated with serious health problem. In this study, we developed an internal control reference recombinase-aided amplification (ICR-RAA) assay for the rapid detection of EBV and CMV within 30 min. The assay had a sensitivity of 5 and 1 copies/test for EBV and CMV, respectively, with no cross reaction with other pathogens. In comparison with those of the commercial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using extracted DNA was 93.33% and 84.84%, respectively; the specificity was 98.75% and 100.00%, respectively; and the Kappa values were 0.930 and 0.892 (

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases/genetics , Young Adult
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 13, 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096694


Ante la situación actual de la pandemia del COVID-19 se aconseja a los países que continúen con la adopción de los algoritmos de diagnóstico de TB recomendados por OPS/OMS. A pesar de las diferencias en los modos de transmisión de TB y COVID-19, ciertas medidas de protección personal son relevantes para ambas enfermedades. Las medidas habituales para protegerse de la TB deben continuar junto con las precauciones adicionales para proteger a los trabajadores de COVID-19.

Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , DNA, Viral/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(1): 5-11, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092632


Abstract Objective Estimate the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 1 HSV-1 DNA in placental samples, its incidence in umbilical cord blood of newborns and the associated risk factors. Methods Placental biopsies and umbilical cord blood were analyzed, totaling 480 samples, from asymptomatic parturients and their newborns at a University Hospital. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencingwere used to identify the virus; odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) were performed to compare risk factors associated with this condition. Results The prevalence of HSV-1 DNA in placental samples was 37.5%, and the incidence in cord blood was 27.5%. Hematogenous transplacental route was identified in 61.4% from HSV-1+ samples of umbilical cord blood paired with the placental tissue. No evidence of the virus was observed in the remaining 38.6% of placental tissues, suggesting an ascendant infection from the genital tract, without replication in the placental tissue, resulting in intra-amniotic infection and vertical transmission, seen by the virus in the cord blood. The lack of condom use increased the risk of finding HSV-1 in the placenta and umbilical cord blood. Conclusion The occurrence of HSV-1 DNA in the placenta and in cord blood found suggests vertical transmission from asymptomatic pregnant women to the fetus.

Resumo Objetivo Estimar a prevalência do DNA do vírus herpes humano 1 (HSV-1) em amostras de placenta, sua incidência no sangue do cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos e fatores de risco associados. Métodos Biópsias de placenta e de sangue de cordão umbilical foram analisadas, totalizando 480 amostras de parturientes assintomáticas e seus recém-nascidos emum hospital universitário. Reação de cadeia de polimerase (RCP) nested e sequenciamento gênico foram usados para identificar o vírus; odds ratio (OR) e risco relativo (RR) foram realizados para comparar os fatores de risco associados à essa condição. Resultados A prevalência do DNA do HSV-1 em amostras de placenta foi de 37,5%, e a incidência no sangue do cordão foi de 27,5%. A via transplacentária hematogênica foi identificada em 61,4% das amostras de HSV-1+do sangue do cordão umbilical, pareadas com o tecido placentário. Nenhuma evidência do vírus foi observada nos restantes 38,6% dos tecidos placentários, sugerindo uma infecção ascendente do trato genital. A falta de uso do preservativo aumentou o risco de encontrar o HSV-1 na placenta e no sangue do cordão umbilical. Conclusão A ocorrência de DNA do HSV-1 na placenta e no sangue do cordão umbilical sugere uma transmissão vertical de gestantes assintomáticas para o feto.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Fetal Blood/virology , Herpes Simplex/blood , Herpes Simplex/transmission
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.

Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 435-440, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089311


ABSTRACT Background: Hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the commonest autoimmune endocrine illness in which antibodies against thyroid organ result in inflammation. The disease has a complex etiology that involves genetic and environmental influences. Viral infections may be involved in triggering of the disease as their molecular mimicry enhance autoimmune responses. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is recognized for its contribution to some autoimmune diseases. Objective: In the current study, the prevalence of HHV-6 active infection in patients with HT and with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders were compared with patients with euthyroidism. In addition, a correlation between presence of HHV-6 infections and HT was investigated. Methods: A total of 151 patients with clinically and laboratory confirmed HT, 59 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders, and 32 patients with normal thyroid function were included in the study. For further confirmation of HT disease, all the precipitants were tested for anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies. For detection of both HHV-6 types A and B, nested PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were used. HHV-6 DNA positive samples were further investigated by DNA sequencing analysis. Results: HHV-6A DNA was found in serum sample of 57 out of 151 patients (38%) with HT, which was significantly more often than in patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disorders (p = 0.001). However, HHV-6 DNA was not detected in serum samples of euthyroid subjects. Conclusions: The results support a possible role for active HHV-6A infection, demonstrated by the presence of HHV-6 DNA in sera, in the development of HT.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Hashimoto Disease/virology , Thyroid Gland/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 421-427, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042657


Resumen Introducción: El inicio precoz de actividad sexual puede favorecer el desarrollo de alteraciones cervicales y de infecciones de transmisión sexual, en especial del virus papiloma humano (VPH) muy frecuente en adolescentes y jóvenes. Objetivo: Analizar el estado del cuello uterino, presencia del VPH y conductas sexuales en mujeres menores de 25 años. Material y Métodos: Participaron 182 estudiantes universitarias de 18-24 años, sanas, sexualmente activas y no vacunadas para VPH. Se realizó Papanicolaou (Pap) y clasificación del VPH en alto y bajo riesgo (AR y BR) mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena en tiempo real. Las conductas sexuales fueron consultadas privadamente. Resultados: El 46,9% de los Pap presentaron alteraciones citológicas (inflamación inespecífica/hemorrágico: 29,4% y frotis atípicos (FA):10,2%). La frecuencia de los VPH-AR fue 24,3%; de éstos, 67,4% presentó un Pap alterado. Hubo asociación entre alteraciones citológicas y presencia de VPH (p < 0,0001) y años de actividad sexual y FA o neoplasia intraepitelial grado I (NIE I) (p = 0,009). El 11,9% de las jóvenes estudiadas (21/177) presentó FA o NIE I, con 66,7% de casos VPH-AR. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos alertan la vulnerabilidad de estas jóvenes que tendrían un riesgo potencial de persistencia viral, NIE y eventualmente cáncer. Es importante enfatizar consejería y prevención previo a la edad normada de ingreso al programa de cribado para cáncer cérvico uterino en Chile.

Background: The early onset of sexual activity can promote the development of cervical alterations and sexually transmitted infections, especially the human papillomavirus (HPV) very common in adolescents and young people. Aim: The condition of the cervix, HPV and sexual behavior in young women under 25 years of age were analyzed. Methods: 182 university students, healthy, sexually active, 18-24 years old, without vaccine for HPV participated. Papanicolaou (Pap) test and classification of high and low risk HPV (HR and LR) were performed by real time polymerase chain reaction. The sexual behaviors were consulted in private. Results: The 46.9% of Pap presented cytological alterations, non-specific inflammation/hemorrhagic (29.4%) and atypical smear (10.2%) being de most frequent. The overall frequency of HPV-HR was 24.3%, of these 67.4% presented an altered Pap. There was an association between cytological alterations and HPV (p < 0.0001) and years of sexual activity and atypical smear or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN I) (p = 0.009). 11.9% of young women (21/177) presented atypical smear or CIN I, with 66.7% of cases HPV-HR. Conclusions: These findings alert the vulnerability of these young women who would have a potential risk of viral persistence, CIN and eventually cancer. It is important to emphasize counseling and prevention prior to the regular age of admission to the screening program for cervical cancer. This study was financed by the Universidad de La Frontera through Projects DI15-0047 and DI17-0123.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Universities , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papanicolaou Test
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1236-1242, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038636


Apesar dos bovinos serem considerados os hospedeiros naturais do BoHV-1, estudos sorológicos têm sugerido que búfalos podem ser suscetíveis ao BoHV-1 e a outros alfa-herpesvírus geneticamente relacionados. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de DNA viral de BoHV-1 em 202 amostras de gânglios trigêmeos de búfalos, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR, para detecção de um segmento do gene codificante da glicoproteína D (gD) do BoHV-1. Além disso, 242 amostras de soro foram analisadas pela técnica de soroneutralização (SN) para a detecção de anticorpos neutralizantes contra BoHV-1, BoHV-5 e BuHV. Todas as amostras clínicas foram coletadas em um matadouro na cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. O DNA de BoHV-1 foi detectado em 61 (30,1%) gânglios, e os resultados da SN demonstraram que 27,6% dos animais apresentaram anticorpos contra, pelo menos, um dos vírus testados. O sequenciamento genômico e a análise de 14 amplicons confirmaram a presença do DNA do BoHV-1 nos tecidos analisados. Em resumo, os resultados indicam que o BoHV-1 está distribuído em rebanhos bubalinos provenientes da região Sul do Brasil. Entretanto, são necessárias investigações adicionais, no sentido de elucidar o papel exato dos búfalos na epidemiologia das infecções pelo BoHV-1.(AU)

Although bovines are natural hosts for BoHV-1, serologic studies in several countries have suggested that buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) may be susceptible to BoHV-1 and other genetically related alphaherpesvirus. This study aimed to investigate the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in trigeminal ganglia from 202 buffaloes by a semi-nested PCR to amplify partially the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of BoHV-1. Additionally, 242 serum samples were tested by serum neutralization (SN) for the detection of antibodies against BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and BuHV. All clinical samples were collected in a slaughterhouse located in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. BoHV-1 DNA was detected in 61 (30.1%) of the samples and SN revealed 27.6% of the animals with neutralizing antibodies against at least one of the tested viruses. Nucleotide sequencing of 15 amplicons followed by BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in the analyzed tissues. Taken together, these data indicate that BoHV-1 infection is distributed in buffaloes in southern Brazil. However, the role of buffaloes in the BoHV-1 epidemiology needs further investigation.(AU)

Animals , DNA, Viral/analysis , Buffaloes/virology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180457, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041557


Abstract INTRODUCTION: We defined the cut-off values of the antigenemia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA tests in HIV/AIDS patients to identify CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 97 samples from 68 patients with and without CMV disease were analyzed by viral DNA detection and antigenemia assay. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative results significantly differed between assays. The cut-off values for the antigenemia and qPCR assays were 1.5 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes and 3.715 log/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Antigenemia and qPCR are suitable for monitoring CMV disease in HIV patients, however, the threshold values should be determined within the centers where the patients are monitored.

Humans , DNA, Viral/analysis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antigens, Viral/blood
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(2): 136-146, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977230


The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases. HPV detection and typing was done by PCR-sequencing (MY09/MY11). HPV variants and estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was assessed through phylogeny and coalescence analysis. HPV DNA was found in 54.4% of CIN1, 74.7% of CIN2/3 and 78.6% of cancer samples. HPV16 (38.9%) and HPV58 (19.5%) were the most prevalent types. Risk factors for the development of cervical lesions/cancer were the following: three or more pregnancies (OR = 4.3), HPV infection (OR = 3.7 for high-risk types; OR = 3.5 for HPV16), among others. With regard to HPV evolution, HPV16 isolates belonged to lineages A (69%) and D (31%) whereas HPV58 isolates belonged only to lineage A. The period of emergence of HPV16 was in association with human populations (tMRCA = 91 052 years for HPV16A and 27000 years for HPV16D), whereas HPV58A preceded Homo sapiens evolution (322 257 years). This study provides novel data on HPV epidemiology and evolution in Ecuador, which will be fundamental in the vaccine era.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue aportar información sobre la epidemiología molecular del virus del papiloma humano (human papillomavirus [HPV]) y los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de lesiones cervicales y cáncer en mujeres de la costa del Ecuador. Además, se estudiaron la evolución de las variantes de los HPV más prevalentes y el marco temporal de su emergencia, para ayudar a rastrear la fuente de dispersión en la región. Se analizaron 166 muestras, incluyendo 57 y 95 casos de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical tipo 1 (CIN1) y tipo 2/3 (CIN2/3), respectivamente, y 14 de casos de cáncer. La detección/tipificación de HPV se realizó por PCR-secuenciación (MY09/MY11). La caracterización de variantes y la datación del ancestro común más reciente (tMRCA) se realizaron mediante filogenia y coalescencia. Se encontró ADN de HPV en el 54,4% de las muestras de CIN1, el 74,7% de las muestras de CIN2/3 y el 78,6% de las muestras de cáncer. Los tipos HPV16 (38,9%) y HPV58 (19,5%) fueron los más frecuentes. Los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de lesiones cervicales/cáncer fueron 3 o más embarazos (OR = 4,3) e infección por HPV (O = 3,7 para HPV de alto riesgo, OR = 3,5 para HPV16), entre otros. En cuanto a la evolución viral, los aislados del HPV16 pertenecían a los linajes A (69%) y D (31%), mientras que los aislados del HPV58 pertenecían únicamente al linaje A. El período de emergencia del HPV16 estuvo asociado a poblaciones humanas (tMRCA = 91.052 años para HPV16Ay 27.000 para HPV16D), mientras que el del HPV58A precedió a la evolución de Homo sapiens (322.257 años). Este estudio proporciona datos novedosos sobre la epidemiología y la evolución del HPV en Ecuador, los cuales serán fundamentales en la era de la vacuna.

Female , Humans , Phylogeny , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Molecular Epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomaviridae , DNA, Viral/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ecuador/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 62-65, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040579


In occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) can be detected in serum samples; however, oral fluid collection for detection of HBV DNA has not yet been explored, despite the availability of collection devices. Serum and oral fluid samples from 45 hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients were collected for the amplification of the HBV polymerase gene. HBV DNA was detected in five serum and four oral fluid samples (the detection limit for oral fluid was 1.656 log IU/mL in paired serum). In conclusion, simple methodologies of sample collection and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed detection of HBV DNA, and these could be used to improve the diagnosis of OBI, especially in locations with limited resources.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Saliva/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , DNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load , Middle Aged
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(11): 943-945, Nov. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896313


Summary Few studies directly compare urinary cytology with molecular methods for detecting BK and JC polyomaviruses. Reactivation of BKV infection is the main risk factor for the development of nephropathy in immunocompromised individuals. The limitation of the cytological method can be attributed to the stage where the infected cell does not have specific and sufficient morphological characteristics for a conclusive diagnosis and can be easily interpreted as degenerative alteration. Moreover, morphologically, it is not possible to differentiate the two types of viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only is a sensitive method, but also allows differentiation of viral types without quantification, and therefore is not indicative of nephropathy. According to the American Society of Nephrology, real-time PCR would be the gold standard to indicate nephropathy because it allows quantifying the number of viral copies.

Resumo Poucos estudos comparam diretamente a citologia urinária com métodos moleculares para detecção de poliomavírus BK e JC. A reativação da infecção por BKV é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de nefropatia em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. A limitação do método citológico pode ser atribuída ao estágio em que a célula infectada não possui características morfológicas específicas e suficientes para um diagnóstico conclusivo, podendo ser facilmente interpretada como alteração degenerativa. Além do mais, morfologicamente, não é possível diferenciar os dois tipos virais. A reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR), além de ser um método sensível, permite diferenciar os tipos virais sem quantificá-los, não sendo, portanto, indicativa de nefropatia. Segundo a American Society of Nephrology, a PCR em tempo real seria o padrão-ouro para indicar nefropatia, pois permite quantificar o número de cópias virais.

Humans , BK Virus/isolation & purification , JC Virus/isolation & purification , Polyomavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyomavirus , BK Virus , JC Virus/genetics , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 155-166, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888534


Resumen Introducción. El dengue en Colombia representa un grave problema de salud y, dado que no existe un tratamiento efectivo para la enfermedad y la vacuna no se ha aprobado en todos los países, se deben fortalecer acciones para mitigar su impacto mediante el control de Aedes aegypti, el mosquito vector. La vigilancia en el país se hace con base en los índices entomológicos y en la notificación de casos, la cual es frecuentemente tardía y por ello conduce a falta de oportunidad en las intervenciones. La detección viral en mosquitos urbanos mediante técnicas moleculares proporciona información entomológica más precisa para la adopción de decisiones. Objetivo. Reportar los resultados de la vigilancia virológica de especímenes de Aedes spp. recolectados durante actividades entomológicas rutinarias de la Secretaría de Salud de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Los ejemplares se recolectaron durante dos periodos, en cada uno de los cuales se seleccionaron 18 viviendas alrededor de cada una de las 250 trampas para larvas dispuestas para la vigilancia entomológica, así como 70 instituciones educativas y 30 centros de salud. Los ejemplares se identificaron y se conformaron grupos para la detección viral mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, RT-PCR). Se calculó la tasa mínima de infección y el índice de infestación en adultos. Resultados. Se recolectaron 1.507 mosquitos, 10 de los cuales eran Ae. albopictus. De los 407 grupos conformados, 132 (uno de ellos de Ae. albopictus) fueron positivos, y 14,39 % correspondió a machos de Ae. aegypti. La tasa mínima de infección para Ae. aegypti fue de 120,07 y 69,50 en el primer y segundo períodos, respectivamente, y el índice de infestación en adultos fue mayor en las instituciones educativas (23,57 %). Conclusión. Mediante la RT-PCR se detectaron la infección natural y la transmisión vertical del virus del dengue en Ae. aegypti y en Ae. albopictus. Se propone considerar la incorporación de estas técnicas moleculares en los programas de vigilancia y control de las arbovirosis en el país.

Abstract Introduction: Dengue represents an important public health problem in Colombia. No treatment is available and the vaccine has not been approved in all countries, hence, actions should be strengthened to mitigate its impact through the control of Aedes aegypti, the vector mosquito. In Colombia, surveillance is done using entomological indexes and case notification, which is usually informed late, leading to untimely interventions. Viral detection in urban mosquitoes using molecular techniques provides more accurate entomological information for decision-making. Objective: To report results of virological surveillance in Aedes specimens collected during routine entomological activities of the Secretaría de Salud de Medellín. Materials and methods: Specimens were collected during two periods in each of which we selected 18 dwellings around each one of the 250 larva traps arranged for mosquitoe surveillance, as well as 70 educational institutions and 30 health centers. Specimens were identified morphologically, and divided in pools for viral detection using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We calculated the minimum infection rate and the adult infestation index for each group. Results: We collected 1,507 adult mosquitoes, 10 of which were identified as A. albopictus. Out of the 407 pools, 132 (one of them Ae. albopictus) were positive, and 14.39% were A. aegypti males. The minimum infection rates for Ae. aegypti were 120.07 and 69,50 for the first and second periods, respectively, and the adult infestation index was higher in educational institutions (23.57%). Conclusions: Using RT-PCR we identified natural infectivity and vertical transmission of dengue virus in A. aegypti and A. albopictus. We suggest the use of molecular techniques in arbovirosis surveillance and control programs in Colombia.

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Schools , Species Specificity , DNA, Viral/analysis , Decision Support Techniques , Colombia/epidemiology , Aedes/classification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Animal Distribution , Geography, Medical , Health Facilities , Housing
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 731-736, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829255


The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58). Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63) of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24) and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18). HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009). The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/virology , Adenoma/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Cuba , Genotype , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 663-669, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829247


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are strongly associated with the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and invasive cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in cytokine-encoding genes and behavioural cofactors could play an important role in protecting an individual against viral infections and cancer. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 -174 G>C, IL-8 +396 G>T, and TGF-β1 +869 G>C and +915 G>C polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HPV infection in women from north-east (Pernambuco) Brazil. We analysed 108 healthy uninfected women (HC) and 108 HPV-positive women with cervical lesions. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed using Sanger sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of the distribution of the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the IL-18 +396 T>G polymorphism between HPV infected woman an uninfected controls showed that the GG genotype and G allele were both more frequent in the HC group, and were associated with protection from HPV infection (p = 0.0015; OR = 0.29 CI95% = 0.13-0.61; p = 0.0005; OR = 0.45 CI95% 0.29-0.7, respectively). Individuals from the control group could have previously had HPV infection that was spontaneously eliminated; however, it was undetectable at the time of sample collection. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the IL-8 +396 G>T polymorphism could interfere with susceptibility to HPV infection, by modulating the ability of immune system to fight the virus.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Alleles , Base Sequence , Brazil , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776455


Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in sexually active women and viral persistence may cause intraepithelial lesions and eventually progress to cervical cancer (CC). The present study aimed to investigate epidemiological factors related to HPV infection and to evaluate viral persistence and CC precursor lesions frequencies in women from a city in the countryside of South Brazil. Three hundred women were recruited from a primary public health care clinic. The patients were interviewed and underwent sampling with cervical brushes for HPV-DNA detection/typing by a PCR-based assay and cytological analysis by Pap smear test. HPV was detected in 47 (15.7%) women. HPV infection was significantly associated with young age (<30 years) and low socio-economic status. Seventeen (5.7%) women presented cytological abnormalities, three of them with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions. A subgroup of 79 women had been previously analyzed and thirteen (16.4%) were persistently infected, two with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions and high-risk HPV types infection (both of them without cervical abnormalities in the first exam). In conclusion, HPV infection was associated with young age (<30 years) and low family income; viral persistence was low (16.4%) but related to CC precursor lesions; and HPV-DNA high risk types detection would help to screen CC in the population.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Papanicolaou Test , Prevalence , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears